PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY MORNING 321332 AUID 3$Siai?Q2 Wo mAl? EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS.
JYumbcr 32, of Volume 16 :
"NyuuYjcy tvomliegmig 814,
SALISBURY, NORTH-CAROLINA, JANUARY 9, 183G.
The AVcMcrn Carolinian.
BY ASIIBEL SMITH &, JOSEPH W. HAMPTON
TF.IOIS OF PUnLICATION.
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1. To insure prompt attention to letters addressed
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"MICH VET KKMAIVS fNSl -NCS.
From the Southern Literary Journal.
LINES TO THE "MEMORY OF MRS. IIEMANS.
"Thus let my memory be with you, friends!
Thus ever think of me!
Kindly and gently, but as of one.
For whom it is well to Ik? flVd and gone;
As of a bird from a chain unbound,
As of a wanderer whose home is found :
So let it be." .1rs. Jit mans.
Thus tcill wc think of thee !
Pure spirit! that didst move.
Round on an angel-mission free,
From the blest courts alve:
Mingling thy ever-tuneful lyre,
Of musings high.
With Nature's never-ceasing choir,
Of earth, sea, sky.
The gushing torrent, and the ?i;;.set fair;
The earth's bright jewelry, and the peopled air;
The ocean s silvery bonnl;
The midnighi's calm profound ;
The shadow-weaving twilight, nnd the morn.
All, with a pencil dipt in hcav'n's own hues, on thy full
page are lorn.
Kindly and gently ? Thou
That like the trusting dove,
Mid life's dark tempest waves didst bow,
To breathe thy strains of love :
Though for thy wearied font,
No place was f und,
No plant of deathless root
Shod perfume round;
Yet for the faithful service thou hast done.
There floats an olive branch; a green and fide
Jess one !
Emblem of hopes that rise
lleyond earth's broken ties ;
Token of hearts that catch a glimpse of heav n.
E'en through griefs dark eclipse, by the clear light thy
faith hath given.
Joy ! joy ! that thou art free !
c would not ask thy stay :
Tioic that so long has sought to be,
In thine own land away:
This earth was far too cold and dim,
For soul like thine;
No fitting harvest couldst thou win,
Prr.m love's decn mlse;
Though wc would fain have won thy treasures,
llcavneairdits otcn , its own hath heard the
Joy! joy tfat ,,lOU art freei
limiThtpr of melody !
Tune thy hi"h anthem to an echo meet,
Waiting angel hath swept o'er the strings, and fo
hv lvre complete.
S C II APS.
The Whi" Convention of Maryland assembled on
o.vi it. On the 23d, Gen. Harrison was un
nnimnuslu nominated for the Presidency, and John
.'ivi.r .S Virginia, for the Vice Presidency. 1 1
nomination by Pennsylvania and .Maryland of the
Hero of Tippecanoe, renders it certain that the
f 'aWtion must devolve upon the House of Represen
tatives ; and, it is time the public mind was prepar
ing for it.
Annual Meeting of the American Coloniza
Cnn Society was held on ;ho 1 ")th inst. in the IIoue
of Representative, Mr. Clay in the chair. The
meeting was addressed by President Ducr, and
Rev. 1)". Proudfit, of New-York, Rev. Mr. Wm.
Atkinson, of Virginia, the Secretary, and Chair
inan. Mr. Clay's Speech is said to have been one
,of his happiest efforts.
The work goes bravely on." Judge M'hite
has also been nominated for the Presidency by the
State Rights Members of the Georgia legislature
v.nrv Southern State must go against Van Pxjrcn
cstcrn Barnes. l ne wuio-ju u- r i
i...v.n;n r. "ITrwipr nn Illiuoisan a "Suck
cr;" a Missourian a " Pcwk a Kentuckun
'Corncrackcr;" and a Michiganian a "Wolverine.
Van. Burcnismin Illinois. A Van Ruren meet
ing was called in the Mount Carmel Sentinel, to
,Lr nlnro iii that tow n on the U 1th lilt. Well
the dav -arrived the meeting was held ; and
cou-siitvi jf three indiriduuh !
THE PUBLIC DOMAIN.
SPEECH OF MR. CLINGMAN, of Surry;
On his Resolutions, introduced into the House of Com
mons on the subject of the Public Lands.
Mn. Speak kr : In presenting the Resolutions on
your tabic, I have consulted my own feelings less
perhaps than those of my constituents. I should
not do justice to those whom I represent Iiere, if
in the absence of any other measure in relation to
the subject, I had failed to bring forward those pro
K)sitions. The proper disposition of the Public
Domain has, tor several years past, leen a question
of deep interest, not only to our own citizens, but
to every State in the Union. It has been subject
more than once, to the action of both Houses of
Congress. L!a borate Reports on it have been
made and circulated throughout the country ; so
that the merits of this micstion are more "encrallv
understood than those almost of any other, in noli-
tes. Indeed, sir. it seems to m that there is
more need at this time, of action, than of debate,
And it is in the hope, that these Resolutions will
lead to action, rather than to debate, that they have
been presented. "
It is incumbent upon me, however, as the mover,
to make a brief statement of those facts and argu-
merits on which I rely to sustain the principles of
the Resolutions. Thou di the details mav be un-
intcrcsting in themselves, yet on account of the
imgnitude of the question itself. I trust the House
will indulge me, especially as I promise to be sis tue remainder of the projierty not being disposed
brief in mv observations, as the nature of the sub- " would revert to the original donors. A.l I ob
ject will permit. ,nit ,,,at l,o' r sonic of the acts, sustain
During the content fin territory among the na-
tions of Kurope, consequent upon the discovery of
America, most of the charters under which the ever, i preier tawing a omerent ground. I lie pay
Colonies were originally settled, contained a grant t,,e"1 of t,ie National debt was undoubtedly the
of a portion of land, definite and well defined on the principle object of the cessions ; but at the same
sea-coast, but extending without limits to the west
ward. Thus the limits of North-Carolina extend
ed back to the Mississippi River. What is new
Tennessee was then a part of this State. Virginia
claimed a large extent of territory lying North-
west of the River Ohio, out of which have since
been formed several new States. In fine, the Ixnm-
dariesof all the old States, except three, were more
extensive than thev now are. In this state of things.
wp-went into the war of the Revolution. During
its nro-ress, the disiosition of the unsettled territo-
rv was a most embarrassing question to the Federal
Congress. Some of the States attempted to dis
pose of their waste lands for their own benefit.
This produced much discontent three of the States,
Maryland, Rhode Island, and New Jersey, hail no
such lands lying within their boundaries. It was
urged on the part of these States, that the Colonies
were then engaged in a common struggje that
the blood on.f treasure of all were alike expended
n defence of the vacant territory and that if it
were won at all, it must be won by the uniteJ cilort
f all the States. It was said that these lands
xi'dit to be rc-arded as a common fund to defray
he expenses of the war, and to secure the pay.
ment of those debts which the United Colonics
were obliged to contract in its supirt. It was on
his ground that Man laud refused to enter into the
rticles of Confederation. Congress more than
ence urged upon the States owning waste lands, the
iroprietv of ceding them, in order that they might
become a common fund for the use of all the States,
and finally, in the year 170, passed a Resolution
in the following words: J
"Resolved, That the unappropriated lands which
may be ceded or relmn
ed or relinquished to the United States,
by any particular State, pursuant to the recommen
. " s. f i ... i , r c . i
latum ot Uonirress, ot the otn uav oi oepieni.H.r
ust, shall be disiosed of for the common benefit of
the IJniied States, and be settled and tormcd into
distinct Republican States, which shall become
members of the r eucral Union, and have the same
. .... . .i
rights f sovereignty, and freedom and indepen
dence, as the other States," &ic.
In compliance with the recommendation ot Con
"tcss, all the States, sooner or later made cessions
of their vaste territory. I heso treaties or com
pacts aru an similar in tuaiauu. ... v.... ...v.
. . n ..-!.. ... -
I will call the
attention of the House to some of them. 1 hat ol
V....1. r-..i:..o :.. .n- ;..,.rt:.,,t in relation
i ui in uuiiiiuif i iiiv -
to urn present u..Mu.. v, ' " ""
laVd h.-ivR ronoatodlv and earnestly recommended
. - I J irir I I II II .'I 1 J-MIIII'S. Ill VvUll" I UOT .-n... J- I
to the rcstieetivc fctates in tlie union, claiming or
, - .j i ...
to the public creditors, as well as the establishing
the harmony of the United States, and complying
with tlie reasonable desires ot her citizens, etc.
Thon romps n clause directing tlie manner in
which the fund shall be applied :
"That all the lands intended to be ceded by vir
tue of this act to the United States of America,
and not appropriated as Ulore tncidioned, shall be
5 a common iunil, lor tne use auu uvm
and shall be faithfully disposed of for that purpose,
and for nn other use or purpose whatever.
That of Virginia, ot which ours seems to ne al
most an exact copy, is in the following words :
"That all the auds w.thin the territory so en-
ded to the L mted Mates, and not ri;rr..
appropriated to, any of the before mentioned pur-
poses, or disposed ot in bountie to be omcers . n.
soldiers ot tne American army, Mian
as a common fund for the uso and lienefit of such
..I . " - . L.M I.a Anncii Krrf I
..f th United States as have Income, or shall be
...mo inpnilwrs nf the Confederation or federal
1 1 . - ri..rt -.i tiir wn id rimos. ir."tnra uw.iu;ni.,
acconhng to the.r usual rcsc , F - ;
lllC "CllCrUl ClltlruO aUU tAituuiiuu, auu
ownin" vacant western territory, to make cessions - - j .
uxuiu v.it.un . j, ...ii,r by treaty with foreign powers. I he territory ot
of nart of the same, as a fur her means, as well ol "j . t j
oi paii m .no Ka. it, .Lut . Louisiana was purchased of l ranee for the sum of
hastening the ex ingui. hinent of the tj of . Pf dol, w out of lhc r()mmon
establishing the harmony of t he U , d fetf s : TrCasu,y of the Union. Under the treaty with
and the inhabitants of tho said western ter .torj y obtained, we p;iid five
be in" also desirous that such cession should be M '".-", . .i c
ut..i0 also t.n...m.u- millions of dollars. ith respect to the power ot
made, in order to obtain a more ample protection "uuious uun.ws. . i t
1 1 . , , r w.:...i . V,v thU Congress over these lands, there is no limitation
than tney have heretofore received . Now his They may be disposed of in the man-
State, being ever desirous of doing ample justice "UML! 1 "j tt
conquered as a common un o, .o, u.uu -.. corresponding to her share m
fit of the United States of America, North Carol.- vc a portion c 1 - Congress has
: l.. .: .,..l.,, ,olmir rcoiprlivftiini USlia p'"-"" v""'pv I
iiaiiiuuc,ntwimuS ....... ...r. rol of the nroiKirtv. vet ougiu m justice, anu
proportion in the general charge and expenditure, ""l bound.
faithf dly and bona fide disposed of for that purpose,
ana 101 no oilier use or purpose whatsoever.
All of these deeds of cession are similar in sub
stance, anil in several instances the same language
is used. I bhall therefore, sir, not detain you by
making any otnr references.
The first thing, Mr. Speaker, that occurs to the
mind on reading thev deeds of cession, is that the
Legislatures of the States having made treaties,
have a right to defend them. They have entered
into solemn compacts with the lYdcral Govern
ment, by which they have conveyed a large amount
of property for certain purposes therein specified ;
and if the fund thus granted is likely to be wasted
or misapplied, it is their right and duty to endeavor
to avert such an evil. It is undoubtedly the pro
vince of the General Assembly to juard all tho
great intcrest3 of North Carolina, but it is more
especially our duty to take care that our constitu
Cllts aro Ilot prejudiced by our own past acts.
We are next, sir, to consider the nature of the
compacts themselves. On this iwint there is diver
sit" of P"- It has been supiiosed that as the
payment of the public debt was the inducement,
a,,d in fact the main object of the cessions, that the
t,eut being now paid, Congress has no farther pow-
cr ovcr l,ie lands so ceded. If the payment of the
Public debt had been the sole object in view, and it
',at keen expressly so declared in the deeds thein-
Sfdvcs, then there would be an end of the question,
lor tll; Jcut Ix-'ing paid and the trust discharged,
",,! yuw question,
After an examination of all these compacts, how
time it was foreseen that there might be other bur
dens from which it was desirablo that the States
should be relieved. In order, therefore, that the
power of Congress might be sullicicntly ample for
a11 tlie' purposes all the clauses directing the
application ot the lands so ceded declare, in sub-
stance, that they " shall be considered as a common
f,,nJ Vr tlie use and bencht of the United States of
America, according to uieir respective and usual
proportion in the general charge and expenditure,
amJ shaU be f litllful,y disposed of for that purpose,
an1 rr " otl,cr use.or purpose whatever.
is the language of Virginia, North-Carolina, and
Georgia, and in substance, it does not materially
vary Irom that used by the other btates. It makes
Congress the trustee of all the States. Congress
is the legal owner of this property, but is neverthe
less bound to use it for the benefit of each of the
States in proportion to her share in the general
charge and expenditure. Its application to the
P ymci 01 me puouc ueni was sinewy m oucuience
Jv' V'e terms lhc compacts themselves, because
11 n.-ueeu uiu oiaius irom oireci cnargus wiiicn
,nust otherwise have been made, in this view ot
mh q no.i, m puci ui ...a u, fo
"c mnu is as great now, as never was. unime
hc ther "4 of the Government, which may be
a, M.nr:M u,iy ....u ,i
uc appucu i o " prcr.u ... wh
compacis .neuic.us. t-ut-ra. v.o..suiu. . ...
-s - ... ..
'y Clause relating io i.iu suoJwl oi mu .auona.
Imain is the following :
"The Congress shall have the power to dispose of and
make all needtul rules and regulations respecting the
territory or other property belonging to the United
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be po con
strued as to prejudice any claims of the United States,
or of any particular State."
This clause reaffirms the compacts then already
made, and gives to Congress the power " to make
all needful rules and regulations" to carry them in
to cflect. The cessions of North-Carolina and Geor
gia, being made since the adoption of the Constitu
tion, are not varied by it, as it contains no other pro
vision relating to the subject. I o ascertain then the
powers of Congress over these lands, we must look
to the Acts of Cession themselves. These enable
'p.,:. .1 i.n
n . J . .t , i
CI eac" OI lI,u " lyJ l41'
in the usual charge and expenditure, and any dis
,MJ,ition which ia in accordance with this principle,
sition which is in accordance with this principle
Much the larger portion of the Public Land now
there was a general charge upon all the States to
raise the sums paid out ot the common Irnasury,
each State has an equitable claim to a lair propor
lion of the profits arising Irom these lands. un
regard to the whole ot the vacant territory, it may
therefore bo laid down as a general proposition,
that Congress is the legal owner of the waste lands,
but that each State is nevertheless cntmeu to re
to dispose of it for the benefit of all the States.
Rut, Mr. Shaker, it is to consider this subject
in a pecuniary light, that I would now call the at
tention of the House. There has rarely, if ever,
been so vast an amount of property subject to the
i imVi.il Ronorts state
"ZJKrZ undisposed of,
" Tcrritorics 7o0 millions-in
all, making 1000 millions of acres. Ot this amoun ,
there had been surveyed up to Sept. lt?bj, 14.i mil
lions, and sold in the same time only 3.j millions.
Thus it will be seen, that though tho land sales
I,, Un to ivr oil :
" on for mere than lorty years
i- . . l ; .
houh iher has been a constant and immense tide
i .i i it..:. i c; . . ., i.., : .1
I nor most conuue.vt; iu im.ui.v. .nn-...
of emigration to the westward though a number
of new and prosperous States have sprung up, the
quantity disposed of is trilling, compared with what
remains. If we suppose that only one half of this
land should sell at 81 25 per acre, the lowest rate
at which the Public .Land has ever yet been sold,
it would produce the immense sum of CSO millions
of dollars. Or, if the Territory itself w ere divided
among the States, in proportion to their 'Federal
population, the share of North Carolina would fall
little short of CO millions of acres. If North-Carolina
then, Mr. Speaker, has an interest like this,
it is well worthy the most serious attention of her
Representatives. If it be in our power to advance
such a claim, then I know not how we can be bet
ter occupied than in pressing it.
The disposition of the National Domain, as here
tofore made by Congress, if not in strict accordance
with the terms on which it was acquired, has upon
the whole given general satisfaction. Such por
tions of it as are tit for cultivation have been sur
veyed and oilered for sale in immense quantities, so
that every purchaser might make such a selection
as suited. The lands not sold in the first instance
to the highest bidder, have been subject to entry at
the low rate of 81 25 per acre. As far as the pro
ceeds arising from the sales of the public lands have
been applied to the extinguishment of the National
debt, their disposition has been strictly in accor
dance with the spirit and letter of the various deeds
of cession. Large donations have, however, been
made to all of the States in which the lands are lo
cated. Up to the year 1 S31 , there had been grant
ed to these States, for the purposes specified, the
For Education, , - 8,000,000 Acres,
Internal Improvements, 2.187,000 do
Colleges, " - - 50,000
Other purposes, - 100,000
Total number of acres, 10,795,000
Thus, Mr. Speaker, it appears that there had been
gratuitously yielded up to the new States by Con
gress, up to the ieriod mentioned, the amount of
eleven millions of acres. The sales, however, up
to the same time, amount to 31,000,000. It is ob
vious, then, that of the whole land disposed of,
more than one-fourth has been given away to the
States in w hich it was located. This alone is suf
ficient to evince the generosity of the old States,
and to shew how unjust and unfounded are the com
plaints which have been uttered on the part of the
new States. Unless similar donations have been
made to all the States, these grants, giving as they
did, an undue preference to some of them, were not
in strict accordance with the terms on which the
National Domain was acquired. Rut then, our feel,
ings were on the sides of the infart States. We
wished to extend to them a liberal, helping hand.
The fund too, was so vast, that gifts like these ap
pcarded trifling- it was like dipping water from the
ocean ; the quantity that remained did not seem to
The question, however, has now assumed a new
aspect. The National debt has been paid ; and the
Treasury, filled to overflowing, is more than sutfi
cicnt to satisfy the wants of the most extravagant
Administration. Pronriotv would seem, in the first
instance, to require a reduction of the Revenue to
the real wants of the Government. Rut the agita-
tations which the country has recently undergone, in
consequence of the excitement of the Tariff ques
tion, are too well known to require to be stated.
riven if it were possible, no one would wish to re
new at this time, the discussion on that subject.
The circumstances, however, under which the Com
promise Kill was passed, are such as to forbid us to
expect that the question will be shortly agitated.
V hocver considers the rapid growth ot this country,
the constant increase in our commercial operations,
and especially rctlects that the diminution of duties
has of itself a direct tendency to increase importa
tions, will not fail to come to the conclusion, that up
to the year 1842, the Revenue arising under Clay's
Law will be amply sulhcient to answer the wants ot
an economical Administration. 1 he question then
arises, w hat shall be done with the surplus money
in the Treasury? And it is this which gives additon
al interest to the subject embraced in the Resolu
tions. Some of tho new States, seeing that the pub
lic debt is now paid, and that the monies arising
from the land sales are not wanted tor the ordinary
purposes of Government, have within a few -ears
past, put forward claims to the whole of the lands
lying within their limits, mmana, Illinois, ana
.Mississippi have asserted a right to all of this pro
perty, resting it on the ground, that thev', as sover
eign States, are entitled to all the territory wjthin
their boundaries ; and declaring that the possession
and sale of such lands by the General Government,
is an invasion of their rights. In some instances,
I .1 . .1 I . 1 A t . I
sir, l believe tnai inev nave cviu niuuticu men
Representatives in Congress to contend for this
claim. Others w ho have not gone o far, however,
do not cease to urge upon Congress the propriety of
cither cedin" the lands directly to the btates in
w hich they lie, or so reducing the price, as in fact,
to amount to a donation
At present, Mr. Speaker, these claims have been
admitted by only one Department of the Federal
Government. The President of the United States,
in his Annual Message to Congress, in the year
1832, recommends a surrender of the public lands
to the States in which they are situated, as will be
seen by the extracts which follow:
' A moil" the interests which merit the consid
eration of Congress after the payment of the pub
lic debt, one of the most important, in my view, is
that of the public lands. Previous to the formation
of our present Constitution, it was recommended
by Congress that a portion of the waste land owned
fiv the States should be ceded to the United States,
for the purpose of general harmony, and as a fund
to meet the expenses of the war. The recommen
dation was adopted, and at different periods of time,
the States of Massachusetts, New York, Virginia,
North ami South Carolina, and Georgia, granted
their vacant soil for the uses for which they had
been asked. As the lands may now be considered
as relieved from this pledge, the object for which
they were ceded hav ing been accomplished, it is in
the discretion of Congress to dispose of them in
such way as best to conduce to the quiet, harmony
and general interest of the American People.
" It seems to me to be our true policy that the
public lands shall cease, as soon as practicable, to
be a source of revenue, and that they be sold to
settlers, in limited parcels, at a price barely suffi
cient to reimburse to the United States the expense
of the present system, and the cost arising under
our Indian compacts. The advantages of accurate
surveys and undoubted titles, now secured to pur
chasers, seem to fordid the abolition of the present
system, because none can be substituted which will
more perfectly accomplish these important ends.
It is desirable, however, that, in convenient time,
this machinery be withdrawn from the States, and
that the right of soil, and the future disposition of
it, be surrendered to the States, respectively, in
which it lies.
" To avert the consequeneoe which may be appre
hended from this cause, to put an end for ever to
all partial and interested legislation on this subject,
and to aflbrd to every American citizen of enter
prise, the oppoitunity of securing an independent
freehold, it seems to ine, therefore, best to abandon
the idea of raising a future revenue out of the pub
Hitherto, however, the majority in Congress
have had too just a sense of the rights of the old
States to permit them to comply with this recom
mendation. Efforts have been made at every ses
sion to give the new States all the benefits of this
property ; which, not being resisted with sufficient
spirit, and because they are backed by the influence
oi the President, have been every year growing
stronger and stronger.
I will beg leave to call the attention of the House
to one of these attempts on the part of the new
States to get possession of the National Domain.
It is a fair specimen of what they usually are. It
is a Kill and also a Report accompanying the same,
the caption to which is as follows :
" The Committee on the Public Lands, to which
have been referred memorials from the Legislatures
of the States of Alabama, Indiana, Missouri, and
Illinois, asking a reduction and graduation of tho
price of that portion of the public land which has
been offered at public sale, and remains unsold, and
also sundry Resolutions of the House, instructing
them to inquire into the expediency of such a mea
sure, have had the same under consideration, and
beg leave to report."
After arguing at some length in favor of tha
claim of the States to the territory lying in them,
as the consequence of their sovereignty, the author
of the Report observes :
The Committee do not propose a discussion of
tlie question, whether, in the language of some of
the acts of cession referied to, the new States have
been admitted into the Union with the same rights
of sovereignty, freedom and independence, as the
other States nor whether there is strict propriety
in the declaration to be found in all the acts and
resolutions of Congress for the admission of new
States, that thev are admitted into the Union on
an equal footing- irith the original States, in all
: respects whatever.' It is not now, and we hope it
never mav be, necessary to inquire how tar the
want of eminent domain, the power to dispose of or
tax soil within her limits, is compatible with tha
4 sovereignty of a fetate ; nor to show that tho
original States, from the time of their independence.
and at the date ot the several compacts, had that
right. 1 he new btates having, as a condition pre
cedent to their admission into the Union, disclaim
ed all right and title to the waste and unappropria
ted lands lying within their limits, and also the
right to tax them while owned by the United States,
and for the term of five years after the sale there
of, if not absolutely foreclosed, would doubtless be
reluctant to raise the question."
The plan which the Report proposes, of giving to
the new States all the benefit of those portions of the
National Domain which they respectively include,
will be seen from an examination of the accompany
ing Bill, which it recommends Congress to adopt :
tl Be it enacted by the Senate and Ilovse of Rep
resentatives of the United States of " America, in
Congress assembled, That from and after tlie pas
sage of this Act, all the lands of the United States
which have been ofiered at public sale to the high
est bidder, and have remained unsold fifteen years or
upwards, shall be subject to sale, by private entry,
at the rate of twenty-five cents per acre."
Now, Sir, without going farther with this Bill,
let us see how it will operate, from the showing of
the Report itself. YV ith respect to the length of
time which has elapsed, since the various portions
of the public lands have been surveyed and offered
for sale ; it observes :
" That in Ohio had nearly all been in market 20
years, the greater portion from 25 to 30 years ;
that in Indiana had nearly all been in market from
15 to 120 years ; that in Illinois had nearly all been
in market for fifteen years and upwards ; that in
Missouri, an average of about 12 years; that in
Alabama from 12 to 22 years the average period
may le said to be 15 years; that in Mississippi
from 12 to 20 years; that in Louisiana about 13
years; that in Michigan about 13 years."
Tims it appears from the showing of the Report
itself, that by the adoption even of the first clause
of the bill, that almost the whole of the National
Domain now in market would be sacrificed at a
price barely sullicient to pay the expense of survey
ing it. Take the State of Illinois as an example.
This State is supposed to contain a body of arable
land equal, if not superior, to any other in the world
of similar extent. More than nineteen-twentieths
of its surface is believed to be susceptible of culti
vation. Of the thirty-five millions of acres which
it contains, little more than two millions have been
sold the remainder, being thirty-two millions, it
to be sacrificed at 25 cents per acre, under the ap
jiellation of refuse land.
And why called refuse lands? Because sir,
there is no one to purchase it. Because, we have