North Carolina Newspapers

JVumbcr 31, of Volume 16 :
The AYotern Carolinian.
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X h e IV t xv 1 o v crn or.
fellow Citizens of the Senate
and House of Commons :
Called by your suffrages to the high office of
Chief Magistrate of my native State, I should Ie
wanting in courtesy to you, as well as regard to
my own feelings, if I refrained from tendering you
mv most grateful acknowledgements for this proof
of your confidence. Accept, therefore, my thanks
for the honor you have conferred upon me.
I consider it a duty incumbent upon me to make
a declaration of the principles which shall direct
my conduct in the place thus intrusted to my ad
ministration. In doing so, I shall bo as brief as
Hssible. I shall not attempt to elaborate the sub
ject, but merely to state those general political max
ims, which 1 conceive to be sound and correct.
A republican from predilection and education,
my course shall be regulated by the great princi
ples of that paTty the political creed of a Jtflersnn,
a Madison, and a Jackson. That Government is
established for the benefit of the people, the wbolo
people, and not for a few at the expense of the ma
ny, is an axiom indelibly impressed upon my mind,
and has heretofore, and shall ever continue to bo,
the guide of my political life. Our Constitution
has given but limited powers to your Executive.
In the discharge of its duties, it shall be my object
to pursue such a course as will promote the huppi
liess and prosperity of the great body of the peoplo,
and the welfare of our common country. In ccmii
inuuitios like ours, blessed with republican institu
tions, where the sovereignty is in the people, and
where every place of trut, and every office is made
for their advantage, and is filled directly by them
or indirectly bv their agents, and where the laws
but the emanations ot their will, dec lured lv
their representatives, virtue and intelligence- ought
to pievail.
It is therefore one of the primary objects, and
by the constitution it is mule the duty of the Le
gislature, to diffuse the benefits of education among
the people. Any feasible and practicable plan for
such a purpose would, so far as the co-operation of
the executive might be necessary, receive my aid.
To developc the resources of the State, to improve
its internal condition, and exalt the moral character
of its citizens, belongs to' the Legislative Depart
ment. Whenever the assistance of tho Executive
shall be required to effect these objects, while I oc
cupy the station, that assistance shall be cheerfully
rendered. Eeonmy is a virtue in all Governments,
more especially in republics. Not a parsimonious
saving, but a liberal economy, accomplishing tho
greatest benefit with the least exjendit!ire, avoiding
waste and profusion, but securing in tho service of
the State the most honest and capable oi its citi
zens, and obtaining those advantages to the com
juuuity that are obvious and palpable. A correct
economy draws only so much from the earning of
the people as will properly administer their (Jove rn.
...i,t leaving the remainder to be used by them
according to the dictates of their own judgment ;
thus tend in" to increase the wealth of the State by
adding to the wealth of its citizens. Oa the con
trary,0 high taxes, and profuse, improvident, and
wasteful expenditure upon chimerical and visionary
projects, tend to diminish the wealth of the cithtens
without adding to the service or resources of the
Responsibility and accountability in all public
functionaries, has ever been deemed to bo an axiom
in the political faith I profess. And if we wish to
preserve to ourselves and posterity the blessing of
liberty unimpaired, we should never deviate from
that maxim. By an adherence to it, we confine all
those who hold office and place, to a strict consti
tutional and legal discharge of their duties, neither
arroTatinT to themselves powers they do not pos
ses nor omitting to execute faithfully those that
appertain to their stations, never forgetting that
they are but trustees in the situation they occupy,
for the good of the people.
Having stated several general rules, upon which
depend the correct administration of republican
governments, and in fact that of all good govern
ments, I shall now briefly notice those which ecu
liarlv belong to our situation, as one of the United
States, and which shall be, as they have ever been,
principal guides in the determination of my course
upon ourlederal relations. I presume, in doing
bi, I shall not be accused of intermeddling with
affairs not belonging to the office I am about to
enter. I might plead in justification, the fashion
of the times, but I put it upon higher grounds ; as
the duel Magistrate of one of the States forming
the confederacy, it is cxjectcd and required of inc.
I am in favor of a strict construction of the tow
ers bestowed bv our Federal Constitution, limiting
the operations of the Inderal (.ovcrnment to the
lowers expressly granted, and those necessary and
proper to carry thetn into execution a necessity
and propriety that must le obvious, not far-fetched,
and requiring great casuistry, and fine fpun, meta
physical reasoning, to derive them. The exercise
of all doubtful powers ought to le carefully avoided.
If any one, tho right to exercise which is doubtful,
should be esteemed as leneficiul to the coplc, that
M)wcr can be obtained by an amendment to the
Constitution. Our fathers, knowing that all human
institutions must necessarily be imperfect, have
wisely declared the mode in which the Federal
Constitution might be amended, so as to make it
suit the condition and wishes of the jeople at every
period. To exercise doubtful powers will cause
jealousy and dissatisfaction, and may endanger the
Union, the Palladium of our lilierty and safety.
That Union which has made us a great, a happy
leopIe, resected abroad and prosperous at home.
Who is there among us, who docs not congratulate
himself in being a citizen of such a government -the
inhabitant of a country bestowing so many ad.
vantages ? The history of past ages, and tho
events of the present, show us tho value of the
Union. If it were to be destroyed and broken up,
what would be our situation T VV'e should be divid
ed into several small confederacies, or into twenty
four or more sovereign independent States, each
acting for itself sejKirately from the others. Should
we not then be like the States of ancient Greece i
whose history is a record of war of State with
State, of battles lost and won, of towns and cities
lx.'sie:red and taken a narrative of human suffering
and human woe ? Should we not exchange our
present condition of strength, happiness, and pros
perity, for weakness, misery and internal dissention?
If at any time we should consider ourselves ag
grieved by the action of the Federal Government,
we ought to bear much, very much, before even a
thought of the dissolution of the Union should be
entertained. In the language of Je fferson, I would
say, " If every infraction of a compact of so many
parties is to be resisted at once, as a dissolution of
it, none can ever be formed which would last one
year. We must havo patience and long endurance
with our brethren while under delusion ; give them
time for reflection and experience of consequences."
A common name and a common fame unite us.
We are brethren of the same political family.
Let us not then forget the advice of the revered
ami illustrious Washington, the father of his coun
try, when he admonishes us to consider it of in
finite moment that" we "should projerly estimate
the immenso valuo of" the " National Union" to
our "collective and individual happiness," to "cher.
ish a cordial, habitual and immoveable attachment
to it," 44 watching for its preservation with jealous
Such, gentlemen, are my opinions ; and enter
taining as I do a most sincere conviction and belief
in their truth, soundness, and correctness, I may le
pardoned the reiteration, that I shall endeavor to
administer the duties of the station I hold accord
ing to them. It will be mv inclination, as it is my
duty, so to conduct my official actions, as to make
the people contented, as far as practicable, with
their government, both Federal and State. And if
in the progress of my administration, I should so
far forget that respect which is due to myself, as
well as to the station I occupy, as to cater to the
mad spirit of party by attempting to render the
people dissatisfied with their Government, I should
reproach myself as guilty of a dereliction of duty,
and a faithlessness to the trust confided to me.
That the Almighty disrnxscr of events and dis
penser of all good, may take us under his peculiar
guidance, preserve unimpaired, our free institutions,
and render us a satisfied, happy, and prosjwrous
jeople, is tho prayer I shall ever address to the
throne of infinite mercv.
(KT A GOOD 'UN J .eg
From the New Orleans Commercial Bulletin.
Our city bids fair to be full and running over. Al
ready is our I,evee lined with forestsof masts, and sooty
cylinders the products of a foreign and domestic world
crowding our warehouses and shops the dust has be
come thickened to a palpable consistency, and thedesert
cd streets of cummer pregnant with life, and all so
recently carried tiie pale and languid aspect of the sum
iner months, now puts on the livery ol busy, and active
The change is exhilirating to the body and mind
The springs of life recover their wonted tone and elas
ticity and the lull faces, new modes and l.isiiions ot
returning emigrants and foreign visitants, furnish '
feast for reason ami a flow of soul." A word on the sub
ject of fashions. How true did the Avon JJard, in
sneaking ot the servility paid to uus gou, say "iasmons,
let them be ever so ridiculous, nay, unmanly, yet wil
be followed." We have not a word as yet to say on
this subject against the fairer and better sex, for, upon
our lives, we have not as yet been able to discover any
marked change in their mode for the coming season ;
but it hag been impossible not to be struck with the
change in the appearance of the selt-styled " lords or ere
ation." Pantaloons that make a horrible inroad upon
the cabbaging system of the tailor so far good am
bury the wearer in their ample folds, fbnn the nether
extremity of the tashionalde bipeu wnue upon uie
head, with organs ot liod knows what, strongly display
ed, stand3 in bold relief tho little crowned chapeau,
with its gently curling rim. Here and there, thus ar
raved, will be found some additional items to this niov
ing picture ; perhaps a hedge-funce of whiskers nobly
flankinfir the bristhntr pikes of well greased mou&tacii
io. Upon the whole, a figure in which the elements
of fashion are so mixed, that you might hold it up to
the world, and say, "fti i a thins.
IjcI such grotcsoue fashions, "much more honore
in the breach than in the observance," be handed over
to those little animals called monkey and thus the
dignity of a nobler creation will to epared from ridicule
"The apparel oil proclaims the man,"
and it needs but a small legacy of Solomoa'iJ wisdom to
I discriminate between the man whom the tailor has
made, and him, who shows the lustre of an intellect
derived from God.
Xntioual Finances.
Of the lleport of the Secretary of the Treasury made
to Congress.
" The receipts into the Trcasur, ascertained
and estimated, during IS 33, are computed to be
US,13U,SS1 07. Ol these, the actual receipts
during the first three quarters, are ascertained to
have been $:3, 10,81 07. Viz:
Customs, 813,01-1,189 20
L;Tnd, y,10G,oj0 -9
Div'dson Rar.k'Stock, 500,160 82
Sales of Hank Stock, CW.SOO 00
Incidental items, 130,520 10
23,4GV?S1 07
Those' during the fourth quarter, it is cxiected
will be $-1,1)50 000.
Thus, with the balance on the 1st of Jan. 1835,
they form an aggregate of 837,323,730 49.
The expenditures of the whole year
arc ascertained and estimated to
bo 818,170.111 07
Of these, the expenditures during
the first 3 quarters are ascer
tained to have been 13,37G,111 07
Civil list, foreign intercourtie, and
2,827,19G 16
7,555,819 41
2,929,219 39
4,750 01
59,150 07
Military service, including fortifi
cations, tC.
Naval service, .Vc.
)uties refunded, ,
iblic Debt,
S13,37G,141 07
The expenditures for the fourth
quarter, it is exiecied, will be
4,800,000 00
Thus leaving on the 1st of Janua
ry, 1830, subject however to the
deduction hereafter mentioned,
an estimated balance of money
on hand equal to
19,117,593 42
nil.: . : i i .r
Aina uiciuues vviiui nus ucreioioiu
been reported as unavailable
funds, now reduced to about
8 1 ,1 00,000, making the comput
ed available balance on the 1st of
January, 1830, 818,017,598 00
Computing all the existing charges of every
kind on the Treasury at the end of the present
year, to be about 87,595,574, the balance of avail
able funds, then on hand, would, it is estimated, be
sufficient to meet the whole at once, and leave, to
be hereafter applied by Congress to new and other
purposes, the sum of 810,4o0,024.
JJcfore the close of the -ear 1834, ample funds
were deposited with the U. States Bank, as Com
missioner of Loans, to discharge all the public fund
ed debt, which was then outstanding.
Of the funds so dciosited heretofore, and still un
claimed by the public debtors, there remains in the
iKissession of the Hank, the sum of 8143,570 03
The receipts into the Treasury from all the sources
luring the year 1830, are estimated at 19,o0,-
000, viz :
Public Lands,
Hank dividends, and miscellaneous
To which add the la1ance or available funds in
the Treasury on the first of January, 1B30, estima
atod at 818,017,598, and they make together the
sum of 837,797,598.
The estimates of expenditures, submitted for all
specified objects, both ordinary ami extraordinary,
for the services of lou, and including the contm
gent for the usual excesses, are, 823,133,010
The imports during the year ending Septemler
30th, 1835, are ascertained and estimated at ylol,-
They show, compared with the preceding year,
an increase of 8-' 1,509,030. Those during the
three past years have on an average been about
The exports during the past year arc ascertained
and estimated at 8118,955,239; of these S98,531,
020 were in domestic, ami 820,121,213, in foreign
products. Compared with the preceding year they
exhibit an increase ol ? 14,0 18,200.
It is a remarkable fact, that of the whole quan
tity of land surveyed and otlered nt public sale,
from 1789 to 1831, being about 122,000,000 of a
crcs, not one-third of it has been sold for any pur
pose whatever; and that tho whole receipts, being
a little under so0,000,000, trom the whole sales ot
public lands during that period, have furnished only
a small amount, not exceeding three or lour mil
lions of net revenue, beyond the whole cost, in vari
ous ways, attending their purchase and manage
ment. 15ut a considerable net revenue from them
hereafter, if neither given away nor divided, can
with safety be expected, and they would then tend
to furnish that relief under tho common burdens,
and that aid towards the common and legitimate
objects of the Union, which were intended to be
promoted by their original cession to tho tieuera
The whole sales to the close of 1834, deducting
about six and one-third millions of acres, which ro
verted under our former system, have been only
about thirty -seven and a half millions of acres dur
ing forty-five years, or on an average, only about
three.fourths of a million of acres yearly, for im
mediate cultivation, and every other purpose, A
bout sixteen millions have been given away, as
bounties in the last war, and for schools, colleges,
internal improvements, and other public objects in
the now States, being together almost half as much
as all the sales."
In treating of the Surplus in the Treasury, and
its disposition, he says :
It has been shown that the available balance
in the Treasury over ail outstanding appropriations,
on the 1st of January, 1830, is estimated at about
ten and a half millions; the expenditures for the
ensuing year, for all purposes, whether ordinary or
extraordinary, enumerated in the sche-'ides at more
than twenty-three millions, and the receipts at less
than twenty millions. Hence it follows, that ifthe
appropriations made, and the revenues received in
lt30, shall be as large as the estimates and no
larger, the nett surplus now applicable to new and
other objects, will probably, in tho course of the
ensuing year, become reduced to a sum between
six and seven millions. This sum, therefore, would
in these events remain on the 1st of January, 1837,
as a nett surplus, unexpended and unpledged. j
Consequently, most of it could now Ikj applieu to t
other purposes, not included in the estimates, aud i
liberally aid in promoting any constitutional objects,
which Congress may deem most expedient.
"An unprecedented spectacle is thus presented
to the world of a Government, not only virtually
without any debts, and without any direct taxation,
but with about one fourth of its whole annual ex
penses defrayed from sales of its own unincumber
ed and immense tracts of public lands, and no re
sort to even indirect taxation necessary, except for
the other three fourths ; and the proceeds of that
indirect taxation, though largely and freely redu
ced, yet accumulating so fast as to require further
egislation to dispose of, or invest a considerable
surplus on hand. Whether this state of unviable
irosperity be justly attributable to the form of our
Government, to the administration of it to the
character of our people the physical advantages
of our country or to all combined, it is a subject
of strong congratulation, and exhibits a very re
markable phenomenon in the history of taxation
and finance. Without dwelling on the primary
causes of our fortunate condition, or discussing any
secondary ones, such as the great demand and re
ward in this country for either labour or capital,
the more appropriate inquiry, under these novel
circumstances, and on an occasion like the present,
seems to be to discover the most judicious course
to pursue in using this surplus, or in preventing or
regulating its luture accumulation. J he balance
now on hand, or anticipated, does not differ so much
in amount from that at several prior periods, as to
require any extraordinary steps, ifthe same avail
able mode existed, of employing it legally and
beneficially, without new legislation.
There were three former years in our history,
viz: 1815, 1816, and 1817, when our balances on
land, on the 1st of January each year, were res
pectively over 13, 22, and 14,000,000 of dollars,
and in 1833, over 11,000,000. Hut these balan
ces were either unavailable for a time, or whenev
er productive, were soon able to be applied in the
discharge of the Public Debt, and thus to prevent
longer and larger accumulations, and to save inte-
t. In that way being reduced from time to time,
they at no other period have exceeded 10,000,000,
though on four other occasions they have accumu
lated beyond 9,000,000. But, happily for the coun
try, it is no longer compelled to part with its re
sources to discharge heavy burdens imposed in for
mer times; and in the present prosperous state of
our finances, it is respectfully submitted, that m or
der to reduce the present surplus, there might be
first, and judiciously authorized, for purposes not
enumerated in any of the estimates, other benefi
cial expenditures for objects clearly lawful and use
Not considering it the province of this Depart
merit, in nn Annual Report, to enter into minute
details in relation to the selection of those objects,
the undersigned would merely advert to a few promi
nent ones, about which no constitutional difficulties
interpose ; such as the erection of suitable and ne
cessary buildings tor tne use ot the iienerai vio-
K ft . .ft
vernment, whether in this city or the dille rent States,
and the earlier commencement of important works
contemplated, and the more rapid completion of
others already begun, which arc essentially connect
ed with the commerce, tho navy, or the frontier de
fences of the country.
This Department takes pleasure in stating that
the public money continues to be collected and de
josited, under the present system of selected Banks,
with great ease and economy in all cases, and with
renter in some than at any former period. The
O m
transfers of it to every quarter of the country
where it Is needed for disbursement, have never
been eflected with more promptitude, and have been
made entirely free of expense to the Treasury.
The payments to creditors, olliccrs, and pensioners.
have Leen punctual and convenient, and the wliol
fiscal operations through the State Banks have as
yet proved highly satisfactory. Incidental to this,
the facilities that have been furnished to the com
mercial community in domestic exchanges, were
probably "never greater, or at so moderate rates."
Under its new valuation, the coinage of gold at
the Mint from the 1st of August, 1834, to the 1st
of November, 1835, has been 85,471,505, or over
treble the amount supposed to have Itoen coined in
any previous period of similar length. The ratio
has been somewhat lessened the last six months by
several causes, of w hich an important one has been
the desire to provide more quarter eagles, and a full
supply of silver change, to meet the increasing de
mand in several States from the withdrawal of sm:vll
notes from circulation. The coinage of silver has
been extended in the first eight months of this ear
to over eight and a third millions of pieces, which
is believed to be much beyond the number in the
same portion of any preceding year.
When Socrates was one day walking through the
market, and looking at the various articles offered
for sale, he exclaimed, " How many tilings do I
not want !"
I once had a troublesome visitor whom I tried many
ways to get rid of. First, I tried smoke, which he bore
like a badger; then I essayed fire, which he bore like a
salamander ; at last I lent him five dollars, and I have
nut seen him feince.
Dcstructioii of IVew York I
From the New York Commercial Advertiser of Thurs
day December 17, 1;n35.
New York has been (or fifteen hours in flames !
They are not yet extinguished. A large section,
and that the oldest and most wealthy portion of tho
city, is in ruins ; and whether the progress of the
Destroyer is yet completely arrested, we cannot
tell. Since the conflagration of Moscow, no calami
ty by fire, so extensive, and so dreadful, has befallen
any city in the world. The fire broke out in Mer-
iiant street, in the triangular block formed by
Wall, William, and Pearl streets, at about 9 o'clock
last inht. A tierce wind was blowing from the
northwest, and the weather so intensely cold as to
render the efficient working of the engines impos
sible. The consequence was, that the fire held
the mastery through tl. night spreading with
great and destructive rapidity. It was an awful
night for New York, and for the country. But we
can neither describe the grandeur of the spectacle,
nor its terrors, nor the desolation brought more
distinctly to view by the morning light. The arm
of man was jowerless ; and many of our fellow
citizens who retired to their pillows in allluence,
were bankrupts on awaking.
The fact of the powerlessness or the firemen,
from the almost instantaneous congelation of the
water, and the benumbing influence of the cold, in
creased the consternation which prevailed among
the thousands of the agitated multitude who were
witnesses of the calamity many of them doomed
to stand and see the destruction of their own for
tunes, without being able to lift a finger, for the
rescue. Fo arrest the flames was at once seen to
be impossible, save by the blowing up of ranges of
buildings in advance of the fire, that its progress
might thus be interrupted. But the difficulty was
to obtain powder -none of consequence being
allowed in the city. A sufficient supply, therefore,
could not be obtained short of the Navy Y'ard
whence, also, the Mayor was obliged to send for a
strong military force, to preserve property from
the swarms ot robbers who are ever ready on such
Such is the confusion that prevails, and such the
difficulty of working one's way among the smoke,
and fire, and heated ruins, that it is impossible to
detail particulars with any pretension to accuracy.
cm hi tti side ot vv all-street from Vv llliam-street
to East river, including the Merchants' Exchange,
and excepting some three or four buildings between
Merchant street (formerly Hanover) and Pearl.
Also from William to Broad, buildings not destroy
ed but injured in the rear. Exchange street, both
sides, from Broad street, crossing William to Mer
chant street the Garden street Church was em
braced in this section.
Merchant street (formerly Hanover) both sides,
from Wall to Hanover square.
v illiam street, both sides, from v all street to
Hanover square.
Pearl street, lth sides, from Wall street to
Coenties slip, including the whole sweep of Han
over sounre.
Stone street, from Hanover square to the lano
leading to the head of Coenties slip.
Exchange street, and part of Beaver streets, from
Pearl nearly to Broad.
Water street, both sides from Coftec -house slip
to Coenties slip.
Front street, both sides from Coflee-house slip
to Coenties slip.
South street, from the same to the same.
South side of Coffee-house slip, from Pearl street
to the East River.
Both sides of Old Slip, (including the Franklin
market) from Pearl street to the East River.
North side of Coenties slip, from Pearl street to
the river.
Jones's lane, Gouverneur's lane, Cuyler's alley,
and part of Mill street. -
Seventeen blocks of buildings, of the largest and
' c
most costly description, are totally destroyed ; tho
large block between Wall street and Exchange
place, bounded on the west by Broad street, that
between Exchange place and Beaver street, fronting
on Broad stiect, and that between Beaver and Mill
streets, also fronting on Broad, are greatly injured,
and may almost be said to be destroyed, except tho
single ranre of stores fronting on Broad street.
The number of buildings it is impossible to ascer-
! iriin, but it is estimated between 700 and 1,000.
The amount of property destroyed is incalculable.
ThosH acquainted with our city will at once per
ceive thai nearly the entire seat of its greatest
commercial transactions has been destroyed. It is
not probable that the destruction of any given sec
tion of any other city in the world, of equal ex
tent, would have involved a greater destruction of
capital, or ruined the fortunes of a greater number
of men. The destruction of goods of every de
scription that can be enumerated, has been immense;
and what yet farther magnifies the calamity is the
fact, that the portion of the city thus destroyed is
ne which has been alnjost entirely rebuilt within
the last five or six years, and was covered on every
hand with the most noble and substantial ranges of
mercantile edifices perhaps in the world.
Before the gunpowder was used in blowing up
houses, there were many !oud reports, from occa
sional explosure of powder and casks of spirits.
Durin the whole night the scene was one of awful
terrorrand indescribable grandeur. The drought
of the season had contributed to tho combustibility
of the matter ; and the rapidity with which houso
aftor house, and range after range, were vvrapp-d
in flames, were truly astonishing. The wind being
h'i"h, large flakes of fire were borne whirling aloft
through the dark vault of heaven'with fearful splen
dor. From the direction of the wind to which,
under providence, the salvation of perhaps the whole
city is owing the city of Brooklyn was consider
ed in danger ; and the flakes of fire were borno
along in quantities beyond Flalbush.
The buildings on Exchange place having become
involved in the conflagration, the flames communi-

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