f . . ' - ' , .
ta traded with little rtmor
?ii.v ir irrov crah.e.1-
.hi I. fl.4.t
V K it Ms '
7Tk' WESTERS CAKOUXfliSb
phliAti me w dJlar$ per
" t""'' "Mil w wumtkii tt
Wart tndfftj erntltf paTal ap m.
ftimt rtiluilM f'W Piper viU
y durontinuttl wtl all Prrnraef trt
Mi', t tkt Etlitntfi ditrnum,-r
Jin tuliiifipiion rill In rttriml for hit
feV fH'ii on '' . ' '
A fdilurt to notify tie NUw ef 4 riih
io rfi voniinut, our month brforf tkr trjnrth
bo of a yr, f ill 1. toimdtrti at a
ntw mragrmnU. .
A ty prrion prorur'iKg til toltrnt no
mbrri to tkt Cnrvlimcin, ikall hate a
jrwntk jwr f T?tit- AJverliing it tba
ill UlimnJJrrntJ to tkt tluitor muM
it ft pt'ul irtktf will be aUttdtd to.
iT The termi will Iw rtnctly ulber.
1 ). W
JUI1DEN l"H PROCLAMATION'.
Tbn PeopJ of tlto iantwl wJld eJ-fnm-rif
Brttat, hrior becomf free
rwijju w4 iixl',fTJtit Suiet, io tlie
iniiMratatrdTnlfr UWoflilibrf, mtM
nly c.Mitnufi Ul be wjrh jitrigii
fc. ,uii1' thef hn d'Hit or u(Pt-(
mw -(, iK:t llu tUuir vr-iifity m
tin - U i n iiimullfvtt' I I.i v. 'hev ium. or
1 1 r.-.t nnv hk'1i n'n T Tiii i the qua
aotnii III jrtUatUUiuW'r I jMMd
. . am 1 . I
( . ., v111 !,'7tJ .inw. iui rc-p-rvnai oiino
-i' niuni of llie PrwuiBut,' wiice ihw
I ml not before ubwrved, ihat
xiiioii wilnrli Mrwrtftd tus pnini
i- . , 1 tfn i ften 1niitto(l, b npewa
ry 'upi.M'i'n tU 10 inmiv thr parte
i0iri "ry iiwirumvot it'lf. I think M
rjj'it t eml! r t rinoye all th
. Juuii, U fwe I priicM'd urt'tor In tlid ei
ni.m.rf"t taU I hav ufflfrtakra.
Ituniij; the varmii .liuwiou, which
t!i. . ;aiiHm ol" the quwtionat then-t-
it 'if the lejfittifiale pwir f the pr
it f m rwwtti f .'lie Unite4l Stat call
k.f rrti, 111 rrmer dnf, thi BHrtfd on
iihI rrivrtv of lb Stato wan admit
tVii.clinlei bv IxRtl aidi, and made
, - iL Very Lw nt ak die arftunenti of F ud
arit!it n4 U-mnrraU rpo'-tiviyr . la
to -iih-r party M mKh "f tU indii-
ti . it :l.iin,'and. nf lbtrto rercli,
a i4 r.ver beca laawwattMi iu mi coun
tn. mf ir ir ince : and ttw ducunioiif
?ie conducted on uitlier haiid,; by manv
ol - iiatiioU of the Revolution who were
. fc iHliar .with-aitUeirw beeauselbey
It I liofii actor and adviser in that great
oe ah initio. . Nay it uaod lx bo Uien
- .mtended br either rty, that- t he
- retainer by lh-tat of hir-,rimi-tiv
rrto of avereignty,eatjrd the ne
Cit for the thoa new Wdersl Cofif itu-
" 1m. R.it "like M jWoS m'ick " aov '
m cinzttnut fffa'andtTiA hew Cofl''
if Piiltti'ji.ina, -havini ymnior and of
oire wiier hcada, have of lata dicjvr
rf t it all ttiis wa a miftakc.
The futhnab!e A)etrinei of the ptei
day.'aeefnatn be.thafTlrtf ttattt ftf
tr rrrc toetrtif ; that there wan, from
tk lf ginning, tne great Central S imr
in ihf tcveral Slate, of which they were
' ai ijtt!i, and all their peoplo liege. Is
i'.uirtion of tbi new doctrine, the Pro
vla.tm ion aay, tliat " in pur colonigd slate
lin "Ujh dependent upon another power,
vry early connidtred ourselve a con
tc! ti'il by common intafnut with, each oth
r. I!gtie wefts formed for common
d f'Tx e ; and before the Declaration of la-d'lK-.ndence,
we were knowa In our acre-
Bate chumcter nf the' United Cojooie of
.4 !?ric!". That dociBive and niMrtanintep
.- 'aouketi i..ntilv. Weileclared ourselvei
',: iuIkmi by-.a jutmot by ;,e.erai ctiw"
Thn Gxct-odini; caution in which this
jiaKMije is jienned, it intended assertions
(uf'lyirhii'j,"!iile !ieeiniiip to harrat (acta,
; dvi-ueillv Ifiav' tor escaie from these
d'n-trioe. be thereafter controverted, may
.rhii4. xcite the admintton of mindsfra'in
'I rtrHminjr tn the mntet ot diplomacy
Lit when finrid m a State Paper, Tftterei
b tiic t'tnef Magitrtrute, announced by
bmi it,, fi iiig intended for Ihe edification
M instruction of those towbnm' ins id.
turn of the candid and ingenuous, its obvi
ous iHirmiiie io to aHert. as ft ixiliticai doir
l, HHt -the revnrted ttilonies brcame ohe
t Bnvprrijjn nation, before they severally as
sumed sovereignty upon IhemselVe as in
'dimlmil State ; and to prove that the
- 8tafp? fieVef Sr loiereign. " But Is tlilr
ih dncl rine was in direct conflict with
. al. our past omoiona, and in seeming op
pwiiiHi to much of ourypast history, it
W )iilil not in to blurt it in the public face
m 11 uocirine ; reiore h is presea
ted fa)iiigly a a simple faot.- ay, it t
trnt exhibrteit as a iubsfantive (Set, but in
the nhnlrst gui "f a nierj infireiief from
hrr facts. I'lu&e.otbnr fact tor), ar
gned a elctcd tcftua of auclt bruo4
and general SignifV alion, lbt it w dim,
full tjs6t tbir pr .iwi nanin. '
If eiitg tba mxHmrf Inndi'iiry and ef
fuel tt tb djclriiie 'id.to be ys4 forlb
oahujaWitpiiiy one Jtnn ji truth,
uch may imtucdii' Jy be u by ihe
sertjofl, thai U in hot aialed a dortrme,
Lot ' In4.ncul Ciet raerfly. If it be on.
mod u auch'a fact.jt imiy be immediately
aii, thai it ! not , i-rt',d a a iiUiaai
lire iaet, bat nily a one inferred from
others previously Dialed. If tli correct,
now of litis inference ir ttrlinnd, then
roiumeoces a JicuMion a Io lite lrie
manloK of the word employ (id ft tali!
he fuel from which the tnpTerr i
madsianJ tbi ducuwion, if it convict
tba autl.f of error, will alo furiiish bun
an axciHn fur aaying, lhal he is uo m:nA
r, ml skilled in " njetuphvaH-! xilitlrty,"
ami thenf'iiT, may liave uvd terms map
propnate o toovey, accurately, bis w
meaning, which, however, is precisely j
yiur, bitl if iheMgm'V'aiHm if the vford
etn)loyed in Hti apjmwnt and nimplfimr.
rtlive, isoor adinitte I to br lhal in which
they are obviously ud, and if the facti
themwlvns so taken are coiiredfd.thrn no
kgtcal mind csu surapfl from Ihe cooclu
siofl derived from vucb f icte, and the inir
P'-re of this r0meuT," alt"hlt7 'diiij'inivt '
Ihe ori)iiml sovereign right of lb Stale,
i fulty attained. "t
'Hie ingenuity of an argument thul Con
st nictcd, mioubtejly hai merit, but it i
B-rt Bavh fiKtrtt -inmuim randor fan
ere j claim. .. It impose upon ell who way
deny it concluioti, the UHoriui tk
of unravelling a long tiuo of upMHcd er
ror, and when tbry have done so, It
po-t (hum o I lie sneer ol having labored
to disprove, what, it will Uh ii wj winl, was
never kiTiriid' OiilUwtlier Urtd.ifthey
part by uch thing unnoticed, they imrne
dialely fall into this imare laid f..r them,
from ihicli lliey canih.t then easily ettri
rate thomtel'. Fcr one, I greatly pre
fer Io undertake tho labor, and to ubjecl
myself to the socer, than Iff ineur the other
rmzird. Then-lore, I wi brinst th
whoe of lhn narrative and argumeulalive
paaage to the tent of a strict somIvw. It
iinportnnee j'tstifvis, its art reiuin: (hi.
The object of thuurjiunent, (coiife l
in its enwhrion) i to prove, that thf PeS
pie of mine of these now I'nitod "fcjl.it
while in their colonial male, declared
theinwlvpn to be c ation, by tin- ll.-clar
atiou of Independence, tiinc 111 170, un
der Vhicirihcy b'came. '-OJa Pi'..jil."
Thb"necitry alvt inevilabTc'Fult H llu
would be, that the I'eoplo having iiinie re
Solved tlicia'lv; into inw jNati in, l'lulJ
mjt therv'al'ercrcal tliemsi-lfeii into cwf
ale and independent ivereijfulio .otW
wiaethaa by torce, r by Common con
urnt.- Dut a no one ha jeeumeti as. yet,
at least to CNMblfiih or Rtt'.vnpt l ictalilish.
norereijiily hero, by force, ajrd ai there
exists no! th" Blightest biPm irfiil offtiTy
common' connent oii'llm part 'id this sup
poacd uation, ! it own dismCibbor'iue.ii,
therelpe, toe sovereiirnty of tliemt.-s ne
4 ver entld have existed. ""i6 friithor -lift
this Proclamation, doet not seem to have
bnjwarM.fj.hj (xU-whicbJ ataloL.iu
my Wt mimlr',' that ororr tfio Pe I;ira
lion of I'l'depeiideuc?, in July Ittfl, the
PeopHtjf irginia cortainly, ami ul cer
tain of the other colonies, I believe, had
severally an independence; in totally dis
tolvinjj their firmer government, and or
7.iinln;r rrevr rivemments (r them-rlre
reviiecUvelv. ISul, if such a met ban been
known to him, it would not have changed
the Intended'euVl of hi ciinrTuaiorta i be
cmue, as this new Nation ia ait to have
bom created by the People, a part of which
people the creators of state sovereignties
were, their Jaat act. would, of course have
abrogated and annulled their first, and so
Cut ii cna to me sovereignly wuirn uicv
ad created bat a abort tune before. So
1 . .1 : 1. ' l. .1
that the Sovereignty of all the States which
had declared themselves sovereign .before
the Declaration of ludupendence in July
177ft, is as certninlv aaaull), a the exis
leoee oftheoTcnrttjntV if the Slates who
had not then declared it, it prevented, by
Uje"wm.ijrJUo otihis imLiI..ikcti of
our existence as "one nation, , if that fact
was true. A matter ra important in its
consequences, oohj jtot, and would not he.
eiHrt'wq.y'rtrnveTe gy n i any nun.
although Ibut man might bo the Preirt.nt;
therefor, it becarhe tnilisfjfensibljnicccssa-
ryU Wial be should pr.rt-e it llew:eP: the
a'tteuVnttttdoso. tLet me: now examine
what these- praoC s
, ' As tKe object was toprove the existence
ofj Natiota, the first step of the proce
moat ncressprdy J ...iO-JirnWft.IWi&F-'ft.
teiice oracommiiiiitv. Government bring
superinduced upmi this iommunitv, t
would then become ajDahon, ap far at least
as art ft8'Ti7eiiibefs"orfiaf"
were- concetneo. The first 'Jwint ne
tiroved then, was the cxislence of a .Coin
munifv Iborn'ooaed of all ihi peolde who
the natiori.i Kow how is this tstablisbed
V In our colonial state," ways the I'resi
Jenfi "althousb dependent on another pow.
er, we verf early cohsldered ourelveav as
connected hy commoii interest -with each
o infer tlie fcxwteneew a, single rommu
have been wlfcled
aid jrrofe jnreBu inr-'de of gt'HjfW p
Uiii rrertu twuldact
Mark, M social eonnerlHia uf anv
ort, is smrmeif M have aetuslly cu.tsl;
it is iswly ssii, lhal w Very earlv ''Mj?t thji who tnsy hi Am-
what was ihisiiMgioajy. cmoeetioti enri
stitutcd 1 , Were we inhabitants of a com
mosj territory, the vacant and unoeciipied
parts if whii'h were admitted to all T N.
Did we pfe llie same rwligwajs faith T
.10. 1hj thrr exist any on imtiiulKia,
which having been created or prerv'd
by all, was therefore common to all? No.
Ry what lie I turn did I Ins I'oopU neeader
tbemselvr to be com ( Jed, in Ineir coin,
nial Mxtef Why, hv t S t ofs siipp wed
Common inttrnk. No nun hef! l'rei
deirt Js kn,cv-r I Insight of inferring llie
evistencn of a cimiiiiuiniy , Iroio rh a
fact, which if he believed, to he sulTicinit
td prixfilc Oial efjlrt, wuld consolidate,
probably, one half lite People lI Die whole
world into one Coinmuiiity, and hy so . do.
inf would dissolve more Ihau Ihe half of
alllhs societies now existing, whose mem.
burs'.do not even contitttr themselves a
connected by any such tie.
Rot perhaps 11 will be said, lhal I d
the Prusid'tnt wrung, in Mpposing thai he
iiH-aiit fe Ptopti," when he say wi;H
that by this pnrsnnut pionoun be did not
mean to denote all Ihe Col.Miisfs.lrj "tfit-ir
individual, but in the social character
which they bad lens, bad, and. which 'wa
denoted by the term C'olonie. If so, tliis
sentence Itecomrs the simple innunciatiou
of s well known historical fact, prolyl bv
numerous tirurnenr" in iu r a rib s e,t hat
evert in tliir colonial state, the several
Colonics cousiderrd themselves as connec
Wd with each other hy a common lntere(.
Rut a ill luaao ducunsmils while estab
lulmig tuis factstsuiiilish also, that this
belief of a common interest," was ileitlier
designed or ever upoed to anmlgaiimtt
the rMurent Colooien, by whom it was en
tirLa'.m'd into a single comnmnitv, lut
inurely to invite to their en operation, con
foueravy and union as distinct inleeiident
CommtluiUca, it isuot mv iu discern how
from such s &cf the existenoe of a single
community could be inferred. ThereTon
ai 11 1 as lite use made ot ttie assertion was
afterwards manliest, 1 was Isaiod to con
aider its in lining to be sucb as i have ta
A ; enpiciallv us 1 f.siod this word " we.'
in 1111 ad Ir-- of llw President to hi 'ci
lOW Oltllltla, .. IIlO X'OOpie. , i-r . :t
So much for the fint (Mtipositnth if IhU
''iineia, which ifoaweleredioriiw'U'hf
asrts atiu'Udirrclly ineofitrnrlrrtion p
it 1 oncitisioii ; aiKi if considered in auoili
r, aas2nV.o only ii sjoltnoirn- tuet; but
one uniinsrtatit if rt cinifcl betuown. . Io
which ut-thc lights i-wde.i ied to bt:
seen, lot the rulus of liie English fangime,
and the co;icluijfi of the argument itself.
Havin iulefred the exlsienee of one
griMi pommumiy, compoNed id" all Km Peo.
pU-if-4u -.illrent revtifting Cnjoniej,
wUiU vet m tneir cohwiai iftafeTjue next
stfp ncccseary lo bo lakoo ia the argument
Qcsiigncu io.proveiiucir vtscqwii4 i.
lenue a one Nation, was, to superinduce a
tfotemment upin this grnat communitv ;.
w-s 4UUWU suisiui- governnieni, wouiJ
indoed be a-niHi'descrrpl. as hombfe in the
roilticat, as any oIlDe Tabled imai-ters of
the natural world. Here, as before, it
would not do Io a Hi r m the establish ment of
aay such government, at the time referred
to, that is toay iu-ur suWiai state,"
a a psiitive fact, for this would be in di
rect contradiction of the other affirmation,
of. our dcouudence on another rowerr
of Mich a fact too, there doe not exist anv
scintilla of proof in auy of our bistorie or
tato pttpers-Ttrerefore, the existence of
such a government, like that of the com
muutty, was 10 be Inferred. Now from
what is this second inference to bo made
,'! Leaguoi, were foi uied for common de
fence, says the. President : and as Lea
goes can only be formed "by communities.
acknowledging some government, author
ised to apeak and so to connect for them
tf the fact IwxxmcetledVthalXeauea were'
tormed by this great community, it estab
fames beyond doubt, Tiot ffllity the actdaf ex
irrtence of such tr mmuT(fy, ' but of its
government too. Rut mark the caution
dtsplaved in this assertion also. The Pirsj4ihtre, drci naming each) deputed bv ths
Jout doo uotsayr b terms arihlmnrrttll&T
Thestr fcr35ues were so lormed, but iiiost
ycdulonsly avoid to state by whom or with
whom ttiey were, formed. -The cause of
his obscurity is notjlilncult to be, ejplaiiv
id. If ii had been assorted as tin histori
cal CiClr Itliat fa J lieif eolonia I state, the
colonist being connected together as one
confinuaily. had ii that character, enter
ed juto. my 4nwwti4ior&tM tiief
conld not have been, proved, simuy lie
cause it neither U or could lie tnie, Hut
if it had Sbemi saiil, thai these LiatgMCs
were f .rmed bjf the Jiff-rent colonies itb,
each other, at aeuarato and indepemletit
communities; Vn asserting this well kiiowo
rrstiricajl truth, asd, to bkproyed by.
rrferenc tc the Leagues themselves,9
Piesidenf would have dissolved completcry
bis' imaginary great community, anoV with
it the goyermnent to regulate tbe affairs
uf this supposed NationXav heathen
would h wfablished, beyond aiwot.thej
separet And mtepeikdftnr existenca of the
colonies, as acknowledged bf tbemsHtves,
in snchi'ftgww.l . T.ftvpid,thulimoiii,
fhe aiith 'T thj( ric,lamMionitioat ran
with whiir tbewfXragiios : were evwje-
in siuy.werecttrtnudy maiieior "foro.
wms to. tsvlwve thni "we" In lhe not
seolmiee detwted the Colonials a ImliviJ.
u,r, and noi lite Colome as ("omnnirii'
lie, will -of eoorw rmirludn, thai thflr
Leagm were m.le by the same - w j"
with oumn Community foreign to Ihe.
stives. .While thuHi tho understand
" wen io a diKtmnt aeiiw, will arrive at a
conchikiiii) diamrtrietlly nfipfHied Io this.
no nun n for the ecoHl member of ibis ar
gumeiit, which like tin first, is either tru
or (ulw:, accofilii g Io the meaning intend
id to be anntxej hy its auihur, to the word
"we"mj "our."' ,
lUmng uJifrnd tbe etlslence of a up
pnwnd. Cutmnuuily, 'and "also inferred
Sovermneiit for it, in th mode I have t.
(-.), 0m imii thing needful, was to bestow
a iisme upon i,m intsirt Nstusi. But
a it would h.ive leii ditli ull Io infer a
name winch muld imi! have1 had any pre
v ioiKi iiHtenre, I lie Presidi nl was com
pelled Ui stale this nam povitively.
Tbcrtftre, he next says lhal before, the
declamliiai of imlependence, ,we Were
known in our agregale character as The
I rnteil t;ous j'LAuie.ticaJ'-- TLa at.
teiflpt to infer any fict fr nn any tiame
merely, Would be cousiilettd, gejtrrally,
isilt'f 11 an muiuptujii lliiyiaii )u(" mucu.
Hn'. ioHSer Ihe fai t of a "ingie Nation,
Ir an Ihe name of innnr I'nit'jd Colonies,
or of my--("oloiin (Jnite-.l, whrther in
AnHviea or any where civ, is not only a
gritmdlr SFiuinpiion, ftrt a pl-iin perwr
sum of the nn'auiiig 1 f .uurdn, uuleas L'ui
ir 4 ami tAn:wliliird.. The., 'resident
seem in htve beci aware of tula, there
fore in doaaay, so iar a be could. Die
etS-ct of hi own strong words I'm ted
Itaiies, uwdajiairutly to shew, tlml Hie
Colonies wore united ami not couaolnlaird
ml.. ofie"4nss or N .it Ion, lie I; 11 us, tlml
'we wrre kiK.wn in our agertgute rkur
nrr by this name Aliho' 1 1 aauotlu-l,.
1 viidenng this phra.e " ugregats char
:i tfr." a ery iufvlKtU.4i,: Heitillv
w(eji applied jo . UuilC J CoJoiUM, vl I
ficcly udmit, that the excuse of the Rlic
toncian, may bo found iu the nccesaity the
Pntiannao employ it. I here w.'re two
differing parties interested in the rrnttcr,
b we desirous 1 1 plej bolli, tberIW,
from tiie br ginning of hi arguinent, br
bad Ued tcrnis so general, that either
niiM ijiply then fo. their wn i.le ; but
wh. n he came lo'givs ft immhi W -his Na
Hun, he found tliatso clearly ' imlienting
1 lint it wan not one consoliduted ma; but
loatiy dmt met. uiaswes wnited, merrtyj-tt'
w.i itecessary t weaken the force of this.
H"nee, lie tells us, that although we were
united by name, yet in character we were
aggregated, lhat'l to aay, Ciiusiliduftd.
Fi"in what source the PreaiJent uiav
have deriviMl hi iiifortrmtion-Tis to nggre
irate -ha racier, except frouuiu uanie, -,1
kuow jiul. . . Rut if his iiifvrinaiioQ as toj
air characferis is inaccurate a,ii: rep
reeeulaiiai d nur hmj but httld reliauce
should )e id to it. ' I have bi fore rrm.h
u.opLuf-Uie-JUfnid,uf the firat -CwHgreea,
whil h nu t at "tlie l arpeutora llalj. jb
(lifi Cify orrhlladeTpIiia,, ou ilonday thf
5th day of September. 1771." In this first
and most aulhnntio document which any
one can consult, to discover timer their
name or character, at that dayK both the
ene- B' d tna other is thus described, " w
the Delegates of the several Colonies of
New Hampshire, 6w. sc. (naniuig each)
dopuad l rwireseoThem irt ' Cflntiriohtkl
Caigress." Under this name, and in this
character,' was their first greet act is A-
sociutMn entered, into, for non imorta
lion, mm consumption, and. uoii-exporla
tion, and recotiimeiidcd ' to the ProviutSial
Conventions, and to the Committees id th
respective Colonics," to be carried into ef
fed bv thern, Under tho name and char
actor of ' the Delegates appointed by the
several hnglish Colonics of Sew liamn
shire, Ate. naming eacb) to . ctmsid,'
tlieTf grToliariicea ''ja "Cfeuefat Congress,"
was their next great act, tho AddreBj ,o
the reuple ol Ureal Hritatn, uttered. - tin
deT ths name and character of," we., the
dologates of the Colonies of New ILtuip-
resent them 19 a generarCongress, to
commit logother, otor was the tlddresa to
the inhabitant of tbe Province f Quebec,
out forth. Under ihe xuunis and cliilracier
of Vie, vour Majesty's fu'itlifut subjects
of the Colonies of New flampshirei deca
T " 1- - . W li L L .li 1. I. . ,1
- " -
Tjiftming eachT ih behalPof o-irselvcs -and
of tlie inhabitants of 'these (ioxiieti?jvhj
tva ve deputed es toeprert thftriTiw efr-'"
"ratt'jeC' .Jtit Lth.e-Ad4ress to ihe
King adopted, which was the last act of I
!.&Cf4W4WW aM,pauwti dMy?.
first 1 ongress. In short there f amiot be
found t sioglo act of the first Cinnress, in
wliich that body denominateif , itself asl
iaMmea CUutues tT .Anjrartcar.r.
rt which its members denominated them
selves' i delegates of or to any body of
tltat oiime . ho far front it, an toeje acts
shew, upon their very bee, that fttey were
the acts of uidividiin Is,"4 representing re
gpectvely noi one, bur several constituent
bndun, and 4bs-mdividitoiathe fep -
resenati; . bf Mich constituent bodiea,
rwpUvelyy were said to be assembled i,
a graerai Vottgrcss,, iiinimr prml ot
eery first rufe established to reeiiat the
pfoeeeifirss oflhis t ongrws,' was iliirt
ia detrmuiinf jieiiopa, each CtAtoy n
i'ro vines shouM bare M Mite, w(hsj
any rlerenr to the number of b dde.
galea present, or of its thpnrtance in any
Upon such evidonce, I '.think hivsiilr
justifieil in saving, fhataltho at s.soe sub
cqtietil period, it may ponaibly be found,
that the delegate muted in a general Con.
gresa, in soroe rf ihir onlmary procee'.
ings, atal for brevity's sake may fierhap
have spidien of Ihcrnselvr as the ih lejti
of Ihe United Colonies, . yet in all tliir
.lc mn set they ar dilH repily deKriVd.
T)iu 111 ths iikwI iriipcrtaiit psper' r.hkb
they could ulter, 111 Crfruiiiwiut) to Gn.
Wa4iingloj a Connnandi r' in t'hv-f,
grmiti-d on the 7th June, 1775, thxr style
lliemselvrs," Tbe Delegate UtO Vuited
Colonies of New Hampshire, Ate," (nam
ing each as before) and by that htrrwj rd
111 that character grant to him a If (he
rights and aullmritiea which he then ac
ouired. Then lore, the President seems
to have as lulls ground, (r bestowing this
new name oftl.a I'nin d (Vloiues of Ainrr
ica, upon all Ui n vi.ln d Colonie or CoJ.
iNHt t tfJbai Jcy jus ha hit to bestow waon
the Colotiist any such ajregstp rharac
ler as thai under ubich hs ia suppuasal W
assert lbs they wee then koown.--si
Whetlier by lbs declaration of ludcpen-
peiirleiice, utfeed lit 1770. either the
mawner tit whirji -"that Ttectslvft'arfJ' trif'
IM.rtaiit step was taken or in tMJan
gnage of that instrument ,w we declared
ourw lves a Nlfiw,, and w ohnujll or
prevented all (he sovsreign rights of lbs
Elates, is a qutiou 1 hiaild have emtrn
im d ui ton iiuml?r, except (r the reason
1 have Is ,re staled,. Rut, Mr. Kditor. I
h'.,vi. already wcupieil mi tnu-h of vour
irpace, that I must not intrude us.n it at
present, farther tl.au Io say, that this dc
cluraifon, Is ing dm first act which occurx
in our liiitmy, iku luii bo, nr oppmd
3'iiivil any of ihe Sover iii riht of
lale, u nuiMiie eaamioatiou 'rondo a
part uf.Uiy origin! fdan, whkh will be
prosecuted in my ucxt iiiimber-
. The Declaration olludiipsjiulcnrs uttered
IH776", was considered, at thai day, us
the niot iniporthiil act which had evur
uccurrod in this Cvooiry, and subsequent
Uru muu4 wKikeoed .u.M)MttiiMnt it
waVtlif a. iou-nied to incijlcaiev..Vatill
ootinufl Io com.momorate it annuHlly: 00
the da vol 1 Is diiffj, wheu ajl llie cUoujos oft
Uiese now r'aiire1 elialcs, join with one ac
cord, iu bumble ailuratiou and thanksgiv
ing to that Uivmc l'ron(enoe,undfr, whose,
pruteclioa, the. great truth rtrannuuncc
wers afterwards piaiiitaiivd . ami catnb
lifted. Rut if the edi ct of. ihuDoclar
liutv to touaoTidaU -all Ui then Cokv
nies, by whose rcpresenUIives it was made,
as cm nation, and totrmalgiiuiate t'.i'eir 'id.
bun-wnts into Oitauwlisv" Jibe Fourth
dav of July, instead nf bring celebrated k
a jubilee, would prulauly be rpeul iiwcli
amir appropriately iu wt-epmg and wailing.
Wiui ucb the true nature end Httended ef
feet of this Declaration t This is tho quels.
tior. I prossie now 16 examine. . J . r"
.In speaking of this IWIaralion, Ihe
President say in hi Procbuualion, utht
decistf eaud important step was taken joint
ly. We declared ourselves a Nation by
aJjoinU not ly several acts." It is obvious
from ibis passage, that its jutbof defied
(0 es'ablish the existence of a Nsti4i, not
loss by the inauncr in which the Declara.
tion was made, than by ilia actual asser
tions of this instrument itself for n t sot.
udiod with stating ibat this step-was takes
jointly, he adds, that by such aluint Set
we declared ourselves a Nation, l will
examine into the truth of each of these
assertions, before I give" my owa views oi'
the subject. w .
, A joint act, ex ti termini implies )he
united and joined agencies Jl has been
produced.. Ileuce, ,u -wiiuld be -a - very
great wdeclsi'M,; !(b.snfk.uy acl done by
one lueiit ouly,: as a joint act, and thore-
Cre. 110 corporate acl. is ever oreoerlv d
r sctibc,dA ntihtf. jomt;iuruf-Cporitioii
1 - a t- a ' 1 " .
many members; for5 ui! hough 'the mem
bers may be many, the Corpomtiy n ft but
one and the act, if a corporate act, juNt
be performed by that one body only, tit
is wot every act etlccted by tbe co-opcra
. r . 1 1 . . . 1 1 .
I V I
tionof several agent boWovet , that is
. d . . Si
properrylcrmedtt- joinCact -Recause al-
,k..i. ,u:,iAj ...c,.......;. 1 . il .... ..
lll'-Mlg'H W.I..UQ.VI. ' . ... J' IITTE "II4-
bef pi its authors, every, single act accoin
pushed by fhr co operatiop tr several
a'gotits, must ho their joinC act vet cou-
stoered in- reforehce twls"tntendcrfrJntts;
as tlies may bemaqy, and attach to all,
to oach', or to some only of its agents, 'the
act is' reirarded as either bunt or several.
rm ( j, v. --JU -1
sbcardiiig t lite nature ef these inHnded
effects. ,.Uut i the intent of the act, cart-
not possibly be inferred from the number
Of agents co-operating to its actomptish-
ment, while it is admitted, that several as
well as ioiot effects intiv and da result aren
from a joint act, the rwtureof such on tjei
teo only bo aarta'uiai from tKa intentjpn
of the agents. Thin iutention' must al
Wiis bo sought for, and neVarfy, is best
munUcated, in Ibe .K'tiration .f. ihe
peciallf hO these rVelsralioisi are, tit.
tered in fhe aft ifr!f, ! uf cuuri-a a) lli
unm iJ serfoinuog rr,'., . J , . . ,
If these s)sj in proportion, which evsrw.
Tyro has hitherVi sckiw.wlrdrd to bw
true, are still dmiUd to'Jy rrr-r( it
will tni found dilTrull fertsinly, nay iii-i
sibfn prolsjl.l) , to reojs-cile ibein with lh
aase'riiiawof lis Presiileiil, wbert lb iff tl
intruded to be prNloed fy lhj) s.r
tion is'retoeaibered. The obj. I irtfiew
in making ibe ruMertesvs t i rota Ii er
by, that by virtue of Ih Dot UrslKSi of
liMcpendeiare we ackre.wleiled oUfM-lvv
Io be i Nation. Ilence, tbe Prewtdriit
say M lhal decisive and Imtsirtaul ti
was taken jointly." Sim, i, by ibis ho
m&sn to y, rm-ret) , that this decluraln4
was ihe work of many prrssi roeperaU
u.(- lo prtsluce it, noottr iu whit cbnr
cir they acted, hfi ru a del, so un
important to Li purp nd o km S ,
evsry mis, lhl it naJiy wen aln i Iu
dicrnus to utter it with sucb supsn ut urav.
dy, if imlerd it waxiK-cMs-ar) Io state it
at all. Rut If he nuau lo be'uiHleraiood,
a as-ertiiig, ilsttf (bis d-xtarutn.fi wa- rli.
joint acl of l!e rrprSseiitajivM of any sin-
gin tnij, pre? .iuijr iowu as v.n.uen
wMltn-trrskm.-brsidei ttin hlsfr mmS) efV
ror cotumiitpd, be states wls( rttunl b urt
murUigibls all, except to those wt.a cai
comprehend bow aov ili body ran it'
any joint art. t sti-stld hav l;B di-jjicd
to coumderibis srTrtence; a mere "iTiae.
rurjry;cJtiurrpy 'lo"p7ecIpiinte buiu ' "
which imi suie pnir waa pruruifiy pr-
pared, and therefore, to have pasm A. it by
uiuToUcr,lout that it ia in xaei l pinf
silUall tlxv prvtou prtAf ihis errj.
ment, and tnoTeoveris in .I'lbeinnce rrp a-
ied more tmprei-iTr,T, in the n xt acritnicft
wherein it (ssaul, iImI " ac dclsred, our
selves a NoiHft Ly a joint not by jrvrral
acts, nw, if ws were a Nation belors)
the Declaration of lndepetidence waa ui-
tered, (a it su the puqioveof all the re-
vtuu parts ot this a roomful toprove,)
would have been imptsrsibld for us as a Na
hion, o proclsim this futt anv Joint act:
ami rf rs.-lore-tbtrt event incurred. w- w;r
not a Nation, but scpsratr coininuuit r "I
iudiiiduaU, it seems ditheu't locoin ctvr,
hot wo whether the Ciiloninor C d M iiti
could have declared oUMclvea a a Nisa,
by any ritlierthan evrralBi't'1. '
I lie reason isf all tills mvitiCcitlon and
appajenf ab-sdrdity will be obvious when w
conie l citisi'ler llie det laratinntictujlly
hnmI tu ths fkcUraiiijii of lutleix itdci-
iisclirH-Ws-.sbktt iftM fliid.'iliwt th x 10
flrumeot, rnsiead it pr homing li t '.'o- "
onies to be one Nath-a, oW lured ileo. to
be "fits and iudeiieodeol Suim? in l rm . .
nnoce, ss 11 was nupokrii.ie to inier tin ex
i.sujuce ot uoo uuiuii turn mm b term- i - -,
hich this idea! is o'pUiulv abd ixihi'iv.
ly uegaJvedrttHKrl wa had to tbe nraa.
net m whb thii. Tlccuifatioii. Jas made; . ,
and we are told, that decisive and in por
taulstep was ink'nr jointly, "uri 1 at 'WW -:-
dectnrefj purst'Ives $ Attvt,l y ajpi'.,M"t....
by , tevirol act" a if the plain eit Ai
ous mean ing of the act iiw If, rould be chsn.
ged by aay sucb xlrinsic (uixmtaMs).
IJiavc now. doutt wtlu tho- i.al -4 iltft
argument of llie Prr SHof", thft desfgi "f
which is to show, ttutt these bltr nevtr
wore Bnvereign,iu shewing that fbeyjoa -stituted
but part of another suertL(iity.
called the nation. I will now proceed lo
give my account of the declaration of in
deptwlcucl ; and (herein to alatevmy il
as of it eflects upon tlnr seventl. joities,
who by tocif represeniatives, wrs tartios
to that inatramefit.
.The true nature and intended cfct of
the Declaration, can sever be xinderat tod
frem a-consideration of 1ln liuumer ia
which it was executed, merely. Wheth
er' KjWas firoduced by the agejK'y ol on -only,
or by the, joint agency d'iii iny, or
by the 'several agencies of difrsreiil persons
Co operating t the same wndi is of lints)
Consequence, Its object arid tutended ef
ieolsutDu'at be inferred from- its langfiage-," -
altliough if that is ambiguous,- these may
very properly be souzht for.in.extr ttic u
pireumsf ances of any kind, whether tin),
t- rcumstandes are Fajnih in the irianncr of
tbe execution of the inslruinoiH, or in any
eeiri-end judgefrorn Its CouteTtf-(if its end
and ohject, before we attempt to discover
these liM iq any other way. "
Whnisoexaminerl, the 'Declaration of
riiihipenilence seems to be a manifesto, ad
dressed to the world, that is lo sav, to the
civiSz!d world, designed to inform it, of
tlie pr-e xistence of , new event inter est
uilo. Bumaojty, and-of censes end errruto
stapces which had occasioned . the .occur,
rence ot this new fact. Like the Msntfes.
ta that taoerally aocomiaiiiesor immedt
aferyToIlows every tpodero Declaratimi of
War, which in announcing the new rela
tions of the belligerents, and narrating how
these have been produced, it so contains
a tirmlier apiett lobtfi States, aud io "
posterity,' for the justification of those by
whom this new staftj1- of thing has le-eu
mads pecesxary. Considered irithi light
it asserts nothing but what 1tad previiaisly
eiisled, although ,but , receutly ; and it
ohjeeiiteonfuied la ihe- justiflcation-of -that
pre-existing state of things which it
so announce. If this was its ptfrpoue, it
canmit be eimsidercd as creating piy nei
itiniqimtty, as-ordaimug any now ovora
-r ! ; :i
srsj f t
- i et i--jrrr-5c
i -""!. " "'