STERN CAROLINIAN.. I ton SALISIIUItYSATUMYLit2tl83lr 11 jj.iliLLi . 'Sf hH V nix w4 4 fttv ! ki dihe adrf libel KM, tW BOW 4 ultj fma it roo ilk th, BE ltd. rof nth; Ith raW w a ml nw 9 r. IT un- tiie pRi:sini:NTti Piwu:.r. ' Tbe Const itutim make tlie ll.siee f Represent itivea thafKluiv inIi:, in the'f M in-i.ifire, gf the qiKMum whctir the President bm commit led to jrnpciK halJA iM'(m:i. A majority of the Hennas, whose iufertcn'nce wirh Dm preliminary 3irtion bus, tr tbe best of all rraMi, Wh tu. .iulyeicfcidMi, aniK-ijwlo th action of the I liaise of Ueprcsciitalivea, awsiii not iady the function whtrh wlonga exclusively to Unit body, but convert fliriiirlvf lUtu accusers, witne, council, and ttfclir and pfj'K'g lw wlndn case. Thus prn. .uling tlte ajH-suiiig sist-iai-ie, ta a free Male, of jnli!t- tfpwg thrvtijrti lalmred prcpanttiiai for mi i.iiikiftuJ n nrinjf and Ct 0.111, by h prcvusis rx I,,r1r iuvutiialiiji and sentcnco ugaUMt tlto sup posed nlKIMJ'T. There i uo moir. wtlW axiom in flint Govern. iiM iit a hence we thrived I lie mmM of this part of itur CsistilulMi, thau tout M the Jori cannot i ti t- li'li any to, nor join in the acciisatiisi, bcuux ihry art judgr" linli juixicntly tif tlx' "iirral n'o.m in wliicli lliut ruin in CiuiiiWd, iu jr.'jirwly bikI imNirt4ikr an grttuty iiirroa! by luiiin of lit"' iiiijw iirliin jf r. . Tli ponrr 1 rp a triliiiiml whi irntiurtj tnny cxm-t i!h-ih l,M.fii llM'irjwMt iiil brawl flinii m iiifaiiMiuis ia 'iiiinrirtly a iilnr rt'iia'ily a n'onsly (fc-nigncd j Iw t'lMplxvi'd f if lln-jiroli-OiiHi of priviil? ritflit .imr'pKiLIiv ""filKfrfy'njiaiiisI' "fTi-''hlMrujrTiijii:4'H'r ml f h Hxirn-4MotiU tuliitT4y power. IIul franwm of th (' m-tiliiii'in wr ali urnkmlil. 'Jiy aware that this f rinulalilt iuMruiix nl hal vn him) ini(ht be alu--l ; iuh! llin', fnxn il cry lutuP!, an iuiM'.i(-liiia'iit for bih riun aihl iuil'-iiK-aiiora, wliaii-vrr iniglit he ifa r--ilf , wouM in ni Ml Cifl f n-'inp.iiiHsl by riiitch of ilinhotior ntal reimucli, aoik Kinlfi hikI KufS-nnj;, at hi ifiulifl tin power of preferring it one of tin; bihe.-il m leiiinity attd nnxirtaiM-c. It dm ! ! tmth tin? errf4f mttfft that tbr nnearhiii power hIvhjM bnbxlivl iu (lie. han lnof iImxt who, tr im tin mode of their election and the xmr?'ir lMfm&mMmri('vnrrtjer preM (fie pojiular will, and at' tho autno tiniA I a d.ffciiy ant afxWity anwnabtfl w thA IVopbi. 'Mm tlimiry of tlieno wir and, bctiij;nsuit inteDtimui ix, in I he prencnt cam, cfloctuully dtfoatiii bv the pMcpehiiK of the Seiuile. The tnorubera tht ixHly r-preeut, not tlie Teopb;, but the Stalca ; aiuJ ilnMigh lliey arn uiwlotihlially reKpiamhIa to the suiea, yut,lnm their cxteinknl term of xmici", iho t'lli-ct of th;t rspotwilality, during" the whrjo period of that teriiij vnj mtirh depwiil npoo ftM'ir own iiiiprt's-i.HMi of it oblipiiory f rre. Vi Iua Iim1v llnui. funJkliiteft ivTiireMu. 11 Immt, it- ojmii. in" a jKiHin.lar rpr. aM thu. directly mvitet a prosecution, it not only aiiinea -a- powor mtemlelr wiwe tm Hint, t a eiwirined to otliera, ImiI k . Jii-Li flto UlXvr faun ibnl eeti mvo and permul rcKpuinibility WKterm hich it was m'naied iff r ieM'ier,TnT 'reverieT tlieiiwlwte 'heiHeof llm pnrt 4ke (uMHteni. - Suili would be miiie 4 the olihrtiiaia to thiii procedure, even if it were admitted iliat there i.s L'i "VVUUI'.j 14 II Ta iVf UMIIf(lTt 11111 .1 traces dinrsed m-tKe re4irti.Hh - Hot if. on the other iwualj tiwt U-jtWR-of- ttcpr aaX atiaet.italr-'-tar ef-mieaHt-4H-i.iwaim-4o(cu upon UhU,ajkl slmll tlieri furo deem it impro per to ftiJi-t. MtLiJiwi:i4, thco- a ill tuo hJ. tionif pnvilck'e as it rcptrtJ tliotilonserof jris fico an it regard the President, ayd of the Consti tution, M it, relates to both, lie only tiie moif com spiciw'ius and iir.pre-?ive. The constitutioiu'il ni'"le of procedure on mi im peachmeiif lias not only been w tiolly diarepardtI, but some of the firit principlea of natural riht and eulighuiueJ. jtuiapnideiKt. Iwve, bA'Ujlolated in the err E'Tin the 'p'wilution. It- carefniry all afaiiislfoni i aveTnnjif'in 'whTo1i"or tft1i'e"linrrji)'rVK cecilinjp, hi ndatiow to the jmhlic revenue, tho Pre rioVnt" ha. ' Mwtmed npoh hinrw-lf authority and pwef-oif eooferrenl by theiVeoititinn amt taws;1 It carefully abntaiiH from sjn-eifving raof lawx or what fxirt of tlu C'mHtitiition fmve been violated. Why wa not the crrtninty of the ollence " the nature aial can.; of" the nceiwition" -set out iu the manner mpiired tlie. t 'oixtitution, before e en the hitinhlest individual, fir the aiiKille4 crime, can be exposed to condemnation t Such a six-'cification was due to the accused1, that h micht direct his .defence, to ihcrcal pouiU of jJCT J'IO'Wr'pei?) vj"miniicanjt wi d'TstaiHl m what partinitara their instimtiinw have been violated ; and to the truth and certainty of ur public annals. A the record now stand, wltilst the reioi.n plainly eliur-w iifkin tlie Pre. -ident at leait owe iet (' itorintion in the late executive pnweedings in relation to the public re. e!me,nari(li ao framed that those Senator who ht:licved that one such act, and only one1, had been committed, could a&wmt to it ; .its language is yet broad enough to include several such acts ; and ao it may have been regarded by some of thoae who voted for it. But though the accusation ia thus comprehensive in the censures it iniMes, there is uu .-.h rtaiiity f 4iiaft,ilaee, o eircunwlance, l.tQjexhibit Jjhe jparticular coneliwon i of fact or law whicii iiidneed airy bneBemtw 'Corbie ttC And it may well have happened, that, whilst one Senator hollered that '.aonie particular act emhra ced in the rewhition was an arbitrary and uncon stitutional assumption of power ; others of the ma jority may bare deemed that mrf et -both connti tutional and expedient-rr, if not erpedieut, yet ftill within the pale of the Contitirtion. And thus a majority of the Senators may have W11 enabled to concur in a yasrue and undefined aeusation, thai the President, in the course of; " 1 ha late executive proceodinjrs in. reLition ia the P" iWic revenHe,' lia3 vltilited the Conufioh and laws ; whilst, if a separate vote had been taken in repect to each particidar act, included within the jrieral temw, the accusers of the President might, on any such ite, have b"en found in the minority. Ptill furtlier to einlilifv ihia fi-alur f ihl nm. rir;t"c JUi io'puruuii-A wwk hi u i4utMi, u originally offi rrd hi tU fttnatt, pa ifslt tilth a(kiwt prutUioB.'wrtaJo acta ti th IV liideut, hicb a denounced u a vtoUiion of ftw (Vmitiition Ind Li iumJ thai it wat iui unlit tlie rery (lmi of f h deUte, and heo, perhap, 11 iiniH-wieu 10m a Duij-rity night oof au. Ui:t the apoeilic arcuvttiua Contained in it, tliat the rluti.i a av inotlifwd aa fg uuit iu preamit form. A more atntiiifj illuatratijn of tho nund ne anrl Heredity of (lie ruh t which forbid tagtw and iinlefuuto Kenrrmlitk-a, fcid rwjiiira a fwwoiiaWe certainty in all judicial allifiratwfHi, and a more l hiring iiii4aiMre of tlie violation of tlicxw rue, Laa wmIoiii UM-n tluUteJ. In fhia mw of the rfIution, it mH certainly lie trpinUui, iKit at a vimucatiun of any particular prutioiou of the lav or the Coiwtitutiun, but aju ply aa an otiMial rebuke orenudfoinatory atntetic', too iiM'ral and iiukfiuile to bo 9.iy P-pt-Qed, but yof auluciuiuly pm i5 to ban; into dirredit the conduct and VMitivvt of the Eiecutivo. Hut what ever it may liare bwo Intnndi-d fa acoompliah, it i obvifmathnt the Tayre, geneml, and abstract Iirm of tlm rcwilution, ia in perfect keeping with thoae otherdeparturea froin fint principle and aultW iu prmCnvntu In juriprudiic, ao properly the boast 'to nnx'h to any, of the abole of theae proceeding that if they ahall bo approved and aiutuiued by an jiitelligefit people, then will that great coateat wih arintmnr power, which had etaWihJ tn a1atutcn( iu ImIU of rii(ht, in aacred charter, and in conMi. lutKMi of Government, the rihf of every citli'ii to a notice tieiore thai, to a hearing bulore ciaivic- tion, and to an impartial tribunal for dot nling on trie citarge, nave ueen waged ta rtin. . If the reaolutiiai had been left iq it original form, it ia 0(4 to be presumed tliat it could ever have n-ceived lb awnt of a majority of the He. nnie : for iIm acta tberein apecified aa viUiiK) of 1 ho ('omititulion and law were clearly riilnu tlie limit of. the Kxeciitivt juthontyi.Jl'lwy are the " diiniiinii tlia late Secretary of the Ta-aaurv be cause he would not, contrary to hi aenne of Ilia own diity.n-mi.YB lhrjaaBjfobgJl mte with me lionk of the t. stutua and its bruuthea, m conformity with tlie rfHteftt m-jmrnfi jand ap poiiitibff hin aucccMor to cflict auch removal, which haa been done. , Hut aa do other iecihVation mn been wilwtitiileil, and aa lhee were the " Kxeeutivc proeeinga in relation to the public revenue," princiiiallv referred Id in the oourae of the di-ru. iai, tliey will Aaibtleaa be generally regarded aa the acta intended to be denounced at uan auuip lion of aiitliorify and power nof cwifrrmt by the jLVmatitutiofl or Iawa,1xit in derognlion of both. It ia thorctbre due to the occh.kiO, that a&Hiderued r.f",r)r to Ihem, ahoiild be tier exhibild, .Bv the CaiMlilutiuo. the Enncutive- power j yii3i tna J:rrrt.lnntp.f ..thJLf. Siatc. Amonj. the dutiea nnponeU upon tnni, and whi(h he Lixwom to Uwklliijt.lakiiig.'a) ra .tWkwa bo fiuthfgllr executed' Jcjij.t.hus piade KV-iule tor the" entire action of the Etcpttvt)lpajtmont; it wax wrt reaHmble that the power of appomtin ' . I laws u power in its nature exocntive should rn right, but the Coiwtitiitioa makca ilJiis duty, to " iionu.iate, and by iiJ wim the a'jvico ttJUCotwnT onrie5cnuLS.ajiI)o)t ?uu!a none appowuncnu are not in uie lamuiuu.. lion otherwise provided fiir,'' with a provwotkat the appointfiH-nt of inferior officers may be rested m the President alone, in tlie courts of Justice, or tn tin; Heads of Di'partmenN. The Kxecutrre powtrr vrstextiir tlie- Serwrev neither that of unHninating ? 'n6r u nppoiiitmg.w lt(ls merely a check upon the Executive power of appointment, ft wwivjduaia propwed for appoint- mottt by-4he- rVsieWj-w-twlhenr-tJeemed -in competent or uaworthy.lieyinay-.itiili4J their conmitl and ilie appointincnf " cannot be niaile. They encckiue acUou'oiihe J&ccuUulailCftnxK in rx'lation t tnosQ very tamjecrs, act memseives, nor direct him. elcctions are still made by the President,1 and the negative given to the Seonie, wifhouf diminishing his responsibility, furnislioaan additional guarantee to the country hat the wib o,rdinarc executive, as well as tho judicial omces, shall be Glled with worthy and competent men. 'ihe whole Eswmre power being rested in the PreNident who i responsible fof its exercise it is a necewnrT consenuonce, that he stuar!(r have a rigtif id Mil6yftgen1Si of nrf ovWeht'Wtd him tn the performance of his duties,' and to dis charge them when he is no bsoger willing tobe re- (ponsiblg M :UMUiJMrk;tMnm9i.M this principle, the pwer of removal, whicii, like that 'Pfsiuptaiittupnt; n an original fa cr, is left unchecked by tho-Constitutiw in relation to all Executive .officers, for. whose conduct the President is responsible, while it ia takep from him in relation to judicial officers, for whose acta he ia not responsible. Ia the Government from which many of the fundamental principles of our system are derived, the Head of the Executive Depart .merit oiffltiallyjiai lytnow aTwiliai moval, and thus nmke them imiependent of tne Executive, (hat the tenure of their offices was changed to good behaVKJur. JSor is it conceivable whv they are placed, in our Constitution, Mpon a tcntire.,di(lFrcnt from that of all other officers ap pointed by the Executive, unless it be for'tliejsaiiie purpose. But if there were any ground for dmik on Ae face of the Constitution, whether all Executive officers are removable at the will of -the President, it is obviated bv the cotemporaneofls construction of therument; dn& ffitd UhiCrffl pTacticnrndet if The nower of rerrwraWa a tofSc of solemn de bate in the Congress of 179, while organizing the administrative departments of the Gorernment, and it was finally oVuM tlwt tlifr President do- rived from the Constitution the ftower of irmoral ss fir-w it-repurds thtr tVptrtrnetit r whose im be U npotwiU.' Although the debate covered tha whole gnxind, embracing the Treasury as wi ll as all the other Executive IVpnrtiiK'iits, it arose on a Dsnioo to strike out of tlie bin to establish a De partment of ForcigtvAffiurs, awica called the Pe. pertinent of Slate, a claue doctarinf the Bucretary M to be removable from office by tlie Preskktil of! IM LmtoJ Btatea. . Alter tliat motion bad becfi decided in the negative, if wu perceived fbxt these wonla did not convey the rn of ,fhe Houae of KepreaenUitivea in relafisi to the true sixirre of the piwef of removeJ. , With the avowed object of preventing any future Inference tliat this power was exercisea vy tne rremdent tn rtrtae of a rrsrjf from Cungress, when in fact .that body considered it as derived from Ilie Ciasitiiuf ion, the words which bad bean the subject of debate were struck out, acd in lieu thoreof a clause was inserted in a proviskai concerning the Uertt of tlie, l ssirlineot which duclared that 44 wh-never tlie said principal officer shall be retooved from offk by Iba Presi- dent of tlie Uniled Stales, or in any titer case of vacancy, the UneT Clerk slusild, during such ra eancy, have charge of Ilie Doner of the office This change having beeu made tor Ilie exurena pur p-e tjf divlarmr lit) setise of Congress, ihst the FniMdeuioWrvod tiraHweriiHvJ (fHttfim (onstitution, the Act as it paused baa always been coiwidWd sVa' full expresKiiinoT tlie sense oTTlie Legistatnre on Ihu important part of Jlie Anrt call Cotwlitulion, Here Iben we have the concurrent authority of i restovur v axhingtoo, of the renale, and the House of K"pn senlntives, numbers of whom had taken au active part in tlie Conrention whieh franr-1 the Cofistitiifiisi," and in the Stale cxsivem tHns whieh ad'fted it, that the President derivej an utHmalilied power of removal from that insru nient itself, which is u bevond tlie reach of lyegiuU live autlwrity, Ub'si this principle the Govern- iiient has now been steadily administered (br atsait forty-live years, during winch tbf te have been du Miensis reinovnls maile by tlie Prestilont or by bia direction, embracinz every trade of Executive of- (ktm. fnaa lias U vf fMpartnifiits In llm nrs.1 sengers of 1 Wires us. The: Treasnry Deiartmcnt, in the diacusaaion of 17HU, was cmiHiden-d on tlie same (siting as tlie other Executive Di jiaiinieiit, and iu the Act estab lishing if , the precise words were incorporated, mmIi cativaof the sene of Congress, fliai the Presiditit denrea his pwer to remoretlie Secretary, from the Constitution, whieh appear in rhe Act establishing fhefapnrtmntof fcireictt Alrairs. An'Autant fecrefary-of "the Trensnry was created, and it was nrnviffe:! thnt fwi nhoiil.1 litke rlmrMi nf llm TvuXtt and tsH.m of tlie Dopurtineui ii Wuv ito, R. eisnry ehatl be rrswerf-fretti Wiir Hr tne- fret detif oT the niile(Tires.TUo Wrcf;itry:iirib.f JtpMjry rj'lg.r.,tlHlthe Pjv'lejt4.fttd ing coiwiilf red as ciMwIitutioimll him, it appears never tl have isreiirrod lo any one Mt thfti mgsew of J 7 &,-of-sJ nee, toitil -er y- seel ccntly, that he wu other f ban ati Executive officer, tlie mere instrument f Itwr Chief Mstrrf-fn the exeiiition of the lews, subject, like all other Heads, ef.pep.ylnicntsjjo his fjijiemsioii and con trol. No such iden as nn officer of the Congmis lait he" f sW-ia tim t'oitstitiit ion, or apoarj ti ha ve suggnsteu ibteii in tiiose wuoTorgarjuna tne xim vemtnent; -'i'liere are ofhWs-of xadklluu-setllici ppiilTitrnoqt of y Irjch is euthirirdjy the CMisti. tuiwsi, but all officers rcAirred to iu IhaE lustni as- coming- within- the- appomttiig-- power of Ilie President, whetltof established thereby, or crea ted bv law, art officers of the United States." in joint power of appointment is given to the two Hot ise ot Con geese, nor ia them any accountabili ty to them as Mt6 body: but as aoon ms any offiter is created by law, of whatever name or character, -the appointment of (be peroa or porsons to'fill it, derolrea, by thw Cotistmihorii njion ihe rrestilentt witn tne axmce ana conwnt oi tne iscnaio, unicss it bo an inferior' officer, and tbr appointment be ttia hi'itA'fXjfifUbi Pi!j.M.aJjiB (be courts of law, or in the Ueads of IVpart ments' '. -r -- -f! -- . ' But at the time of tlie -orgnnitntion of the Treasury I)epartmentf an incident occurred which dutinctly eviiK-es the niianiinons ciatcurrence of the first Congress in tho principle tliat the Trea sury Department is wholly executive in its charac ter -ars. responsibilitiea'"' A motion was made strike 'out the nroviidon of the bill making it the duty of the Secretary to digest and roport plant rrtbwin1prwelhfi venue, and for tha support of puhliccredit," on the grouiMlrlhatvit-onld piv tlie Executive Depart niet4 pt Jbe. Gprernmi'nt too niucli" influMW e and en-he ground flint Ilia SocraUry-.iU3lig mvuTvauux of (Jongrcas, and responsible to that bod v, which would have boea conclusive, if admittod, but on other grounds, which conceded his Executive cha-1 meter throughout.' , ' - - ? -.;- The whole discussion evinces an imnnimouj eon- currence in the principle that Ihe Secretary of the Treasury i wholly an Executive officer, and the struggle of the minority waste restrict- bia powerj as aucu. r roia mat time uown ro tne present, tne - --i ww v.- 1 . .1 . .1 . KciUryTSnlirTnsnm M-I reasurerKegi lf ter, ComptMllers, Auditors, ini Clerks, who fill the officejsof that department, hare, in tho practice of the ifovcriimentiliexin consiihmid and treated as tjie same footing with corresponding grades of officer in all the other Executive laipartmentsv : Tliie i ciistwly of the miulic proprlvTunwir'tajicli''' regulations M may be prescribed by legislative au thority, bas alwavs been considered an appropriate function of the executive uepertment w mis ana all other Governments. In accordance with tins principle," every specits of property belohging to inafiuiitea ciaics, (exceptmg jnaj; wnicn ts in xiie use 'of the several co-ordinate- depart menta of the Government, as means to aid them in performing their appropriate functions.) is in charge of officers appointed by the President, whether it be lands, or buildings, or men.Uw!ifce, ur jlrwisiotia, or cloth, tnfrwannf tnatnumtion 6T itf.TM auprrio. tewktiita and lux-pen of the a hole art tiouilcd tj ins rreetdear, and removable at his wui. . J'uUic tnuorv ia but a stwciea cf MiUte oroocr hr. If raravit be rained iv taxation orrustoina. tior brooyht into tlte trrawry in any other way, except iy uw out whenever or howsoever obtau d, iu custody always baa been, and always must be, unless tJ Conslitutioaj U changed, InUuetad to the Executive IVpanment. No t-ffWef can be created by CWrrai for the punose of taklns charge of it, whoae,appointniei)t would not, by the vonwiiuiion, at onra W!V(v on trie rrehnienf , ana who would not be re doom U to him for tlie Cutb ml nrrfiirnMUice of bis duties, r The lridatiri power may undoubtedly Uitd bin aod tLe freiH- deut, by any tiiw they may tliiuk proper to enact they may praacriba ia what olaca particular pur tiona of tlie public .nxsiey shall be kept, and for wnat reason it hau be re moved, aa they nay di rect that supplies tor the arrpyor tury shall be ke4 in particular alorva J and it, iU brtl,duty of the President to ace; that tha law.l Milly xecuted yet will the custody rtnuiio in the Exo cutiva Di-partniciit of the CovcunWit. Wert the Cougroaa to aasuuis, with or without a legislative act, the power of aptKHiitinir officra, tndependentlv oTtf. PriIoMt,to taka Uw c Urjjs and coOudy of ttw mimic property contained in the military and naval anaoiials, Biagazinea and store-nouses, it ia believed that auch aa act wiaild be regarded by all a a pulpahle usurjiatiisi of executive pewrrtaub vi nive of tlie' form u well si the timdunsiitaj principles of our Government. But where ia'the difference, In principle, w het be r public property be in the form of arms, munitions of war, ami su1'II's, or jii gold anJ silver, or ISank notca T " None caa be perceived none is believed to exist. , Congrc cannot, Uierefore, fake out of the hands of tlie Executive Department 'tlie custody of the public propuny ov nuaiey, wiuuaiiaa assiimptioa or exe cutive power, and a subveraioif of tlie jirst prtnei. pies of the woiwtitution. . .1: 1 : 1 11m CvngrvMS of Dm liuted ptatea Lara never passed aa act imperatively directing that the pub In; mimryi iliall L Irntiu aayfaewlar phCCtrf places. rrnn the origin of the Government to the ycaf 1915, tlie statute 1mm1 was .'wholly kilctii no the auhject. la 1780, a Treurer was crea ted, Mibordinate to fha Secretary of the Treasury, and through him to the Prexidetit. He was re quired to giia bood,aafvly to keep and faithfully to disburse the public nxawys, witlwait any dime ti'si as to tho maimer or places in which they should be kept.- By reC rence fo Ilie prmtice of the Goi cmmcnt, it la found, that from ita first organi. auTion, uio rsfrviary pi me reajiry, acting un tier the sofrr-i.n'iif the treKukit.iblffnnlt.t lfv placea in which thepaWie mtsjeys w-i v.4u-pi, aist'pecthnyitirecfe4 all transt'era from pbieeto s -This weetiee wa otaiood, with- ilietu. kill atiiitceiice i( agTTrtn1ty 4wii fo HI e: and "alrhisjeh ttiany Banltl were aelected and dychargeoV and although a portisof thaaieys were first placed in tlia Nate fhinks and then in Oie-Tir mar B4i4IliaXnuTiSlaIM;-id Tfpotj tlie diilutkm of that, were again transferred to the Slat Batiks, no legislation Vaa thought fwces. sarv ov ' Csieres,liid aTT Ibe wraliisis were" An- ifMitd and perlWted by a jocutivt authority. Tlia Secretary of the Treasury, rosprsuriiie to tne rm sjdept,andjvith his approbation, niade eontractaand arrangenienta in relation lalBe jaBole "subje'ertiinr-' tcrwhich was' tTiiiFeiitlrcly comitnjte"41o the div' reetion-of tho Presidiit;uiider hir responsibilities to the American people, and to those who were au thorized to impeach and punish him tor any breach of this important trust. . ' " '" .... .a aa a M . ..Viba.act oCl.310, estaWislnng th? iSanH ot tne United States, directed the depositea of public tn aey to-be made in that Bank and ita branches, in place ia .wVb the said Bank and branches there- of may :be established j'"41" 'A: :8tryf tnr ITwistiry anoxua wnerwtse orncr ana Direct, in which event; he was required to giv his rca sons "to Con2ressr"Thi was but I continuation r.f I bis pre-existing powers as the head of an Execu tive Department, to direct where the dcpositcs should be made, with the superadded obligation of rivinfr bis reasons to Congress Hir making tlwm elsewhere than in the Bank of the United ftutea and ita branches, ft ia not to be considered that this provision in any degree altered the relation be. tweea tba Secretary of the Treasury and tlie Prv sident, as the aesponsibld .head of-tha: Executive Department, of released tha latter from bia onstI- prtiorirfjrAhg luittifully executea. ' un tne contrary, UKreasea his respotisibiUtics, by adding another to thclong list of laws which it was his duty to carry into cf- tecu rzrii woma arm lesnmmmjijrmtmjFirjsii the person charged by law with a public duty, is one of the Secretaries, It were less the duty of the resident to oe that taw faithfully executed, than other laws enjoining dutiea upon subordinate offi cers or private citizens. If there be any differ ence, ft would seem that tne obligation is the sliwger Ja . reitfkx neglect is in his presoace, and tlie remedy at hand, It cannot be doubted that it was the legal duty the Sceretary or tho Treasury to order and di met ihii denom i esof tlie oublic iiKHie v riS M made elsewliere than iu the Bank of the United States, whenever wficimt tr.qtoni ttuted fur making the change,' If, in sueb'a case, he neglected or refu sed to act," he would neglect or refuse to execute Aw i law"."" What woxildthcn be thr aworo duty of the Presidetit T Could ho aayvthat tho Constitu tion did not bind him to see the law fuitliAiIly exe cuted, because it was one of his Secretaries, and not himself, noon whom the service was specially imposed t Might he, not be asked whether there I was any such limitation to his obligations prescri ffieiil ; in tfie I'Twiitiitioh T---wl'ilier" be" is Sot equally bound to'taka care tliat the laws be faith fully executedwhether they impose duties on the highest officer of the State, or the Joweut subordi- jj'tuin in anv of lU J-pariinein Mi til ! i I - - . i - aury did apjdy to tha rrraeJeiit, and obtained b - fold, Uwt H WaVF-'r lilt 4 wiri-. e ,,f c jii .i ail exwoijve offkers, from the bh -I to tl.e l-.werf," fuillifully to lf.iriil alas service li 'i'ilred i f fj.i lit by Uw, lUt the ji", j.Iii of flie I'lui. d t uu luvo -. . inito lini lle ir l lin f MagiMrate, sti. l tl,e Cofkiti- tutixi bjn rpb'-d bim iwuh tha entire emotive power of this Government! Tba j.rus:ijlea int. plied in these quootiiaia appear too plain to land , eluekUtiott. , .- -- ' But bere, also, we have a coimporaneous. cotv struct ion of tha Act, which ahows that it was tu 4 urulentood as in any way changing tha relations bHweea tlie Prtwideut and Secretary of tlK Trea aury, or as placing the latter out of Executive eon. ml, even in relation to the oVposiiet of the wl,,j '' rtssiey. S'or on this poiiit are w Ml to any eVjui. " vocal fnstimnoy. The dornmeuts tf the Treasury DepartniMit 4iow that tha Secretary of the Ttew- 4- - Pjirotmtioo and sanction to tit original transfer of tlie' public depoaitea to tha present BaiJl of tba United Ftates, and did carry tba nieasure intoef. f cl iiubrdicnca to bis decision. They also lww , tluit transfera of lb public depositee from tba , BrancUea jf flie BaiJtof lha Pmle.l States to Stale -Uiuiks,ai CliJIwotlie, Cincinnati, ami lesiisville, in 1J"I9, were made wifli the ajtri'liti(Si of it riiJwit7aiJ by Jusawtlirily, Tliey aluw, tl,ai .... upon all iinimrtant rtueiioft aprTftaiiiinir tj flu -i department, whether tlie rel it'd to the puUh? oV. poeites or olhet pititiers, it the cwntant' prac'. . lH-e of the riecn-Ury U lU Tauwiry to Ltaiu Li' - .." ?r.l" ' JTf,,M AJaI.NjtCjln tif tl)? Pr-"!'ku't ' riiene arts end tlie. prinriplea nn whkh Uh-v were f aim led, were krxmn to all tlie di-jrtrrn n. of the G.n-ertitjuiitf,' to Vmte ami the country i' .. and, until rnnr recently, appear riovcr to Lava Locn called in question. . Thus was it actlhHl by flie Conxlitution, the laws, sn4. jhe wfHil prarlicef the Government, thnt a tlw entire executive power is vested in tlie presi dent of fha Unitod Stales; fhaf, as incident to that, power, tlw right of apjHMniing and reuwving thoo otlirers w ho are to aid biiu in the execution of. tho laws, with aijdtuirtrk taiiiia wilvn-the Cwwttt tost preicribtw, is va4eJ la Ilia fridu thai lhl n'tn.'lTn"irJ one of those flicera thai jfba tutidy of lii public prooorty ami snooey ia an Exeeulire function, which, ia relation to tho nxsiey, baa always been exercMed through tha Sc. rretary of the Treasury and bis subordinates ; that, In the performance of IW duties, he is solijoct tt the supervision, and cuulrul of the i'jrsblout,' and ' in all Iniportant nieasurea having relation to them, consults the Chief Magistrate, and olitalna his a p. nroval aitd sanction that "tUe law ctal4isliing the - Bank 'JjCwjCltir CouLt SioVctiiii" I h iLti.iir: belweim tlie Present aod tlia Secretary, did rleaH tli ririjwm--...-.. t.niinii it, w,tia. law fait)ifviily-exermt, rrorthe latter frrtni the Piweleot's sonerviioit end eesvtroTf I hat atlerwafls, - aintt. bifiii yie. Sef'prtary jji4 ji fart coiisuif. a'tnl " obtain the, sanction of tlie President, to transfera awl rmrwti of the public depoirtr,nd tnaf-'al,- lepartnients o the Ourcrnment, and the.natnsi lU auUapproi .iaZijuI ciples, as in strict contbrnuty with our Cwintitulioij and tawa. . , i Puriiig UnelaKt year, the approaching, tormina- Hon, according to the provimon qf ita charter, and the Soinn o'tinof tb Attirricaa people, of rtj Hank of the United states, made it expedient, and ita exposed, abuses ana corruptions maJe n m uiy "' . '. U- i : e .i". '. ' e .1 t ' ommutil tea dulv .uT ilia ireLixv of ilit) Tresuu -'. ar r f - - - " ry, to place tha moneya of tha. United States in oilier A'positories, Tne Secretary did not cisirur in that omnion, and declined giving the neoeseary ",r order and direction.' So, glaring were jlie abusea ' and. corniptions of tha Bank, so i ey i&'nL jb & led .1, purpose to. perseverance tn I hem, and ao palpablo its design, by its money and power, to coutroL tba ' . Government and change, its character, that I deem- v ed itthw tmjwf tttirt duty of tba- Executive aatbori-. ytPy" 'be exertion, of every power confided to it by the Constitution and laws, to check it career, atolJiiaCk'jl painful alternfttiv of dismissing the' Head of one i of tlie Departments, At the time the removal was made, other causes sufficient to justify it existed, but if they had not, the Secreury would have been dismissed for this cause only. v Ilia place I supplied by One whose opinions were well known to tne, and w hose frank expression of them, to. Another situation, and whose sacrifices of interest and fouling, when unexpectedly Called to .t; tha atauon be. now occupies, ought forever ta.ka,vu-,. t riite!dg&ji,B bis cr-:"" .. . .. . r. . ... . ... . . t ..-tsX'.'Wstr.; meter irons reproaen. in arronjanee wiyi tn . opiiiiotiilimg before expressed by him, lie procoedVr edwithjniy sanction, to make arrangements for dejiljiiitiiig the uioiii'es of tfie United States in otlier aamlTC!T.TnTfrinjti--7-J TTir.. The resolution of tho Senate, aa originally fra J med, and as passed, if it refera to these acts, pre. ' C suppose' a right in that Usly to interfere with this exercise of Executive power, if the principle b 4 Mice admitted, it is not diliieult to see where it may eml. If, hy a mere denunciation like this re aiTulMHir ever Xq induced to"""" act, in a matter of official duty", contrary to the honest convictions' of his own, mind, incompliance ' with thewiKhes of the Senate, tho constitutional 7 tttdeiiiHPtWnf the-Executive Department vould-"- ' b as effiictimlly destroyed, and its power as effect. ually tmtuslerred to Iho Senate, as if tluit end bad been accomplished by an amendment of the Cor; f stitutioii. But if the Snato have a right to inter. Pire with tlie Executive powers, they have allhe r -right to make that interference cfFjctivej and if the assertion of the power implied in the resolu. fion, be silently acqtiiwed in, we may reasonably apprt'hond that it will .ha followed, at some future day, by an attcnjit ftt actuid enforcement. - Tho Senate may refuse, except on llier condition that -will surrender his opiniiMw to llioirs and olx;y their 7- will, (p jwrform their own constitutional function j 1 to pass the necessary laws to sanction appropria. timu prop mcd by tlio House of Reprcsi'iitavc, i - ! f

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