, 1. I.
' ! 1 ' 1 , I ! t I II.lt U ) Ull-IK U,
1 i ii u, I t"ju iii an
' I I'm r
1 i - - ti. -nate, I fiar it will be
1 1 . I r ! ii.n j some imptM-nee, fatigued
I aa It tti'iat be f it Mijf ill- UiloM to
. ft f . f f.l.r t !-!.!( kli.a -1 -
l r ,')r aa ik,U, citeit!jr nli justice to
1 ',. . axlo I support, ' ,
, The J -mt.n'i ; cet !i was m in J auItifaritiua,ron.
nv n.g if many j arta, lii Ii had lull uf no connexion
With Uo question nndef ccMxleritkiA, J if the sake
of Ixmll and distinctness, I awviawv to consider it no
ser tuof trad.' Vst,kiprrlinipary discourse, ah Kb
. treat el larga of credit awl kinks, with vtry little
retVrenc 14 lb subject , A'eat, hm srfmneiit cm l
quest tt kaMitj 1 and that to I followed by In rli
toiRT ar'40imnal Dim nJ tli. ntrt viun; ni
IImII hiaeonclumofi, which apprrtpriatid ki'y
taporajal rttnarka, titd I Mnpaiinii briarrm hxatwt
rnjr ubli aotira, witluKit fctunj U fliphtraf rpatin
litWt t th autjc( or any Oimi 1 h6 aaui in dm do
( Ular, bat which lh Munttiar oknmj ounaxtrrrd a tli
inuat tmportaol aurUoa of hi aprth. Id".i('xi one
- - 4y alaoa4 wholl to it, inaj rirrrl lumatlf witli au
afiMMtneaa anal fehamMiM-a which rlrtrluiaiiifinifd
(ha (mprjrtsnca which baha4atU;hNl lo it. I aUll.aa
in tfutf hound, af mf rntcta fir at to that, wlncli
maailakid occupied tb hiliwt ptaca in hi Mimtlnn,
thaafh aiaadiBf al tha wrfUmi ia Uiaonlrr M bia rrmarlia
Tt Stnator apaftad Una irUi (A bit tpwr.h 'itli
10 ucb citrtajr, acowipanicd by manjr remarai ul n
apact af trrd, Uh I Mdrratuod to ba aa iiituiia.
nittxtt lit M daairad lb attack bn wu ibuit to malm
to ba attributed to txilUical, al cU porwmal iiKitit.
Lltffpt I ha l-ilimaUrti, and ahall mort him in tii afime
I intondad. Indrad, tltm Bt'vcp- ha a brrn. hrtuapn
tha rtenalnf and tnyaelf, tha t peronat itilH-rfiir.,
nor haa word himf a pTaonal Urtrm, ri r pa )
btKareca aa ia aafaat. pfif to II praarnt ncraaioti,
, wUhia tjr raopUactaian, during tha tonf prri lnvr
baaa ia publieifr.ticrtpaih'diauaambfilir Krcc
Bill and I'ractamatMin, which, coowlrrin; how oIuti
wa hata Mad oppnawd na dM-D anj cxeiung qiiotin',
ua V rfurded aa nut a littla reniarkiM. Itit our
political ralatinna hava not butn on aa gnnl a frvtine ai
imr par mini Ma aama to think t!ai wa had Urnuk
luicd not baJljr till 11, whoa, arcurding to la rr.
awa, 1 bacana loo arctiunat lor htm to act any lunger
Will ni but which I alia ll hrrealtrr aliow oriiinttd
ia very diffbrant eaoait! ' My impraaion, I nnut inv.
ia different, tary diffarant fiom that of tho Hxnttia'ii
Fran Ua eocnmewctmnnt of anr rxiUic lifa l thn pri
aant time, wa haa diflVrrd on alnmat all n,uairtiotu in
voltrinf tha pfiwlplea of Government and il inan'iii
fxJicy, with tha racptioa nf a ahort intral, while I
waa ia tha War Ik partmnnt, wheo the Kcnator 3;n ri
with lha taith on, the prntcetira ayairm and aoTiotluT
tnaaanraa. I da avrt conafh'f oat final eonrirrt, ilitnn
(ha laat few jearagf Ilia lata Admuiiatratiun, n w
war both oppoaad to the fjriilie power, aa rota4iiii.
iaf an a iteptioa. It waa undrtatond that we Uitli
Wed ta our prioctplea and viewa of pnl'cy w ithout n,r
eaai anrramler, tod oof pciaonal relationa were fomul
and cold, during tha whole pril. In fact, wa innved
la eniWy iifffnl aplMva. Wa difTjrrd In frhtkw
a Ua argria, and character of tha Gcrurnuieut. tim
princtplea oa which it reMcd, and the policy it miU
purwia and I could rxit at all aympatiaa with the grave
" lad deep Uma with which the HenaU nronouoci 'I mir
filial arperation, U ha waa plraaod to call it, aod which,
ja my apiaioo, would hav bren much tuoro appropriate
. a tha ajppatauon of tboan who had been lotij; a nit inn
bjatolf anitad ia tha aoppurt of the aaine prmctplca ajd
policy, tbaa to lha alight and eaiual reliUia, peraunil
and political, which trad flitted between u.
' Hutt'nff, Uian, aetda all parraonal nwtivea, I may wall
r "ail, waj political griti, what leea d'npnoirrt'iicat 1
jt, which al thia lima anuU induce him to make the
JtUAek ha baa on me, and, I might add, in the manner
Id Which ba maU HfTht Senator himaolf ahall in-
awer tha oueatioa. lie naa ooroidcd the catiae qj in
f riaf, and pointed ta lha aooree ef biadtappi'iftmenL
la told aa that M victory waa within rrach, ami jh co
operation only waa wanted to pruetrata forever thnre in
- power."- Tbaa taw word are a rolume. They lw
."relma H' -Yea, ictory waa within reach," lb" arm out-
atrclqbed, tha hind axpa ruled to aoixo it, and would
not co-operate. Ilunce tho r riif, hence tho keen dia-
aanuHitiiiaBt, and- henae tha-wataraol hiltprncaa that
liava rolled meir uiuowe aauiat nm. nu'i wnai vic
tory I Not aimplr tha (romj out of one parly and tli
coming in f another; not merely the jpulion nf the
Adm'ujiatration, and the induction of the Opposition,
bat a great political revolaiiim, carrying ith i'. the
fundaineotal priactnJea of the Hovernmcul aod.a per.
- , maoenl chanfaof policy. It would have brought in,
Hot only tho tena'otand bia party, bnt their political
creed, aa announced by him n tho discussion on the
" " IVoclaroation and Force bill, with which ho now tautita
tbnae in power a tact to be noted and remembered.
le, the cliampion of thoae meamiroa, ag-mnat whom I
contended foot to fo for ona entire acnion, now carta
tip to me, that ia rsfuein tone-operate with him, I pre
fect the oarty in power, not a email portion of whom,
1 have good" reaaoo lolimn wrw4faw-ly.thoiLj
versa cnrranl or tne mnca rsiuciinny irom inoir own
flnciplra to tha aupport of thoaa incisure, and with
tho Senator and hie principle!. Yea. I repeat, it
would lave brought ir tho Senator and hit conwiirtation
doctrine, which regard thia G-iverument aa1 one prcit
. Rational Republic, with the right to conntrue finally
and conclusively the extent of ita own powers, and to
tnforctf iU Conatru9tioi'al the point of the bayonet ;
doctrinea which, at a blow, aweep away every vestige
' of StaW, Rights, and rcdutca lira State to mere putty
' anddepeodcnteorporatMimi. It would have a lao brought
in hia policy tank, tariff, and all. Kven now, wherj
victory ia atill uncertain, the Senator announce the
"""approach of thK period when he ahall more the rent-w.
al of tba protective ayatem i a'prcciocaconleaaion, that
dropped out in the brat of discussion.
.- Via WxmruNo, Jj) ,f "11 1 huve
mid and dune i that prove my foreaiaht arfil firmiieas,
Wnd trill nnnn the evca of tliou-wiidi", cniv?cially in the
' Mmiih who hire herctotora doubted the correctnesa of
pyeoaraaMi th9Qiim.-r-- ' -
I co-operated, but it would lino huve boon permincnt.
Tb, portioa of tha State Kiptita party, wtm wincn 1
iuauU Juva beea abaorbed ea, aluubcd vjt 1
"W'ayWr'WiJiNtJ'O'wl aia' ia'aaiiito M waajaaft
" the Senator. I Ui oiut wm" i"'", w' .wini
and detnye(?,aud th Senator and Ms narty.atul their
priaciplea and policy, would have been left undisputed
- .naateraof Jho field. nnrcilH and 1"tiu!eJ The
tlrat fruita of lha victory wou.ld hao Vcn the reumon
of the polilii ,n(l mon7 P"'' wedded union n
ter more to ba diaaalved. Va UriiT w.)uld hava tan
- renewed. I may now aeak positively, after tin do
i'Ii rat icitt of the Senator, to be again toilowed by an
overflowing reveoac, proliweand corwmt cxppnditiires.
lieavy aurplu and overwhelming patronage, which
would have cloeed the d.jor to wealth aod distinction to
all Who would refuse to bemj the knee at the shrine of
the combined ''power All thia waa ecn and fully
comprehended by the Sena.or; and hence apim, I re.
eat, bia deep C'ricf, hi keeft diwppxiintmcijV and hts
aiiacki! on ny.Ta; refusing to cpunt-.";
: 1 h,,,f " I"" snoati tint, in itftim.g, I
'ui a a vl i.,itmta ,,n.f cMm honed an J
: " J ). a; J 1 , teulf i a'iaS4
1 j .r imi m ,h It I tn at Inked at once
t . I r f, I U iii rtMf.Sr., . mXmUHnm u
n l, ti.e tfidi ,4 ,Ul I itM-ft wicatitihlcly.
c ii .tif'a i-nut did trfd even atteui4 a d.
AvJ Vif.M-ll II ti.f ill pih l,t Krlitluf's ffief
' piiiiliiwiit, l,al if htarrmj linn ti a reftlti"n
.iej ilifi:ra hwn, In lot rufln norni-nt. b
I 'l !
i ii-ft k miw lt Imi imlMinlod, U f.'ii.til tha Milt aud
rf.iu-d rUr;i nf a amniiiiwH, if fomg over, lJ rd'
b- ti; atimk with a au hlril llu-Ofi,! and ainmn-l lip
nl tu pnwria i.f truciy ami detiafiiiikin, 1 w!i.ch ta
prwed buna. Il to be a gruat mar on the crainn, to
inaka my Kdgrfli id Inttrr, 111 which I aaaignfd my na
ma f rrfu.,ng to rn-prate, rulcubu. I w-a in all
lt.i. Lot lite dtaappmiitad hcipea of una aim had fled
hia gaaa totrnily mi power that bad elud.id hi grp,
and wbaamirbt to wreak live rewtidnent on bun wh
reiitaru 111 pyi in auiemiid pmj in liia liirwla. Ilu
retorts! to rwirule, brcauae it aa tho only weapon
that truth ami juatico left him. Ua wall kwiwe how
much deeper are llm wmiiHla that ihry inflict lhn the
slight punctures that tha pointed, but fc!d rhft 01
rklicula leave behind ; and ha used Um mora barmlaM
weaprm only btaiia be rmild wA ooinoiaml tlm more
deadly, lint ia in my hand. I bramlitb it in hia eyea
Il hi lha only one I need, and I Inland to use il freily
on tins occasion.
After pouring out his waging in aothdnli fol limeti,
hecaiiw I rxiU not C'l-ojierate in placing hnn and bia
party in powur, and prwtratmg my own, the ft-neti
t altaaka imi krata I staled m my rM-fild Mur,
aa I mdrMid him. tint I rallied on en. Jackann
with the vie (putting down the tariff by F.xertitve
influence. I have baiked over that Irtler .with care,
and tan And hn such eprwMa, (Mr. Webster. It
waa uaml at lite extra ermon f was about to add that
I bad ofuw mwd it, and cannot but fe-l aurnrwrd that
the Senator should pnatpiaie the notice of it till thia
fata pertral, if ha tlKjuehl it deac-rvino reply. Why
did he not reply u a tears atm, when I first used it in
debate! Rut tba Kruator a.kcd tlia uimmIioo Uiotiffht
esly. He muni ktmw that the veto i 1 only apult to
Litis on their wiye, ami conld nnl ; mhly be w&
10 rae of eni'tiuir lawa. null ss tlm tariff acts, lie
also ked if (hern m rm-"l h 'p.itting ihiwn the
lafif del ween mvaelf ant i;,e u , vitl Chief Magia-
trat ? I reply bv '.aki -.a In.n a iiUKita. to which, as
JNew Liiir'aoo inan, I'-tui ihJ .ii -L. lie hia avow.
ed hi d lerTnmiti ;, av, a eerti-ni rontinency, which
ha think i neir, I'm ho will the reo"v.sl of the
tariff, I 11k, 1 I hire ennrirt on that point, between
In in and hia iW'iii-, m this attck I Ami finally, lie
aka if I die.nr d niv iiHiUve then? Yea; I am
in the halo' nf (iiiipiimT ll.i in. Iooenlt and cunitaiit
ly atowed tht i wa onq of my leailin(f leasuni in
aiipeortiM' '. Jiirhwi, Iri'ise I expected hf would
n! iii infill -nee 1 n -et a milual, but tlxiroiitfli, re
Jnrt;in nf t.ir lanll. lint would reduce llio ayalem to
Hie revenoe pumt; ami when I saw reason to doubt
wV-lh'-r ho v."uM aecninpliidi wiial I deem an i.-npor
tint, I did n4 wail the event of h'aeWlion.bnl moved
f p-iily an.i t.iiliy in ftvor of State inWpiwitKin, as a
citam renir-dy whn.h would not fad to effect Ilia re-
liociion, in the event he xltouid disappntnt me,
Tho Senator, after despatching my letter, concluded
in aiercli Ly vnlunlerrimr a conirnrison between hia
and my public character, not very flatterin to me, but
l.'jiily emnpliriantarv to himself- He represented me
ss KettK) isl ; in the baint of speak inj constantly of the
unconstitutional ana oppressive npentions or the tarm;
wIim-Ii be thuoit very unpitriotic; of having certain
Finister olijects in view in callmron the South to unite,
and cf marahinf off under the State R-ghts banner;
liii" he paints himself in the moat gloinf anj nti.io
titc colors. There, is, Mr. President, no disputing a!sit
tte ; Mte'i rre the efftcta of adiiTrrencc of orgsnia
tioo and education, that whit ia offensite to one, is of
ten a;retnb!et another. A prording to my conception,
imthmir can he more painful than to pronounce our own
rniae. partienlarly in eontrat with another, evea when
jorceil to do so in aelM fenro ; hot how ewe csn rise
In hi plsee, when neither hia motive nor conduct i
impeached, and when there ia nothing In the miestiort,
or p-evi'iH diiiton, that woold rsjaaibly justif" it,
anil pmroiuice-ap eulogy on himself, which a moih.-at
msn '"ould blmh to pronounce on a Washington or a
Fmuklin It h i face, is to me utterly incnmprol ensihle.
n,it, it the N'Titor, in pronotineine; his p;nrgooa pioee
of aut-i-biogrnphy, had contented hiine!f in simply pro
c'aimm?. in hi deep tone, to fha Senate and lh aa
a?mMe.l ni'iltitnda of apectators, that ho came into
Ctmjrree a tba representative of the American peo
ple : that, it h vn bora f arfj good, it waa fir the
r (wl of the whole people, aod the defence of the Con-
airtition J that he lishilual'v acled aa if actin? in the
eves nf tfia Irsmera of the CoKitution ; tliat it would
be easier to drive these pillars fio n their bases, than to
drive or seduce him from hia lofty purpose; tint he
woold rkrhothiha 10 trcakeo "llib'brotlierly Jotb between ,
tnese Slatev, snd every thinir that they ahould r!"niin
united, beneficially and thorouih!y forever, I wouM
have gaxed in lilenl wonder, without uttering a word
it the evtranrdinary spectacle, and the li'ippy aeir-Je-Itision
in which he seems to exist But when he un
dertook, not only to erect an image to himself, as an
object of oH-sdomtion. but to place slone'side of it a
farred figure of mvslf, with distorted limbs and fea
turii, to licishtej and render Jnorc divine his own im?
age, he-invited, he chsl)enrel, nay, lie compelled me
tn inquire into the bijli qualitica which he arrojrateato
himself, and the truth of the comparison, which he has
drawn between us. If the inquiry should excite some
reroinieeencea not very arceahlo to tlm Senator, or
disturb the happy self-delusion la which he reposes, he
mut hlaino not me, hot hia own self sufficiency and
boasting at nit expense.
Know vouraclf. is an aneien maxim, the wiialom nf
vhieh i Tipyer bpfnmr so fully realtxed. How inrppr-
fer.tly even the talented and inMliffnl know them
anlvea! Our understanding, like our eyes, seems to
be given, not to see our features, but those of others
How diffident we oojiht to Ive of any furors Me opinion
that we my have firmed of ourselVcs ! That one of
the distinguished abilitiea of the Senator, and his ma
ture age, should form an ermnemia an opinion of his
real character, ia indeed truly astonish inp. I do not
deny that he poKsessea many excellent qualitica. My
oljoet ia truth, and I intend neither to exaggerate nor
detrnct. I!ut I must say.lhnt the character which he
attributes to himself k wltolly diwimilar from what
reslly belongs to him. So far from jhnt universal and
ardent rwlrkilism which knowa rteuherlttce nor tier
n, that he aseribee to himself, he ia, above all the dia.
inijuished pnblio men with - whom I am acquainted,
remarkable for a devoted attuchment In the jnterol,
The "InrttltKlnna. itnd tfte1 phPTj' trhere. I'nwideiisp has
cant his lot I do not censure htm for hia local f.tfl-
injs. - The Aathor of our being never intended Ihst
creatures of our limited facuhiea should embrace with
equal intensenese of arTeclion the remote and the near.
Such an organization would lead ua constantly to in-
TermeMe wTffi wTiaTw'eTt
SUtnU, SOU OllClt iw Ull IIIIBU'IICTI, ii-m ihh-wmv.
gxxrL.-jRut theSenator iafar fom being liable to such
aod ttVyndle:, r- wcCTtratrt:rlvici1ia1ibj
fcttichtiient bs itlocs not enibrace all within ita riroi
tl sope. It takes in but a clssa even there power
ful, influenlma.nd intellitrent, but still a class whieh
influences and controls all file setio ", nnd so absorb
his s'eetions a to msfce him overlook hrge portions of
the Union, of rhn:h 1 propoBO to give one or two elr
kinjr ilhtstrjlions. "
I moot ilicn remind tke Senator that there is a viat
extent of our wj'd'-' spread Vntol whieh liea South of
Mascirt Dixon's line, dist.'nzfsl.ed by ita peculiar
soil, e'irwite, siination, tns!itnvioni nnd productions,
whieh I"1 ha never encircled within the warm em
brace of his universal pairiotjsm. Aa bm? aa be baa
been ii public life,- ia has not, lo the bcrt of my knowl
edge, given a sintfle- vote to promote it interest, or
dope aiet to defewj ita riglita. J wiab oot to dp him
; ' ' '" . V
tnj.ja!ir.. if I could ftsr.U'f einfV InnUiire I
iuiJ fit it; tii J rauh'4. in eti ij 117 rye, irt
hm I,U ii tutm, call Ik wind one, Aa iiiullea .d
I erdimt. 1h"rf. as is bis naliMsiii.srcortlini! lnh.nhc-
j annul, it Inn.ao'it that it ia limHerf by iiirU-a eil bounds.
that ejf ttrariy hslfi llw liola t'lii'li t
H t it :ny be aalj Out .hi totil aWm tot all mini-k-tation
1 atlai kinnil In an eit'.iro .t,uA I'll I
"ii v not t be attriboud to tha ami of an anient
11 1 1 ptimmdv I'a ii.lt an I socmity, but of 01 riawm
to eibili.l it. riiiortunately U Dia ianstor, aura an
axcuaa sa atUMKjt t,'in.l ,t.ri. OpjsiriuuitMs are daily
and hourly of!er in. Tlie rrttoa la tba eakel of the
two, and its pii!ir in:crst and irMitutama expusa it
eoniae'y ta injiwtiea and oppteatuun, which iftfd ma
ny and Ana opportauuiaa to iiplay that am ni and
nubia pairiulisM wkicft tna Henalar attnbutea to hun
slf, and wksth aUiitfhU in taking the aula of aa
awilH agsiust tha aei!ae', F.vro now, at thia mo
wnl, there ia aa oponrtuiiity wh eb ona professMtg
such "ardent and mii'daa! attachineut to tha whtdt
country la tha Senator pof.wae would greedily env
brace. A war ia now, ana l-a. In en ttmsin-ally and
fiercely carried 00 in vi4timi if lha Constiliavmn,
againat a lonjr-atandinjand w..lclyii odJ institution
of that section, tliat ia iiidii naable, 11 it only to ita
pruapentt, but toils el'ty and exieU m-e, and ahich
calls inuiily no every patriot lo ra.'e lits vo.ee and arm
10 ita defence. How lm the Senator sc!e.lf Has ha
raiai-d bis nutfily inn In defuiiee of the ailed, or
thunder ud birth hisdenuricattofl sirainst theaaniianlaf.
Tlsasa are aearehiif qnesirane. They te:.t tlia truth of
bis universal and Uivtad attachment to the whole
couutry ; and ia o'W tliat Ilia Sana I may eomparr
hia acts with his vti ikis, I tioxe to present mora
fully tha faets of t:ie rawi am! bia course.
It ia well known, then, that the sit t ion torn Inch I re
fir, ia inhabited by two rscea, from diflerenl continents,
and deci-nd"d from different stock; ami that they
have existed togeilwr a rider the rrsent rvlatam Iroin
the firrt settln.ient id the eountry It is wvll known
that the ancealors of tho Senator'a constituents (I in
clude the section.) brought no small portion of the an-1
Cealora tA the Africa, or infeiiur race, from their na-1
live liouie across (Imi 4-s-can, and a;ld Uictn at i'svi to
the anrestors of our aonatituents, and pocketed the
price, arul profited crrst;y by the traflic It i also
known, that wii-n thi ( oiutitulion wa firmed our
section fell much jeshmsy lest the powers whieh it
conferred should lm used lu interfere with tho relations
existing btiwero tha two races; to allay ! ich, and
induce our aucestora to eottr the I J 11100, guanls, tliat
were deemed effectual against tha wippraied danger,
were inserted in tho instrument. It 1 also known
that the product of tho labor of the inferior race has
furnished the baaiv of our wiji'lr-exti ii led rHiimerre
and ample revenue, whi:h baa str.pored Hie (inveru
mem and difluM-d wcaiiii and proturrrv Ibronli the
other section. This is o;in side A the ,Mtt'ire. Ixt
is now turn and look at the other.
How baa the o'her section acted f I iiu.hi'V not all,
nor a majority. We have had recent pri'',ourinj the
discussion of i resolutions I oilrrvd at th cnni.1t ucc
inent of the sea ion, to what great ixtout juet snd )
notic foclmgs exist in that quarter, in ffrrciin to Hie
subject under consideration. I then ns-row the c, ies-
tion, and ask, how Ua the majority of tha Senator'a
conatitnenta acted, and especially a iarze portion of
polilical supporters and admirerat Have they lesa
ed the title to our property, which we trace back to
I heir ancestors, and which, in good faith and eqmtr
carries with it an implied warranty, that binds llf-m to
defend and protect our rghta to tue property sold us'
Have they regarded their faith plighted to us on enter
njr into the constitutional compact which formed the
Union, to abstain from inlerfurtna with our property,
ami 10 ceitiM ana protect us 10 na quiet enjoyment :
Have they acted aa those ought wbe have participated
la-java a . .
ao largely in the profita derived from our labor ! No ;
Uiey are atriving, mgbt and day, in violation of justice,
plighted faith, and the Constitution, to divest na of our
property to reduce ua to tha levari of those whom they
sold to oa aa slaves, and to overthrow an instilutioo 00
which oar safety depends.
I com nearer home. How baa the Senab himself.
acted t He who ha rich influence and weiirht with
hia constituents, and who boasts of hia universal path-
otiam and brotherly love and a flection lor Hie whole
Unmn 7 ilaa ha rawed hie voice to denounce this cry
ing injustice, or hi arm to arrest the blow of the assail
ant, which threatene to dissever the Union, and forever
alienate one half of tho community from the other?
Ilaa he uttered word ia condemnation of violated
faith, or honor trampled in iho dust! No; he baa
quietly ia hia place, Wlthooi asoving a finger or raising
ura rwcB, " unvui raiaiui; urn Tuitc, uiu 1 aaw : 1
mistake. His voire haa boen raised, not for us, but our
assailants. H i urm I111 been rtiacd, not to arrest the
arjreaor, but lo open tha ijoora of thia chamber, 10 or.
der to rive our assailant sn entrance here, where they
may aim the mot deadly biow against the aafety of the
UtMou. and our tranquillity 'arwf accurllv." He ha
thrnw.rthe rosiitle, notlif proleclToh over tlie Coosti.
tution, but over tho motive au. I cha racter of those whose
Hwiy avs a:ion ia to destroy every vestige of brotherly
love iiciivecn-Xlieee iJtaiea. and to cimifrt tho Union
into a curse, iu.tead of a ble.-wini:. He haa done more.
The 'hol Senate haa seen bm retiio from Ins seat, to
avoid a toto on one of the resolutions that I moved,
with a view to rally. tlie patriotic of every portion of
the community a a mat thw tell soint, which threaten
to dwlvethe Union, and torn the brotherly love ar.d
af.ur.tion m wii.i h it orig;nU?d into deadly hate, which
waa so obviously true he couiJ not vote against, but
which he dodged, rather than throw hia weight on our
side, and agauiMt our iaiianls. And yet, while these
thing are freali in our recolleciion, notorious, and
known to all, tlio Senator rises in hi place, and pro
claim aloud that he cornea in as the representative of
the united Slate : that, if he wa bora Sir any rood,
it waa tor the good of the whole people, and defence of
tho. I onstilution ; that he alwaya acta aa it under the
eyea of the Iraioers of the Constitution; that it would
be if ier to driye these pillar from their base, than
him from his lofty purpose; that he will do nothing to
destroy the brotherly love between these Slates, and
ryery thing, that the Union may exist forever, benefi
cially and thoroughly fur all ! What a contrast be
tween profession and performance! What strange and
Dot this la not the only instance. There is another
in whic.ii the contrast between the course of the Sena
tor and hia lotty prcti nsitn of unbounded and ardent
patriotism ia uot tata astonishing. J refer to tlie. pro
(ective t4tfTi. and bin mciiroMblo and inconsistent
course in relation to it.
Its history may be told in a few word. It rose sub
sequent to the hue war with Great Britain. The Scr.a
tor' associate in thia attack was its reading supporter
and author. It theory rested 00 the principle, tint all
article which could be made in our country ahould be
protected, and it waa an axiom of tha sratem tliat ila
perfection consisted in prohibiting the introduction of
all ench article from ahroad. 1 o give the rent net ions
on commerce necessary to effect ita object a plausible
home industry, and the syatrnnTit
nosing mme 01 ue..AmrTug9j
- f 1 - a : o r. tr .
tie imwed on their foreign eichangee left scarcely
coouirh to the planter 16 futd and clothe hia chives, and
p -1 a 1 "i a. a . t . .
euueato ft i till wren, wnue weniui ann prosperity
blooniod around lha favored portion of tho Uaion;
The Sfnator waa at first opposed to tho system. Aa.
far back aa the autumn of lSt be delivered a apeech
to the citizens nf llost.in, ia Fstieuil JIall. m opposition
to it, ia which he questioned ita constitutionality, and
denounced ita inequality and oppression.
. Hia speech waa followed by a aerie nf resolutions
embodying tlie substance of what ho had raid, and
which received tha sanction of himself and eoostito-
entit, who, al tW time, were leas interested in manu-
raciurea man comnierrq.na uanaiion, wincn ni-
fered in cwnnvn with th great staple interests of tho
fSoulh. I ask Ipe SetjraUry to read tbe resolution;
m - . 1 J : 1 1 . r'
...V. TI..I nn i.1.. 1 li hi c.i !.t tier fo W) UJ-'
H., .... ,t !, hiii! siVrttmned and im
1 T '"' - - I ' ' r
t.mrA 1.1 llm nun. M fiiiii revenue, nrrrt.' 1.
lha siippoit of ttcrnioviiti kul li.al t nn.d wi
the p-.,ple fr lb aolg benefit of any c!- of in- n, ar
rquxlly incoeutrnt with llm principlea of pgr l ot)ti-
lulioti, ami with aouna jijuwim
ll..JJ. Tnal the aiimioitiin that onld tlie sup
ward tariff, or .nn aimilar rwaxire, be adopted, e
ar and shall b dependuot on f awigiicrs fof the mean
i4 snUiatenc aiwi or n-nca, v, in our op in Km, ii"-i
er fallaraiu and fanciful, and diMgaUa- to Hi ilr
a iir ul Ik nation. . 1
IUJrtd Tlil Inch Umnlie on aiH domestic
manufactura aa ar principally benefite by in tarui,
fiitiMT ami capitalist ratiiur than uvrwinal industry, or
Uw osnera of small capital. I and I berth that w do
aot perceiva its tendenty to promote national muuiHry,
-Kr-JtrJ, Tint wa ar quaily Incapabla of di.
covering 0 beneficial effect 011 agriculture, amea Ilia
obvixai cmsequcoca of n adofdioa would be, that the
farmer mturt gito mora liun he now doe for ill he
Lira, and iec ive leas for all be c!bk .
ibtoletJ. That, in our opinion, tho propiaed tariff
aid Uie principle on abich it i avpwedly flirmed,
would, if adopUid, hive a tendency, however different
may be the motive ol those who recommend them, to
diminish the indmfrj, impede tit prosperity, ami cor
rant tke murals of the I'eoole."
What can b mora explicit or deei-h-d 1 IVy bold
the very sentiments and language which I hav an of
ten held on tin flair. Tlsit very ayatem wa then
pnaiouiu-ed to b unconstituticnal, unequal, otprsaive,
and cormutinff ia i'a a2ect. by the Senator and bu
Const ilm-ats, wr pronruncinit which now he accuse
ma aa being seetiooal, and holding language listing a
miwhievoua rwet on tlie risinp generation.
Four veara after this, in April, ifii, the Senator de
livered anotlMr speecH against tha system, in reply to
the Ilicn Speaker, and now Ins aa-oc ata on ini occa
sion. in which he arain denounced the inequality and
opprtnaioii of the system with equal fore in ona of
the ablest argument ever dchterod on w miiijeci.anu
in which ho annpletcly demolished the rea-aia of his
then oprsmaiit Hut an event was then ft approach-
ink- which was destined lo work a nuL'hty an l aunueii
revolution in Ina views and feelings. A fe inonlhi.
alter, lha IVeiilential election look place; Mr. .dnns
was elected by the co-operalion of the aotlsir ot tlie
American system, snd tho now assuctatc of the Sena
tor. Those who had been rneiniea cime together.
New political combination were firmed, and the re
sult was a close alliance between the Kaat and West,
of which that system formed tlie basis. A new light
hii'tt in on the Senstor. A sudden thought struck
hnn; bjt not quite as disinterested aa that of tlie Ger
man sentimentalist. He made a complete summer-set-,
lnls over head; went clear over; deecrtcd thn free
trade tide in a twiakling; and joined the restrictive
policy, and then cried oul that ho could no longer act
with me, whom he hail left standing where h had just
stood, because I waa too sectional! At once every
thiiit; ll: e Senator had ever aaid'or done was forgot I on;
entirely expunged from tbo tablet of hia memory.
His whole nature waa chanced in ao instant, and there
alter no measure of protection wa too strong for his
palste. With a few contortion and alight choking, he
hisitven eulphod down, a few yeara after, the bill of abu-
ct'Tnunatioo tlie tariff of "24; a measure which
measure wincn raisen
iho duties so Inifli at to pass one-half of the aggregate
amount io value of the whole imports into the public
I reasury. I desire it to be noted and remembered that,
nut of an importation of aixty-tour million of dollars,
inclndin; every description of imports, the fix") and du
tied rticles, the (fovernmcnt look for its share thirty
two millions under the tariff of l'&S, and that tbe
benator, yea, he. the defender of the Constitution and
equal protector of every section snd interest, voted for
that measure, notwithstanding his recent denuncwtion
of the system aa unconstitutional, unequal, and oppres
sive I It ut ha did mora, and thinge still oor surpri
sing, a the sequel will show.
The protective taiiff did oot c',ianpe the diameter of
it opera lion with the chancre of the Senator. Itsoppres-
iv and corruptiiig offoct grew with il growth, till tha
burden became intolerable under the tariff orvs. deso
lation spread itself over tha entire ataplo region.
Their commercial citiea were deaened. Charleston
parted with its last aliin, tnd graoa grew in her once
busy atrecte. 1 he political condition or the country
presented a prospect not loss dreary. A deep and
gmwinir conflict between the two great aoctione af ita
led the whole country, and a vat revenue, beyond its
most cxtravagaut want, gave the Government, eajie
cially the Executive branch, boundless patronage and
power, which were rapidly changing the character of
me uoaNHomeat, and spreading corruption fjr and wide
through every condition e4 society. Something most
be done and that promptly. Every hope of reforma
tion, or change through thieUovernment bad viniahed.
The absorbing force of tho syitcm had drawn into ita
support a foxed majority in the cominunity,"which cow
trolled irresistibly overy department of the Govern
ment. Itut one hope waa left short of revolution, and
that waa in the Slates themselves, in their sovereign
capacity aa parlies lo the constitutional compact. For
tunately for the country and our institutions, one of the
member of the Union waa found bold enough to inter
pose her sovereign authority, and declare the protec
tive tariff, (hat had caused all this mischief; snd
threatened ao much more, to be unconstitutional, and,
therefore, null and void, and of no effect within her
limits; and thus an hHUO waa formed which brought
events to a crisis.
InrquuHly n fAe t'tnunciul lyttrm of tht Frirrul
Government. hr. Thompson, member ot the House
of Represent livca from South Carolina, in bia speech
of May tbe i lth fays :
"J called, some time since, for a report allowing the
receipt and expenditures in each ot the States. The
Secretary haa not retrpond4d to the call, and I must,
therefore, take the report of 163-1, the last that h.is boen
made. In thai, the amounta received and expended, in
the several Stales, were as follow, iu round numbers:
The lour New England Slates receive more than a
million mors thao 1 collected. The -three Southern
State collect one million seven hundred thousand more
We find in the list Southern Citizen "a well writ
ten, and very sensible editorial article on the (aternal
. - . -r. j..
frxt it-r m
" muUum in purvo.
Irt us now for once, to a man, rouse up into action
It we wool 1 make our country what wa wish ii i
be, and what we are In duty and in interest boutd to
make it, many thing are to bo kept in iiw: Firtt
the literary resource of the country Want to he'Siiwi!
ly turned toward the substantial support of common
schools ; Secondly, Alachanism for the manufacture of
raw material in this country, wants every practicable
meane of encouragement; Thirdly, our rivers and
creeke and common road aland crcallv in need of im.
provement, and the necessary rail road re to be built.
This can only bo done by bard knocks, and a imnd
ny of inem. Ana lastly, we necessity of inrtitutilig by
every possible and laudible means, a direct foreign trade
from our own Southern porta to foreign nation, that
. r .t . 1 . , . . . - . ,
I. U teUtJ fl' t..fi f i4 r,tU,
d.adaii'ii,i'oiuot.qm'nrrj U rpoin tierra,tif
Ibroojli t ii N - bein CitWi. ' '
MOItAL l)i:r,IUMKNT. 1
" C.'il.VHtlKNCK."" -f
, Of all lit honor human U mga ran fi-e, tt,,
porhap are rm lo those of a guiliy aunanence
II emlHilcrt every romfurt, il tUaho every pv(
aura with wu row, it All lha mind with deair,ii
produce wrelrheJiK-a ia ha grratM dejrr
" To liva umler audi disquietude," taj TUir, m
already lo undergo ona of live niol aevera puni.h.
meriia wlikh linmao nature can aufkir. Wbra th
world thrcatena u with any of ii cnla, wa know
lha extenl and diarern lha limit of lha danger...
Wa 'eea lha miarter 00 whicd wa ara exposed to
ila attack. Wa tnoaaura our own atrengtk, wuh
thai of our adversary, am) can fskt precautiona
either for making rcifaiire, nr for eonf wins ea.
rape. Hut when an awakened eonacionce pUce
bcfira lha inir'ir lha juet yengeanca of IU AL
mighty, lha prospect la, confounding, brcaua tk.
danger I bound leas. II U dark unknown which.
Ihreatena hnn. I ho arm thai ia efreteheJ ovif
him he enn neither ea nor raaist. No wonder
that the lonesome aotunde. or the miduiglil bowr.
iiwiij sariH nun wim nnrror,
MAXIMS AND THOLGHTH. ' -
lie is a rich man who hulk ilvd for Li frieud.
Tell me what comjNiny you keep, ami I will tela
you what you are.
Ho that i going to ipeak iU of another, let biro,
consider himself, aitd be wil hold hi peace.
Siking without thinking ia ahooting without
The first degree nf filly ia la think oim'$ self
wise 1 tbo next, to tell otliore o ; tho third, lo aV
jilie all counsel.
Forgive every man' Code eacepl youi awrx.
There are a groat many aivea wilhwl lmg tart
Fence with Heaven i tbe Lett friendship.
Virtue and imlustry, are thn best pntrimooy f
children to inherit.
Voisj Ik Silk Cult.ritt.
I'KODLCI IVE POWER OF JAND.
Few fur mors, in thia country, ara a ware 0 ilia
immense productive power of land perlectly culti
vated. Tba notion that large farm are? indiioen.
sable to largo agricultural operation alwaya pre
vail in new countries where land ai cheap and
cultivation imK'rl'uct ; but aa a country progroea
10 mHr '""J iuihh auiaiK in prico, 11 is OlSCOVtrafl
that tbe product and profit of a farm depend more
upon ita cultivation, than tho number of acre tt
contains. At tho first seitleiuont of thia cvmw
try, by civilized men, it waa a wilderneaa.and Uuda
were nirchaed of iho natives, for articles of cloth
ing ami ornament of trifling value. Thii ioduca!
our ancetor to make themaelvea proprietors of
large tract nf wild laud without reference to their
ability to cultivate tliem. Tbo consequent waa
a low standard of husbandry. Bui aa these extra-'
aive tracta were afterward divided and subdivided,
aa the increase of population aod lha exigences of
familiee required, it began to rio ami buabcvnt
lowly nrogrtasing until it ha arrived ta it pre. .
ent atate, but which ia aery fur below what it wu '
in tho ul! world long before the chriatiua era.
Il is supposed that agriculture b ia never been '
in a mora flouriahing condition and cultivation car-
ried nearer perfection, than it waa in ancient Eome"
five hundred years before Chriafs Tba princijiaj
assignable rcaaon for tba agricultural proepenly
of Rome, was tho aize of farms which wer cir.
cumscriord within rery narrow limit. The frm
of Manlius Curiu Dent alua, one of tha greatest Ro-
man farmers, conaiated of but four and a half Eng.'.
lish acre. Ho wai tbrea limoa chosen coniil, jha
highest ordinary office in tha State, and fori limd
roinmnndcr-in-cbicf of the Roman army and yetbe
splendid victory over Pyrrbua, he was oflerod more
land by tho government but ha declined it, as
signing n a reason, that ahould be- ever moire 10
moro wealfh and possessions than be alrewdyIid,"7
noanouui uocome an ambitious, and consequently,
a dangeroua man to tho liberties of his countrymen.
Thnl fatnoua Roman fanner C'inciimntus, about
whom, so much ia snid of bia being called from the'
plough to f ho command of the' Roman army, bad
only two and a quarter acre of land. (Ii origin
al farm contained seven jugem, about four and t
hall acres, one-hnlfof which he had been com oe I led
to dinpose of to raise money lo pay (lie dubii of an
improvident son. -
Bui nothing will be'tler illpatrafe the importance of
perfect cultivation, and tho-astonishini ohiductive
ower of land under it, than tbo atory of Fundus,"
the Romnn vine dresser. lie bud a vineyard and
two daughters. At the marriage of I he rldcrt. ba
allotted ber nne-tliird of the vineyard as her por
tion, ond na nHloiiishing aa il may axrn. aurcceded
in making tho fame crop from two third,, which,
L- L JT C I 1 r. .....'
no nan lormeriv mane rom the who e. At ins
marriage of the other daughter, ho appointed" to
to her onrt-hnlf flit' remainder, and yet but crop
waa undiinininlicd. ' ,
Wo are not among the niinilier whn U-lieveil
nccessnry for young agriculturists, lo penefrale the
western wilderness for tho .purpose .of obtaining
subsistence or accumulating wealth we arc not of
the opinion of thd farmer mhrv mmnvpi nm buo
dred mihja from This neighbors to avoid lieing an-
m by them, nndhrhpn wifl ftrineTrTtocaled htm1-
self within filly mileaTof bim, conaiderfd it i
suit, and said he did not lhnnc liim for- sticking
down-rlglit under hi nose, " Nei'lhcr do we brlievt
flint w ar, pe8iilence, famitw, .iutempcrancc, 'mi
crime Vre necessary, as checks upoh the iocrra"
of population nnd preventives of a redundanfT
arts, rural econemy may be carried to such an c
fenf, tbat iven New, Knglnml might sustain, i
comparative eorhfort and aflluonce.'inore than fiif
ty limes ita present tviulalih. " 1 " " '
That we have -not overated Iho nroductivo K'
er of land, perfectly culti vated, is evident from tin
fact, that Iheie are large jrovi'ncca in India, where
a population of frcWToWtolix hundred inhabitant
lo the square mile, are supported ty ogriculiuiW
There ia also an island on the eastern co"
China, containing one- thousand equare- miles, j
a populution ttf 4Q0.0O0. '; Agriculture, and hnrtf
culture ate the exclusive pursuits of (be inhabita"11
and their crops are limited to: rice, cotton. tnilWi
Nnd culinary vegetables. '
- - . - ' -...