North Carolina Newspapers

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r i mi i im
ill' I fl.1Vr III)
rt t in llid rri.t'-rli m f all I h I
i uri. in imil iiimm liial, in onJrr
-
I ) rt1 th CaUmitou train nf roowqiH-u-
t c. tin illli f ominumtv hfMiUJ adopt el
written constitution, with limitations re
a'nYiiitg lh will of tha mjnty, in nrikr
I protect the minority $Zttm Ihe opprcs.
lull which he hsd shown wmilj necear.
ly rrut without aut-H restriction. It ti
r.bviixii that the cim would not b in the
'slightest degree varied, if the majority be
It-fHn pfHwtvua of the right of -judging
ext luNTfly of tbe etltnt if it powers,
with.iut tny nght on the part of the minor
ity, lo enforce iha restrictions imposed by
iua i,onuiuiim un iuv win n n hwi uj
Tlw point ia almost too clear kt illustra-
" -------
lioii. Niithin? Can U more certain than
I
Diol.jiwn. u-ol.iutioa. fc3UcMcriwtertiaM vraciicjmyr ianon. m
ild imiW-ael JimitlCOa Oil le ClerCiae Ol
ti.ni iwH.r. liii.tr intertlt ma ohtain
tmtm of ih 0of rmirnt, wUi be in fa.
. ' . . i
or of lrivlintf the power at lh epenie
offV lirm'tatiun; andiUt.tmfeaa tlmM in
who behalf Ihaliniitatinna were imiKMd
Tare, in aome form or mode, the rirht ofjcjuiica hicLJtTptxluccdaiMW.Uije
. . a- tri'"""'T'"f . a .
lir.rcini( luem, ibl power win uuimai'iy
upcrxrae in nmiiaiion, anu ino worn.
I'ut mvt ftperale erecim-ly in the eame
HuiuMr aa if the will of ine majority gov
ilthe will of the majoritT gov
wrod without Cooatitutinn or liioitalion of
power,
He - bad thne prtwnted all poiwiUe
tno'li'v, in which a Government boand upon
lh will of an ahaoluie maioritv. WikjIJ be
iDodifiwl, and bed deimiatrated that, in all
ita Cinoa, whether in a majority ol the
tetr. aa in a mere dumof racy, or in a
majority pf their reptraentativea, without
Conetitution, or with a Conatitutinn, to
be interpreted aa the will ol the majority
the rwult would be the eame two hostile
intf reala would inevitably be created by
the action of the G-iveroment, to b follow.
td by boalile leeialation, and that by Uc
lion, eormption, anarchy, and polnm
The ireal and aolemn oiertijo here pre
- weoled ttaell -U there any remedy Cr
ClMua evila, oo the deci-ioo of which de
uuda the queat ion, whether the people ean
g rvern tkemwlvea, which haa been ao of
tnaked with-ao much acepticium and
ubtl.-TVrt ka remodyr t4 but ooe
th? iffU of which, whatever may be the
rm. ia to orffanixc aot ieiv in reference to
f onfltrt of interests, wbick upringe out J and frntfune iappropmiiniw, andby irmnVr
""."tftbe action i oTGovernmefil j and whrchting theenhre lalnir "aiwi eapiial of the
. can only be done by giving to each part
- the Tohi of se f nroteetKn . which, in a
- ------ it
Word, iiwtead of considering the cnmmuni
ty of twenty-four a a single community,
havimr a common internal, and to le gov-
rnJ bv the aiogle will of an entire ma
surUy, shall, upou-au queatioua tending to I
bring the parte into conflict, the thirteen I
agaiuMt the eleven, take the W4li, noi ol ine
twenty four aa a unit, but that of the thir-
teen and that of the eleven aeparately, tlie
.. tRai-wUv of Jwh govprmnif the. paru, anu I
Where they covwur, governing the whole,
: : mnd, where they disagree, arreating lt ac-r
tm "f the Government. This, he would
call th? concurrmg,a distinct from the ab-1
..auluiajnaiurUv. It would noLJie as waa l
rrgemmlly supno'edt minority governing
-majority. In either . way, lae.uumovr
-IW'Wtd. b9..tbe same, whethertakenas the
"absolute, or as the concurring majority.
t Thu the majiriiy of the thirteen is seven,
- and of Ibe eleven sit, and Ihe two together
""lnake thirteen," which" is the majonty-oflmranin-of the. Ameican'sisiem is, that
twenty-four. - But though the number isj
-theaame, the modeofcHinting is essenti- j
-vally diiferenl; the one represent ing, tlie
"atrongest intereat; and the otherT the wea- j
lHr intereeta of the community. The firl I
i iMji.LA mmmm inuimwiaiinit Ihii M govern. I
& tnint.rtk K JiiTtr mWmt the bov-I
" iinaiaan w awm vri-' " a i
. . . . a I I a-l
rnment of thu people that beau laeai oi
a perfect aovernment. which had been so
utliuiaaid.cally entertained in every age
, by the generous and patriotic, where civil-
fixation and liberty had made the smallest I
progrea. There could be no greater er-
Tr: the government ol the people is ine i
''' eovernmenl of the whole community of
the twenty tour tne aeii-g.ernmeni 01 1
. . a. .i la- . .11
all the oarts too oerleet to be recucea 10
practice in ihe present, or any past stage
of human society. ihe; government ot ine J
mbsolute maioritv, instead of the govern I
mont of the peple, is but the government
of the strongest inlere-.ts, and, when not
efficiently checked, ia the mont tyrannical 1
and oppressive that can be devised. te
tart-en thia ideal perfection on one aide, and j
despotism on the other; none other can
be devised but that which considers socio
ty, in reference to its parts, as ditTerently
arTected by the action of the governihi'hf,
and which takes thettenae of each part se
1 rrptnttelyand thrrrhy- the aense of the
whole in the manner already tliustrateu.
. These principles as he had already sta
ted. are not affi'cted hv the number of
wIim-Ii the community may be '"'composed, I
,and are just as applicable to one of thir.
f .
"teen- millions; the- mtmber which-coinpoees
ours, as of the small community ol twenty
four which I have supposed for the pur
pose of illustration ; and are not less appli
IZcaUle to Jhe twenty-four Slates- united in
oiitt cominutity, than to the ease of the
. twvntv-f'Hjr iitilivlTuliTFriiere is, irfdeed
a diKiinction between a larw and a sma
eoi'n'iiiinity, not affecting the prineiple,
but thn violence of the notion. In the for
mer, the similarity of thj interests of n!
th parts, will limit the oppression from
the hostile action of the parts, in a great
dei;rtie, lolhe fiscal action of the govern
ment. merely ; but in the large community
po-mling over a country of great extent,
tod tj.ivin h rrreat divirsity "of interests,
with difT riMit kinds of labor, capital, and
produrti in, tne conflict, and oppression will
x'.end,not only lo.a monopuly of ihe appro
prijjtl'i'.'i, on th purl-of the Wronger inter
fs"- 1 'it '.M'l i 'l ii i' m.m1 tfiei'. I :! a
fem&l cooflici bstweso tka touira inter- j
I. r :' I I t'.'' I 1 , 1 '.t '
I'ui i ,iii l. r..i,f . in J, -r ! l!.- t. t
if jltm O li.lininity il .f.
JTwi turn Mir i!li'ii n f r n l!""
liirul, iiihI ili urtilnl fipnrt(.i., WO Will fm l
a fifiiriirM CiiilirmMii ti iruin r
p .i"i. .i .
wlnl ho n itipF, not wily of lh on-
iirrHivi oix-ralioii of )trin j an tb.
4ul "nwHifily. Iul fcl t lfilviii an J
Unutiful illulrtiofl, in Iba rrnatiiio nl
tnjf jtTfi, flh pritcijl lh cHrur
in? majority, a aiMinc: irorn tha awM.
uti. which h had tMrtel bi th ooly
mfana of rfiicifntly chchinn h abu
txiwer. aiul.nf fourac, ik mly r(Ml fxin
datinn rf cmwlitutiorval litrty. That our Ijority M ihaBtatnanminderedaahodiPtpo.
(Jovisrnnvint, fur many yaara, baa bwnliilir,? which previla in thia bodyj and I
gradually wging to oofluUtioo, that Iha
Cnnatitution hu a radually bnrome t dead
tiller, and that all rentnctnioa uprm the
- eii i - - ii.:
1 powers uorernmcni nm iwn Tinuaiiv
I Urnrrui ufiuiriN ' umnmimii m
I an aUolute majority, without check or lim
iuti'io, caniv4 be dnie4 by any one who
I I ' 1 1 . I J la. a !
l naa impeniaiiy owwrrcu us vyvrMuvtu
I Ilia not iweWy to trace the com-
niencenv-ot and gracJual proffaa of the
m our ayate m it ia aumcieiii in atate that
i im cuange naa uaen putr wuuin mr ui
frw yeara. What baa boen lli reaull T
I Preciacly that which might hare brrn an
i Preciacly that which might hare brrn an -
hicjpatfd the growth of faction, corrup.
lion, anarchy, ann, n not orpniiim iibdii,
ita uar approach, aa witnnaacd in the pni
viainna of thia bill. And fron what bave
tlK'aeconaeU.nreaiiprurigf VVe have been!
involved iu nowar! We have bo-n at
poace with all the world. We have been
visited with no national cahmity. . Ourl
people have been advancing in general in -
lelligence, and, 1 will add, as great and
alarming aa haa been the advance of polit -
ical corruption, the morals and virtue of
the community at large, have been advan -
cing in improvement. What, he would
again repeat, ia the cause 7 o other ran
be SMignnd but a departure from the fun -
da menial principlee o( the. Conetitution,
which baa converted the Government into
the wilt of an absolute and irrepotmihl
majority, and" whn:h, by the taws'which
niuxt inevitably govern, in all auch major.
ities, have placed in conflict the great in'
icesU ,yf tho. country, b jiyntem uf W
til legialatmn ; by an oppressive aoo une.
qual impeition of taiee ; by unenua
weaker interet auborumate to the stron
ger
Thia is the caune and these the fruits,
which have convened the Government in
to a mere intrumerit ol taking nirney
from one portion of the community to be
given to another, and wliicli haa rallied
around it a great, a powerful, and mercen-
try corps orolhce holders, ottice aeekers,
a(l(j ptpectanta, destitute of principle and
patriotism, and who have no standard of
mnrala or nofittca, but Hie will ol the Eve
cutive the will of him who has the diatri-
button of the loavea and the tishes. Ue
held it impimsible for any one to bok at
the rheorrtical illuHralion of the pnociple
of t he-absolute majority trt the caser winch 1
he had supposed, and be atrurk with
the practical uiut ration in me actual oper.
ation of ..our . GoTernroent L'nder every
circumstance, ihe majority will ever have
n American system (he meant nothing
jnffensive to any fcermmr but the Teal
nyslem of plunder w hich ihe atrongest in
temi ; haa "eyejr 'waged, and wilFeyer wage,
laaiiiHt thu ailter, where tba latter is not
armed with ome efficietit awl cnnslitulton
al check to arrest its action. Nothing J
kill luvk faftt an lh nari til I hi) WAulcAV I
uui .nv-, --. -- - v. - - - - u
in.-4 iin srreat it:- there constitutional 1
.. alt .1- . TfTl".l
iimilatioiisare wholly inxuinciem. w nnt.
rver interest obtains p-mseHsion of the Gov-
ernmenl wilL, from the Dature of things be
in favor ol ihe powers and again! the Inn
iutkma impwed by the constitution, and
will resort to every device thnt can be
imagined to remove tnos? reatraints. . un
the contrnrv, the opposite intcn-at; that
wnicn ne naa aesignaieu ma aiocanoiu
t I II ' J . . al ... .l.L .1 I
mg interest; the tax pavers; uioxe on
whom the system operates, will renint the
abuse of powers, and contend lor the limi
tations. And it is on that point then, that
ihe contest between the delegated and the
reserved powers will he waged ; but, in
1 his contest, as the intereata in poawiiwion
of the Government are organized and
armed by all its powers and .patronage, 1
the opposite interest, if not in like manner
organized and possessed of a power to pro
tect themselves under the. provision? of 'the,,
Constitution, will be as uievitahly crushed
aa would be a hand of unorganized militia,
wheaAjppased-byajrctCf aaland- trained .
corps ot regulars. w it never :ie iofg
ten, that iKiwer can onlv be opposed hy
lwer, organization by organization ; and
"on this theory stands our beautiful federal
system ol government, no iree system
a iv : . i- a.
was ever farther removed ,trom the. artnci
pie that the absolute majority, without
check of limitation.ought to govern. Toun-
derstand what our government is, we mut
look to the constitution, which is the basis
of the svstem.JIe did not intend to enter
into any minute examination of the origin
and the source of its powers; it was sut-
ficient for his purpose to state,' which he
did fearlessly, mat il oenveci its power
from the people of the separate States, each
ratifying by itself, each binding itself by
its own separate majority, through its se
parate convention, and the concurrence of
the .majorities ol ttif several atatea inriuiag
.... I .
tne constitution ; tnus tailing me sense oi
a. . - ' 1 i I .. A L, 1 I
the whole, by that of the several parts,
representing the various interests of the
"iitire commiimty. It was this conrurnnjj
hH perfect maj irity which lorim'd tho con
stitutioi . Ac ! t t'liit innj ritv wlucli would
rMisi.i'T i;.r w iican p")jlr : a single ,
Qmrnrntyi ua whit msttatl of ropre. j
I i : ,. i ,' , i ' I ' " i I ' r i i tun.
N.i r.H.I..I ii. .'! ' :- i"f" 1 ' ' '
vi'ti a i iir I !" Mj'tiuiinf i,',t i.i,''iiiij
I ii mi n-ikitiff r f, tun ) r nil it i f
lid Bit I or'ini fil llirt JoVr-riltrit-nt J
Which iSnlfnli J ( ,1, f'OIIIIIUin Bgflil
( erUln pwrr. In trul or In common
ff'Mxl of all I ho 'Mutes, and which had i in
H)Bf J atrict limitation and Check Kutnat
abuse and uurntih. In adiiiiiii.,-riiig
Iliad Ifgitml powrra, lba rimntiiulion
I pruvid rrjr projrlf, in order tOfila
I rriimHiuie ami riiinrney, mai me
I ernnn-nt thouht txi or(!ui'l uixm IIk prin
ofripl o( tho alwolut ninj'irity, of rather of
Itwn alolut maiorilia embirt it ma
I majority of th" jxsiplo of tho otatca, eitua
I atrd in Tedfral nqmbera, in the other hou
luf ConirreM, A comhiaation if the two
I :i .i . n. n m...
ippiTsui in ura ciiwt" lim i mimcni,
- i awirt.coun, w nmw fiy
i iuy "J - f v-iiju mmt
I cwtfirmed by th Senate. It ia thua that
the concurring and the absolute majoritiee
I. - I.I. i. ..... ..I. m .. ... . . a I -
i ru cwniinuw nro vuinm ajsicin i i
wrming the-cwtitution'and the
,'""' in making ami em:utinj thelawa
iliw.bcauUlully bUiidm.tDe.uuderatMMt
Il..-a I.. A ...ilia, a J t f,... J
i am i"wji un nwn,
i ii-.M r,";i - - r,"",r,"""
"rK7 w pwwci.
1 I o maunain iih avr nurncy of Che Uon
J dilution over the lawmaking majority,
m me grrai ana nwiiiiu pxni on wnicn
thr aucceaa of the ay item tnuat drprnd ;
unlet that aacendrncy can be preaerved
the neceiwary conneqwnce munt be, that
the lawa will eupereode the Cinatiiuiion,
I and, finally, the will of the Executive, by
the influence of ita patronage, will unper
1 sede the lawa, indication! of whk h, are al
ready perceptible-Thia ancendency can
1 only be preserved through the action o(
I the oUtea, as organized bodiea, having
1 their own separate ii ovemmenta, and poa-
sesaed of Hie right under in structure of
our ayatem, or judging of the extent of
1 their separate powers, and of intf rponing
I their authritv to- rret -tbtr rnactmenta
luf lh general G.ivernmmt within their
repective limita. He would not enter,
I at thia time, into the dMru-ieott of 4nit im
portant point : aa it hud be-n ably and
fullv prear. i",' bv the S'iiatir from Ken-
tuck), (,Mr. liaa,).iid- utbers .who bad
preceded him in thia debate, on tkemme
ide j whwe urirumeutanot only remained
tmanewtreH, b'ft.wtre-iinaMwerablelt
waa only by this power of interpoaition
that the rnerved right of the Slatea could
be peacefully and efficiently pioiacted
agauiMt the tnrmachniota of the general
Government, that the limitation impoavd
UMm ita authority would be enforced, and
ita movement confined to the orbit allotted
to it by tba Conatitutioo. . .......
It had, indeed, been mid in debate, that
thii could be afP'cted by the organization
f the General Government itself pnrticu.
larlv by the action of this body, which re.
prewniea ine wnien, and trtnl the Mates
themselvee mmt look to the General Guv
ernmenl tor ine preiarvation ol many of
the mout important ofiheir rcservH rights.
He did not (iaid Mr. 1 .,) underrate the
alue to M attached to the organic arrange
ment of the General government,' and : the J
wise distribution of iti powers between the
several depnrtmentt, and in -pnrtteular the
structure and the important functiona ol
this body ! but to nippone that the Senate
or any department nf this Government was
intejided to he the guardian of ihe reserved
rights waa a great and fundamental mis
take. -m 4 he government thrnigh all
departments, represents the delegated, and
not the reserved powers ; and it waa' a vio-
latum of the fundamental principle of free
IIIMtllUllonS lO BUnDOM. that MDV hot. Ihnl""lc
- 1 r - - , ,
respbhsiWe reprenentatire tf any inteTTst
iIl.' ll rr" 1 1 . ' I
icooiu no w guarnian. ine nmniiution
of the powers ol the General Government
land its organixnti.41, in fulfilling the impor
ant irusia connoeo to it ; ana not, as pre
poaterousiv supposed, to protect the reaer
a a ...
ved powers, which are confided wholly to
the guardianship of the several otatea.
Against the view of our system' which
he had presented, and the right of the
State to interpose, it whs objected that it
would lead to anarchy and dissolution
He considered the objection as without the
slightest foundation, and that so fur from
tending to weaknean or disunion, it was tho
source of the highest power and of the
atrongent cement. Nor wan its tendency
in this respect dillicult of explanation
The Government, of an absolute, majority.
. a
unchecked.hv efficient constitutional res
traintv though apparently ntnmg, was in
reajit.y an nxcsodi.igly f wble rvernment
That tendency to conflict between the
parrs, which he had shown to be me vita
blaonsuch goverumeiitSr-watUed 4 lie piw-4
r of the State in the hostile action of eon-
tending fact tons, which left very little
more power than the excess of the strength
of the majority over the minority. Rut
government based upon the principle ol the
CQncurrMlg majority wlje.re eacli great, in
terest possessed within itself the mean of
self protection, which ultimately requires
tho mutual consent of all the parts, neces
aarily causes that unanimity in council,
and ardent attachment of all ihe parts to
the whole, which gives an irresistible ener
gy to a government so confuted. He
might aptieal to hntorvnilir the truth of
these remarks, of which the Roman fur-
nishes the most familiar and striking. It
it a well known fact, that from the expul
sion of the Tarquins to the time of the es
tablishment of the Tributarian power, the
(i ivenim'uit .Ml- into a stale of the great
- .. . '
est msorder and distraction, and he might
1 1 . J J .
add, corruption. How did ttiis happen T
The explanation will throw important light
on the subject under consideration. The
community wan divided into two parts
the Patricians and the Plebeians ; with
fhe powers of thu ate prinrii'wy in the
harnis , of the forioer, witbout adeijuato
f!. i ). i i;.- i . i i i
i .. . i
iii-y, i 1 1 ;.i ,. it ; if 1 i i ir ' , it
il.it, M. Tln-y in a w-r t, l..i. T, ir Ain'
can ii) .!riii, groirij nt t,f tUn j-n
l .r.l ' . i i
rnarai i' r i iiie uoveruiiirni anj rn,u
lion o tlie country Thia requirra ripli
nation. At thnl period, according lo I
lawinriintioiit, wlmn one bation fonff iered
an-it In r, the UimU i tlm varKuilid be
a a . m
loneij to the victor! ana according
. i a .maa.k
to
the Koman law, the und tnus acnuired
were dividnd nt. parts, one allotted lo Ihe
poorer class of Iha people, and the other
assigned In the ue of the Treasury, of
which Ihe patrwian had the distribution
and administration. The patricians a bo
aed their power by withholding from the
people that which ought to have been al
lotted to them, and, by converting to their
own use that which ought to have gone to
the Treasury, In a word, they took to
Iheswatiivastheerdirt spoils of rtcteryvanq
they had jhua the looat powerful motive to
keep Ihe State perpetually ihvolved in war
to the utter impovenshmenl and oppma
ton of the people. After resistinir the
abuse of power by 'all peaceable means,
and tba oppression becoming intolerable
the people, at last, withdrew" frwn Ihe VRy
they, in a word, .acceded and, lo In
duce them to reunite, the patricians once
ded to the plebiana, as the. means of pro
tecting their separate interest, the very
power which be contended U necessary to
protect the right nf the States but which
is now represented aa necessarily leading
... ... .
to disunion. They granted to the peopl
Ihe right of choosing three tribunes from
among thenva-hres, whose persona should
be sacred, and who should bare the right
of interposing their veto, not only against
the passage of lawa, but even againat theif
execution a power which nature, would
pronounce inconsistent with the strength
and unity of the 8tate, if not utterly im
practicable. Yet ao far from that being
the effect, from that day, the genius of
Home became ascendant and victory
followed her steps till she had established
an almost universal dominion."-.;IItjw can I
result contrary - te all anticipation, be
explained f Hie explanation appeared to
him to be simple. No measure -or mo-
ment c.uld be adopted without the concur
ring assent of both tha patricians and ple
beians, and eacb.thujJkxilJneldcpciJjLat
on the other, and of con sequence, the desire
and objects of neither could be effected
without the concurrence of the other. -To
obtain this coocurrence,earh was compell
ed to consult the good will of the other,
and to elevate to office, not aimply those
who might have the confidence of the or
der to which he belonged, but also that of
the other. The result was, that men pos
sessing those qualities which would natu
rally command con&leoca, moderation,
wisdom, justice, and patriotism, were ele
vated to office ; and these, by the weight
of their authority, and the produce of their
counsel, together with the spirit of una
nimity, necessarily resulting from the coo.
furring assent of the two orders, furnishes
the real explanation of the power of
the Roman State, and of that extraordi
nary wisdom, moderation, and firmness,
which in so remarkable a degree - charac
terised her public men. He might illos
irate the truth of the position which ha had
laid down, by a reference to the history pf
I all free States, ancient and modern, distin
guiahed for their power and patriotism,
and conclusively show, not only that there
waa not one which had not some contri-vance,-
under -aome . form, by which h
concurring assent of the diflurent portions
of the community was made necessary i in
j the actiooof Government, but - also . that
" " ;
tne virtue, patriotism, ana etrengtn oi tne
were in direct proportion to the per
t feet ion of the mean of aecunng" surb a
sent. In estimating the operation of this
principle in our system, which depends, as
he had stated, on the right of interposition
on the part of the State, we must not omit
to take into consideration the amending
power, by which new powers may be gran
ted ; or any derangement of the system
he corrected, by the. conrpjrnw nsent of
thre fourths of the States, and thus, in
the same degree, strengthening the power
of repairing any derangement occasioned
by the executive actiou of a State. In
faet, the power of interposition, fairly un
derstood, may be considered in the light
of an appeal against the usurpations of the
General Government, the joint agent of all
the States, to the States themselves, to be
decided under the amending power, affirm
atively in fa vor of the Government, by the
voice of three fourths of the States, as the
highest power known under tlie system., ,
Mr. C. said that he knew the difficulty,
in our country, of establishing the truth of
the- principle for which he -contended,4
though resting upon the clearest reason,
and tested by the universal experience of
free nations. He knew that the Govern
ments of the several States would be cited
as an argument against the conclusion td
whiclj he had.arriyed. and which for the
most part, were constructed on the prin
ciple of the absolute majority ; but in his
opinion a satisfactory answer could be gi
ven ; that the objects of expenditure
which fell within the sphere of a state Go
vernment, were few and inconsiderable, so
that be their action ever so irregular, it
could occasion but little derangement. If
instead of being members of this great
confederacy, they formed distinct com
munities, and were compelled to raise ar
mies, and incur other expenses necessary
to their defence, the laws which be had
aid down as necessarily controlling the
action of a State where the will of an ab
solute and unchecked majority prevailed,
wouU speedily disclose themselves in fac
tion, anarchy, and corruption. Even as.
the ease is, the operation of the causes to
which he had referred, were perceptible
in some of the larger and mora populous
member f the Union, buee fiorerwaeua
I 1 t:, I,. I.i 1., , i;
I. '.-W mi.;.- ,.-it I ( -i i i,r
; i th.it th- t.-.t.i. ,.-y 1 1 cu,,::,.
. 'I a . .1 ' 1 ..
t. it n'. .
in its artior
I, l DUifiTH mUi'Tll Ssti I Mhr
Hint!. The latter li.ivim a ! i
majority, mut habitually L d
the powrrs of the Government, lxih rn tlii
and in the other lie sjiie and boing govern
ru iy iuai inxtincuve lore o (owcr so n
tunu to the human treant, Ihey muni be
come tha advocatei of the power of Gov
ernmenl, and in thn same degree oppose
in the limitation, while Ihe other md wca
ker section is aa neceaMrify thrown on the
side of ihe limitations. In one word th
one section i the natural guardian of the
delegated power, and the other of the re
served j and Ihe" struggle on Ihe side ithe
former will be to enlarge the powers, while
that on (he opposite aide will be to restrain
1iht!dfisIi1if?irthflilf cimsriTullimarnniiK
Tba contest will, in fact, be a contest be.
tween power and liberty, and such he con
side red the present a contest in which
the weaker tection, with it peculiar labor.
productions, and l.tuation, ha at slake a
. .. . a. . ' '
W.Oi can be detefremenr--9lKHild flteV
Walla lomkinUinTn"" their ulrriirirtheir
a m ... a
reserved rtchts. liberty and nrusnerifv will
be their portion ) but if they ywld and per
a . W W . . ...
mit the stronger interest to consolidate
wilbin itself all Ihe power of the Covers.
met it, then will ita fate be mora wretched
than that of the aborigines which ihey
have expelled, or of their slave, - lo this
great struggle between the delegated and
reserved powers, ao far from repining that
hi lot, and that ot those whom be repre
enied, ii cast on Ihe side of tba' latter, be
rejoiced that aucb I the fact j for though
we participate in but few of tba advantage
of the Government, we are compeiMted,
and more then compensated, in not being
so much exposed to ita corruption. Nor
did be repine that the duty, so difficult lo
be discharged a the defence of tbe reser
ved power, against apparently acb fear.
ful odds, had been assigned to I hem. To
discharge suceeWuIIy thia high duty," re.
quires the highest qualities moral and in
tellectuaj; and should we perform it with a
real ant ability, in proportion taitaragnr-
lude, instead of being mere planters, our
section will .become AstinguishedJur-iU
patriots and stateamen. -Buroti the ntber
hand, if we prove unworthy of this high
lestiny if w yield to the steady encroa
chment of -power; the severest and 'most
debasing calamity and corrupts a will over.
pread the land. Lvery southern man,
rue lo the - interest of his section, and
faithful to Ibe dutiea which Providence haa
allotted him, will be forever excluded from
the honors and emoluments of this Gov
ernment, which will be reserved f r those
only, -who have qualified themselvee by
Hititieal prostitution, for admission into
the Magdalen Asylum.
raojtTnssitw.voaacouaiiiB'it rnQtma
Waikington CorrttpomUnrt.
Vankiftm, D. C. March 27, 1833. .
Sib, In my letter of the ldtb 1 alluded
to the eflorta which were making to en
courage "and sustain the Presideut in his
warfare against the Bank of the United
Otatea. Those efforts are continued. I
am watching the movement of tba cuospi-
rators. I hey are known to ine. A com
bination, in thia quarter, waa formed some
time since, for the purpose of stock-gamp-
ing. Ihe business is likely lo prove un
profitable. . 1 aju iu pojoeion of tlie names
of most, if not alt the co partner he re.
Ctrcvmstancea, sooner or later, may "' ren
der it necessary for me to transmit ; them
for publication. Whether, your Wall
street gentlemen are, or arejMjnteresiod
in hese' iqwulations, lam not preparedjo
state ; but that tbe hunting one$ here may
be certain that 1 have a clue to them, 1
will remark, that to tbe. honor of one con
cerned, on your stock exchange, they d
dined an agency in these stock transac
tions which have since excited such uui
venal condemnation. . It was done, I pre
sume, courteously, out e vklently - because
it Was considered disreputable. This
brief statement of facts will explain to vou
the reason why you hear so much abtMil
the removal of1 the public deposits. The
object is to reduce the price of stock. If
these deposits should be removed, by or
der of the Preridenf, for it will not he done
in any other way, tbe cause of aucb re
moval must be reported to Congress at
their next session. - What will they do?
They will refer the subject to r Commit
tee with power to send for persons and
papers, and to examine the witnesses un
der oath. This examination, you may
rest assured, will elicit, such information,
.! t i fi
and-exposaaucb a accna of nwiiageniwiirlfHiperreiiiove alloHwrriHmV-tW'H"ci"11-
as wifl aUonnd the most sceptical," The
result, I have no doubt, would not only be
Honourable, but advantageous to tbe bank.
Mr. Vaughn, the British Minister, is
expected shortly. The house cf Mr. Liv
ingston. Secretary of State, has been ta
ken for " him, afiif the "'fiirn Hfii' rare R'aTsjedfr
Mr. Livingston will, sail for Frauce during
the .suminen.,... J. m
On Mr. Livingston' retiring from the
State Department how is the-vacancy in
the cabinet to be filled? Mr. Van Buren
wishes Mr. Rives to come into the treasu
ry ; but that gentleman liNiks to the Sute
Department; and Mr. Woodbury has his
eye upon tho Treasury, as successor to
Mr. McLane, who it is supposed will be
promoted. But what is to become of Mr.
Forsyth in all these arrangements ?Is he
to be burnt in effigy, throughout his own
State, for his devotion to the Vice Presi.
dent and then to receive no remuneration?
Mr. Barry has a desire to take the - place
of Mr, Van Nes in Spain. Such are tbe
longingiiof the great. , "
It is believed t hut General Jackson has
promised tne lion Isaac Hill, that he will
wit bia during tho month of iuao or July
( i'
' I t .1 .
. ii !. r
n I t I
i i
.ti, i
atinfi.
I , f I. J,
J 1 i in in.
at - I t-sfly i!ay, a
"'in.
rrrm.lrnry. - ,a
i hi
1 kA hit A .. la I
ir
C'
- U Ili il Tl H
t""cn a movement
d'-s. is
I'bia i.
-n . ill iiv I!,,. I... a .1
fat r. r ..I I. ... I I . .i .
rrrtsin di VlUS fiM
, ..... , inni
rriHBn tllS t,i.i..r.,1
Which Will I filrnsivt-lr circuit
is considered a (x..i,!4r ita jr,
i?rs: '.
" i .
ami it is sup!..-1 1,,-re. tUt U l,. '
friends in vour t ime. tt,. ii.. . ... 4
quidnunc control, that VM. Jolnim C
no Mher object in view, but to procure .
nomination as We President, on u.. . .B
P'IIM.,I
t with Mr. Van Buren, tud that )U)
oo ciiecteu, , . , t
I have heretofore inf. It IA, .... .1 .
Kitchia in -perfect eometnnf i ... 1 1 u
-,;'''" --w wis own unguag of Tm
Hitckn.n Since thkdiourni-.i;t ..n-.
gre-, ha ha become more disgusted with
ll Richmond hnntiirer ibsn
abuse of its editor, j imle,, and'tmceaJ!
ing. There4 is a act tied detem.i'n.i:. ..
fhe adminMratioQ raq depend up,,, j '
volutions are at baad. Treaf, l u. . -
a 'I . a '" '"I
tmp, and I know it better ik.n .a..
im nifto piaces. t ,
I repeat what I uid ID a farmer Imi..
Mr Vaa Bureq coulrol every thing wni
ii is uperaiinewitu great fact. II.. ...ji.
erstand both Ulair and Rhchie. haa
bo oouot n wiu mould Uiem a he pti-t
but it will net be done directly. A i-.n.,-
of tin cabinet irresponsible, are beginmne
. e..i .1 t d .i ... e k
"v" i"1"!' us in v ice rreaideni $
residence at Washington. Mr knosra ika
loyai ana ine aisioyal among ibem.
Gen. Jack-on is in lbs habit . leeiunn.
ana aooetime not in the most moderatt
term, all who hesitate about supporting hie
. ... -I. i
mcwurv. wring ine ee-ion, )k iiKrn.
ber of Congrese did not escape the se
ilyofki animadveTsisi, and esfecill
that portion of Ibem who were degn4
administrafiua men. , A lew devs
Mr'. Plummtr't the member from Mi,iiiw
pu, wis caiitm io an accouni. bv tlM Vrm.
ii. J . . . . .. r
dent, ior voting against the enforcitig bilL
K. , . - '
Alter some conversation, and pausing
r .... . . ..- i- . . e
lew mimiirH, mr. riummer rrrttec, ui sut
stance, that be was willing lo support th
administration, but not in company itb
those who voted frr that -bill. Jach are,
almost universally, tlie feelings of the peo
ple, in the ssitb and southwestern parti of
our country.
"Th "rr tit Waibtjtctos.
Wasmsotojv, D.C April 3. H33.
Sta, The conflagration of the Tr isa.
rj office it the prineiple topic of c-flrfrsa-
lion here. Judga Lrnnck bus U in lor
several day euiraired ineismiuinir nf ail.
nesses. The stock-jobbers have put into
circulation a report, that the fire was pro.
be My produced by the friends of th. U. a.
Bank, with a view to, prevent the trnn.-fer
of the public deposits. In times like th-i
nothing is too absurd to be credited bv the
creature of power, if tn believe, will sub ¬
serve their purposes. There, U undoubt.
edly, a mystery, aa to tbe manner in which
the burning originated. By some, it is
supposed, that ' it 'proceede.) fntini a fire
made in tbe room of tlie chief clerk, ah. sit
7 o'clock, in the evening, and that it com
municated from the hearth to the fl nir.
By others, it is said that one of the rsib-r
juitnd through Ihe bricks, which the) nip
posed must have cailght fireT In "WliiiTnv
er manner it may have 'onginsied, -the
foe - m pnpen and records is very gfat,
and it is to be apprehended wilt prove ihe
source ot' much, injury to tudtiHduals, aa
we ii lo jbel GuVexnmcnCff
You well know the abhorrence with which
at al! times, 1 witness the employment of
Ibe "slaidinarmy5 1 he - wie mulor-
tune has afforded a pretext for the intro
duction of them, like a " body guanl,' mta
the public offices, The eye of the citizen
is uow ollbuded by the consequenlul strut.
before these buildings, ol the soldier, uf ru
ed with his musket and bayonet. Si in
Ogetic was Gen. Jackson that he ordered
the troop from t ort W ashington to inuicrt
all night, if necessary, to reach hen- n
Monday morning. Is' this to familiarize
us to the pomp and pageant r of inilitury
oarade ? if not. what is the obiect ? Ih
i . . ' ,
exhibition is as ridiculous as it is useless,
unless there is something more intended
than meets the eye.
- At every corner, and in every bar mom,
whispers and inUnndos are heard catcula
led to"implicati individuals. To tbes"' ru
mours 1 am unwilling to give currency.--
Th iiiVMBtiiraliitn nil in nroirress. Will. 1
and demonstrate that the conflagration v. a
purely accidental.
The principle loss of papers are th"S
which are immediately under tbw care
the Secretary of the Treasury. Hi bu-'j.
ness, will, therefore, lie greatly derail,' ci
.WmM'-'JIftfldawrimd
stances, leave the Treasury Depart- rusit"
Will it be deemed exiedi ent or nkV'T
lo transfer him to the office al .1 to ln
vacated by Mr. Liringtiot i T i'hfe
pends upon things yet to bar .tier .. B"1
ennuirv is not without mean imr. ' YoJi UI11
rememher ' thnt in inv ' let ier' vVf ihe' I f
., j ....
Iitennihi'r la-il. when this ci ... wim h'(
. .., ,j
with rumours as to foreii ;n . unnoiiitin1
and changes in tne cam1 ic tf
a . I L 1
raairtalln'
" sound poitry forbids I!) i' ,m Htate
i of h"
u..j I...,. .k....i.i iw. ,i . It '
anu ivai aiiinjiu u u stUrOe'
" not he. In all nroha 1 A.i.v .w, chaJ.2(!
- - - I rillijt " ,
" will be made until t e ctm f th Pr
"sent session of Coo " TKa Pr'
lion has been verifio;' -.i the diinc"'
to-which I then" reli , .ed.have been gi1
ly increased since I
hntpe'"-..""
is to be done 7 W
stead of suiting ir
July or August,
1-4
4S
a
V-
r ti'i
    

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