VOL IX. THIRD SERIES
SALISBURY. H. C, JUNE 27, 1878.
Mate Convention Young Men's Christian
Ou Thursday evening at 8.30, P. M., the
Delegates of the Y. M. C. A. to the State
wi N. C, assembled lnjhe large, veil ,
-d and tastefully decorated Hall of
ti e Y"M. C. A. of Greensboro.
-The' devotional exercises were conduct- .
ttl by Kev. S. 1 J. Adams of the Methodist
' 'See KWckf Greensboro, wel-
mr.t the delegates to the hospitalities of
th citv in a truly happy and pleasant
His remarks were iun 01 waiui,
cordial, and kinury ieeimg, fiHauiui s o
7 tfity did from his large, generous, chris
tian .heart. '
J Henry Fonst, Esq., Chairman of the
State Executive Committee, respouded in
an earnest and brilliant address.
June 14.-The State Convention 1 M
C A met in Dr Bcnbow's large and eon
njodious hall; 13 associations and 33 del-
- elates present. Opened with devotional
excises conducted by Prof. W C Doub,
A committee appointe d to select pcr
! manent otlicers for the Convention. Leave
omitted to retire. .
( oinmittee reported the following for
permanent officers for this convention for
: one. vear :
' President, J. II. Foiift, of Charlotte.
Vice Pres., W. C. Doub, Greensboro.
" " John A. Kamsay, Salisbury.
Sec, James II. Southgate, Chapel Hill.
,Wt. Sec, J. H. K. Hundy,
Five miuutes report s-from Associations
wereuext in order and were very jnter-
Frjtlay Afternoon. Devotional hxer
rises". Order -of business. Judge It 1
" Dick opened the discussion with an ele
gant and interesting address Subject,.
" "The Dible in Association Work.''
Friday Night. Devotional exercises,
(hucr of "business. Kev P J Caraway, of
'Winston opened the discussion. Subject,
M'ouug Men's Christian Association and
itsrehition to the Churches.''-
Saturday Morning. Devotional exer
cises, conducted by.K P Troy, Esq.
nr sin ess.
Lllowinz Committee oh State
gauization was appointed : G 1J Hanua,
John Armstrong, F H Lcntz, I) V C Hen
bow, W II Hill and W P Ware. Com
mittee alhrwed to retire. af
J Henry Foust, then opened the discus
sion subject, "Our State WirV' in au
able. and effective manner. In 1iU ad
dress he showed what valuable work had
been done, land drew a grand and brilliant
picture" "of the future, : A . M McPctcrs,
Esq, f Haleigli, foNowed-in a truly inter
esting and toiietiing addres ou .Associa
tion work in our prisons and penitentia
ries. Saturday Afternoon. Devotional exer
cises, conducted by lie v I J. Caraway.
Order of business; five minutes, lie
ports of Associations.
Committee on State organization re- !
'"potted and announced an Executive Com
mittee for the next year. J. Henry Foust, 1
Esq, T M Pitman, Eq, of Charlotte, Capt
John A Ham'say, of Salisbury, - More-
head, Exj, of Greensboro, John Armstrong
and ; - of llaleigh. 1
Exception having Iteeu taken to a num-
kr of articles in the Constitution, the '
were added to the
t'onnnit'tee and given leave to retire:
Itev J Henry Smythe, Rev J B Harrett,
Hon J J Hickman and J Henry Foust.
T M Pitman, Esq, opened the discus
sion; subject : "Our Prayer Meetiugs, how
can we make them more interesting.
Committee on State organizations re
H)ited, and the constitution was taken up
article after article and uuanimously
Saturday Nigh I. Devotional exercises
conducted by Mr T K Cree. Praise, and -
promise meeting. G B Hanna, Esq, open-
I'll liMl wvl'.vil. L!lilvi....f 1 4 I t . ... '
the working talent of our young men.
Jas II Southgate, EsiT subject : "How
, to reach our young men in schools aiid
F II Lent 13-, Esq, subject, "How to
leach the unconverted.'
The discussion of this last subject closed
, the business of the Convention, and the I
leep interest and close attention shown
by both delegates and visitors to the va
rious subjects discussed give a reasonable
hope" that much good was done. That
, good seed was sown, upon good ground
and that it w ould bring forth some thirty,
some sixty, and some an hundred fold.
An open air service was held Friday,
Saturday and Sunday evenings at oj
o'clock, T M, which weref attended by
large numbers; and close attention and
deep. interest -was manifested by all to the
Greensboro is a beautiful city and in its
hospitable homes dwells a generous, kind,
stnd Christian ieople, and the memory of
the Greensboro V M (' A State (mven--tiou
will he an oasis in the life of each
delegate at that Convention.
Where all did so well it would seem
uujust to mention any one, but I deem it
sinipre justico to say that much praise is
'due Miss Mciidcuhall for her j promptness
in attendance, (never absent.) She sang
several solos with a purity of 'expression,
sweetness of tone and brilliant execution
that is very rare, and that added much to
the pleasure of the meetings. Mr. Moor
abo presided at the organ in an able aud
effective manner; and to Dr I) W C Ben
bow we are all under 'many obligations
fur.the-usc of his large 4ind well furnished
nail, and for his mauy -personal atten
tions to members and visitors to the meet
ings of the Convention.
RESOLUTIONS OF RESPECT.'
iPifrra, we, the members of Win
Davie .Lodge, F. Si A. M. have in the
jinite Wisdom of God, the great architect
of the universe, Won deprived by death
f our esteemed and venerable brother,
George Riley, P. M., and a charter mem -berof
this lodge, organized filth Decem
ber, 1843, and its first S. W., deem it fit
and proper to give some faint expression
to the emotions with which we are touch -1
by this sad event, as.well as to express
our appreciation of the many virtues of
our deceased brother; therefore,
l Jlesolred, I. That wo as a fraternity
contemplate with feeling of profoiindor-
row the death of ur brother, George
Kiley, P. M.f a most worthy and esteemed
member of this lodge.
i:goived, 2. That we bow with humble
to this dispensatian of the
r.4 . ri, :
great architect of the universe,
EcsolrcdfZ. That iu the death of our
brother, George Riley, P. M., this lodge
as logt ft brotLer a friend and a Mason
who reflected credit and honor alike upr
on this lodge, as well as upon the ancient
and honorable fraternity, generally, of
which he was a most worth member
, , h L t th member and,
Ilesolrcd, 4. That as a citizen he was
' manly and patriotic ; as a friend, forever
true aud faithful ; as a Mason, true and
loyal, attached to its time honored prin
ciple and, rennets; kiudand considerate
among, and deservedly popular inliisitP
tercourse with his bretliren ; and 8 a
Christian without reproach, and as a man,
he discharged his duty iu all the, relations
of life with credit to his country, honor
to his race, and with christian humility
to his God; and as such, we express the
ardent hope that his name aud virtues
may long be cherished as an example
worthy of imitation among men and
'i Hesolfed, 5. That as a further testimony
of our esteem and regard for our deceased
brother we wear the usual badge of
mourning for thirty days.
Hcsolved, 0. That -the above preamble
ami resolutions be spread upon the books
of the secretary of this lodge.
II e sol red, 7. That the secretary furnish
a copy of the above to the Jhtridsdn
h'ecord and to the Salisbury Watchman,
with a request to-publish.
S. W. Rice, )
Hen set Nook,
E. D. Smirsox,
(From the Wllraingtou Star.)
CO M PA 11 AT I V E M 0 IIT A LIT-Y.
There is nothing more worthy of the
philanthropist's attention than the mor
tality statistics of a country. Iu the days of
John Milton the average duration of
'life in England wax' about 2!) years. It is
now, we believe, about 33 years. This
large increase is owing to the. progress in
medicine and a better understanding and
more faithful observance of hygienic
The vital statistics 'of Southern cities,
nnd the comparntivedeaths among tho
races, are attraetiug mom and more at
tention each year.; Wo have several times
drawn attention to the marked and alarm
ing mortality among the colored people
in the towns and cities. They appear to
have a passion to congregate in towns,
aiul the. result is thatthedeath rate among
tlmiii i much hiirlioi- u-n tliinL- fl-n it- in
- Al . 0 .. .- it - '
MvmS t!,ose 1,ve ,n the country and
till the farms. As tar as wo have observ
ed or been able to gather iuformatiou
upon the subject, the death rates are not
much, if any greater, among country dar
keys than they were iu the days of sla
very. But this is not the case iu the
towns. . .
A physician at Nashvile, Tenn., has
recently compiled a table of comparative
mortality iu several Southern cities.
These li mires tell tbo storv nfiin tola
in t.illfnn1Hln mf ,v. f
the colored as compared
with the white
We will give the relative
Memphis, whites 13.(KJ, colored 40.0(.
Chattanooga, whites lrt.(i(, colored 'J!).50.
KnoxvTlle, whites 18.1X), colored J1.(M).
Richmond, whites 17.ijfl, colored 8.13.
District of Columbia, whites H.!, colored
47.(W. Baltimore, whites 10.8Q colored
U.4i. Mobile, whites 12.15, colored 2-1.17.
Selma, whites 1-1.2, colored 13.35. New
Orleans, whi tes 25.4.1, colored 39.K). Char
leston, whites 27.21, colored 4l.t J. Nash
ville, whites 21.82, colored 33.50.
The dejith rate among the negroes, ac
cording to these- statistics, is about 75
per cent, greater tliau among tlio whites.
Some of our exchanges think the death
rate among the negroes in the country
even greater than in the towns ; but, as
we have said, wedouot believe it. It is not
in accordaue with what we have seen and
heard. . Prior to the war, the death rate
among the colored people was but little
in excess of that aiuoug the whites.
.The question of mortality among the
colored people must attract the serious
attention of the South. They are the
best laborers that can be procured for
our section, and any question that affects
them must affect the whites.
The Baltimore (Jazette, upon this very
subject, says :
'Wc think, however, that sufficient at
tentioif is not given to the facts w hich go
to counteract the greater death-rate in tlie
cities. It may be that in the rural dis
tricts where the uegroes loud more heal
thy aud industrious lives, they are gain
ing sufficiently to enable thfiu to staup
the losses in the towus. Ouo fact that
goes to show this is the maguificeut crops
that have been raised in the South by ne
gro labor during the past three years.
The harvests of cotton have been far
greater than the averages during the era
of slavery. This-proves that the work
ing power of the race that sure measure
of vitality and. health so far from de
creasing has increased. And even iu the
crowded cities there seeius to be no uli
lniuution of vital force among them. One
may meet everywhere sturdy and power
ful men and wouion-that compare favor
ably in point of health aud strength with
the whites. The greater death-rate iu
the cities thus appears to be due to dj
rect imprudeuces which, stricke theui
down in the midst of good health ; to
lack of proper medical attention and
nursing in sickness; to hick of precau
tions against the spread of contagions dis
eases, and similar causes, rather than to
a geueral enfeeblement of the race."
We gave the total' vital statistics of
Wilmington some weeks ago. We are
satisfied that the death rate among the
whites here is less than it is iu any of the
above mentioned towns, with the excep
tion of Mobile and Selma, Alabama. We
think it is a little less tlian in Richmond.
But, as we stated before, we are unable
to give the exact number of deaths among
the two races. The total for 1877 was
370. It will be observed that the death
rates at Chattanooga are much smaller
than those previously published.'
"THE SUPREME iCOTJRT TICKET."
On the work of the Convention yester-
I day the public verdict will be "well
The. Supreme Judiciary which the
Democracy of North Carolina yesterday
took the first step toward erecting, is one
which will please the people of the State,
recommend itself to the judgment of the
American people, and challenge the ad
miration of sister States.
For purity of persona!, pro.'esionaljmd
public reputation, the people of North
Carolina were never given the opportuni
ty to record their votes for three gentle
men the superior of Smith, Ashe and Dil
lard. -And in point of learing and ability,
there is not a Judiciary iu any State of
the Union superior to that which the
State will possess after the first day of
It is a comfort to the public mind to
feel that in the Judiciary to be elected in
August, the people will have a court of
last resort in which life, liberty and pro
perty are guaranteed all the protection
which tlie legal safeguards established by
English civilization for the past centuries
of intellectual and religious triumph have
succeeded in establishing and throwing
around society. That in the Judges, be
fore whom the final hearing of all great
causes involving life and death, the liber
ty of the citizen and the estates of the
orphaned and dependent, North Caroli
na has sitting in her highest temple of
Justice men who, human may err, but so
high above suspiciou or reproach, that
public confidence rcjKses itself iu that
nearest approach to hnninn infallibility,
the stern and unflinching integrity of the
highest type of exalted mnhhood ; a man
hood as illustrious as it is unpretentious,
pure aud devoted to all that is good, noble
and patriotic in mankind. Hal. Xvirs.
ANDERSON S CONFESSI ON .
(Intervlew with the FeUclana Supervisor.
piua ltecoru, usta.)
'You left the South rather hurriedly ;
hqw about that? inquired the reporter.
"Well, yes, I did. There was a super
visor Webber, who took 700 Democra
tic majority in his parish aud transferred
the figures over to the other side, and re
turned 500 Republican majority, making
a change of 1,200 votes. One morning he
was was fouud dead, and 1 thought the
climate of the North would agree with
me better, so I moved to Philadelphia,"
I4 What did your sin consist of ?" asked
44I threw out some 2,100 Democratic
votes. There was 1 ,743 Democrtic ma
jority in the parish, and 420 unregistered
voters, whose ballots were entitled to be
counted for the Presidential electoral
ticket, but not to be counted for the State
ticket. The whole vote of the parish 1
had thrown out. So Weblier and 1 be
tween us got rid of 3,300 votos, which sav
ed Lousiaua to Hayes, and nothing else
did it. When I found that Webber was
murdered in cold blood, 1 did not know
wheu my time would come so 1 emigrated,"
replied Mr. Anderson.
It is commouly held that if you touch
the pocket nerve you touch the man.
England had much cause for the interest
she takes in Turkey. If the "Sick Man"
was sold out or his effects were levied ou
by him of the North, England would be
the loser by $450,800,000 due to her sub
jects. The French are also very much
interested, as Turkey owes them $200,-
.000,000. She is also very largely indebt
ed to other countries. Her total debt is
estimated at $1,300,000,000.
Washington correspondent says : It is
asserted positively to-day that the Dem
ocratic members of the committee are in
possession of absolute evidence that Hayes
knew what Anderson and Webber yfere
doing, and all that was going ou. Phil.
Pee Dec Bee : We think Col. Steele's
course in Cougress is the most forcible
argument that can be brought forward in
behalf of his rcnontiuation. He has clear
ly shown his worthiness of a seat iu Con
gress as a true North Carolinian.
President Hayes cannot bo put out of
office without a revolution ; but inside of
such revolution the proofs of fraud are
legitimate electioneering capital for the
Democratic party. AVir 'York Herald.
Rockingham Spirit x It is understood
that the Republicans will make no nomi
nations for Supreme Court Judges,
The Executive Committees of each
Congressional District are as follows :
FIRST DISTRICT. '
Jas E Shepherd, of Beaufort; T R Jer
nigan, of Hertford; Barge Urquhart, of
Uertie: Henry Waliab, of Hyde.
A J Galloway, of Wayne; W J Green,
of Warren: R B Peeblea, of Northampton;
J S Long, of Craven. i
Jas A Worth, of Cumberland: Duncan
J Devane, of New Hanover; C W Mc
Clammey, of Peuder; Col;lI B Short, of
Caleb B Green, of Durham; J S Amis,
of Granville; II A Londouf Jr, of Chatham;
Dr J W Vick, of Selma. r
FIFTH DIS?BICT. ;VT"
George II Gregory, of Guilford; Jim W
Reid, of Rockingham; James lloleman, of
Person; Jas A Graham, of-Alamance.
B C Cobb, of Lincoln; Frank McNeill,
of Robeson; Piatt D Walker, of Mecklen
burg; E R Liles, of Anson.
W H II Cowles, of Wilkes; KerrCraige,
of Rowan; G V Mathews, of Foisythe; T
S Tucker, of Iredell. -
Kope Elias, of Macon, AM Erwin, of
McDowell; B F Logan, of Cleveland;
Rob't M Furman, of Buncombe.
What Dkmockacy Doks. We have
been at some painsto get a few figures re
lative to the tax business in this city as
comparing the piesent Democratic admin
istration with those of previous years. A
comparative statement of taxation tor the
years 1877 and 1S73 shows the valuation
of real estate for 1 877 to have been $3,
832,800 against $2,S74,btW in 1S78. In
1877 the tax levied was 2 per cent, and
the amount $70,057.80, while iu 1378 the
tax is but 1 J per cent, and the amount
$50,3(50.03. The reduction is equal to 25
per cent, in valuation and something over
33J per cent, in the amount to be realized,
all in the favor of the tax payers this year.
In the sr.iue way and in the same ratio
there is a reduction in the personal tax.
The total reduction on real and personal
tax amounts to $23,703.14, and the reduc
tion on merchant's license tax, $0,000,
makes a total reduction of $37,703.14. To
illustrate: In 1877 the tax ou $.1,000
worth of real estate was. $100, and this
year it is but $05.03 a reduction of $31
M7. And there are some other points. We
understand from Mayor Fishblate that
w hen he went into office a few months
since he found a floating debt of $10,000
which has since been reduced to $4,000,
and that all warrants are paid by the
treasurer as presented. Besides this, the
Mayor says that he has asked and will get
but $40,000 this year with which to run
the city machine ; against an average of
$122,000 a year under the Republicans.
Who will say that it dies not pay the
tax -payers to have a Democratic admin
istration ! Yiliniti(jtoii Jiericir.
It is a known fact that nearly every
thing in nature likes music; snakes have
danced to it, mice have come from their
holes aud listened w ith rapt jittention,
aud even bugs aro nut insensible.
'We call the Doodle bugs up any time
we have a mind," said some little girls to
me one day when I wus teaching school
in western Virginia.
"Doodle bugs?" said I. 4'I never heard
of such things."
"Would you like to see them VJ asked
"Most assuredly," I answered.
Then the litte girls led me forth to the
ruins of an old log school-house, roofless
and floorless, and joining hands, they
squatted upon the ground forming a ring,
and began chanting in the most musical
tones they could command :
''Uncle J foodie, L'uele Jhtotlle, Uncle
1 looked 011 in astonishment, for 1 could
see nothing but hard-baked earth. There
seem not a living thing visible rbut the
children kept up their chaut some three
or four minutes, when I noticed the ground
becan to heave in little spots and tiny-
heads peeped out, soon followed by half
or the whole body of a dirt colored bet
tie. When the children stopped singing the
little thiugs scampered back into their
This struck me as very singular. But
then we are constantly meeting with
strange things in bngdom. Ic is like
fairy land if we only became interested.
There are many, many kinds of beetles
called coleopterous insects, because they
have wiug cast s ; that is, they have shells
or cases on their backs, under which they
hold their wings, some kiuds using them
so very seldom that we would uever
know that they hand wings. A great
many live under the ground, aud others
on tlKs trees, Mowers and grain. Indeed,
there is scarce a place where you may
not find them
All of you know that the ugly cater
pillar becomes a butterfly, but some of
you may not know that nearly every worm
you can find, turns out some day to be
a creature with wings.
Almost every cUiM who has lived in
tl;o country ha noticed, and perhaps
been very much amused with the Rill
Chafer, or tumble bng, as we call it here '
in New Jersey. How they seem to be '
playing with marbles right in the mid
dle of the road on hot, dusty days ! How
they push and tumble, and get their
jackets dusty in their efforts! Sometimes
it takes two or three beetles to roll their
ball up an elevation, or over some impe
dement in the way. '
Did you never wonder what , nil such
work meaut, or did you suppose it was
just the way those bugs have of amusiug
themselves f I can-remember when I
thought so myself. But after I became
older I began to wonder where the bugs
got the balls, what they were going to do
with them. I have since found it out.
And it is all very interesting.
" They, make itulU out of the excretion's
of animals, iu which they dejksit an egg,
leaving it.in the sou until it is baked al
most as hard as a marble ; then begins
their work. They toil and struggle until
they get the balls three feet under ground.
Then the little one is left in its spherical
home from early September until the next
spring, as warm and cosy as you please,
growing larger and larger until it bursts
from its shell, a little worm with six legs,
and creeps up to the surface of the ground
or, as some say, they remain in the balls
until they become chrysalids, and come
out beetles or tumble bugs, ready to le
giu tumbling and pushing like their
mothers before them. A. E. C. Ander
son, in April Wide Awake.
WOMEN MAKING LOVE.
Many young women write tons, asking
for instructions as to how they shall win
men for whom they have conceived an af
fection, but who show no responsive feel
ing. A'. 1. 6'mh.
There are foolish people in all parts of j
the world, but the above is so utterly at
variance with any knowledge or observa
tion of ours, that we have no hesitation
in denying for Western North Carolina
women any part in the indelicate folly in
dicated above. Most likely those who
write to the Snn for "instructions," &c,
belong to the Irish servant class of the
city of New York, aud not to the coun
try. News from the 7th congressional dis
trict indicates that Arm field will get the
nomination for Congress overRobbins.
We don't believe the change will benefit
anybody but Armfield. Daridnon Jieeord.
Chief Justice Smith and Col. John II.
Dillard are both member of the Presbyte
A little over half a century ago General
Wm. Henry Harrison, in an agricultural
address delivered in Ohio, recommended
farmers to cultivate the catalpa because
of the great durability of its w ood w hen
used for fence posts, etc. He was led to
give this advice from having found iu au
old French stockade at Vincennes, while
he was Governor of the then Northwest
Territory, pickets of catalpa wood which
were yet perfectly sound, although they
must have existed iu place for more than
a century. Lately this tree has become
an object of a great deal of attention on
the part of arboriculturists, principally 011
account of the testimony of Dr. Warder
and Mr. E. E. Barney and a few others, as
to the value of its timber.
The catalpa (Catalpa hitnonoides), al
though quite extensively cultivated as an
ornamental tree in the Middlo and East
ern States, is a native of the South and
Southwest, having its northern limit in
Southern Illinois and Indiana. This tree
does not acquire a very large size iu the
streets, parks, and suburbs of our North
ern cities, nor in such situations i it often
shapely; but in its native Southern and
Western home it is straight and handsome,
aud often attains a height of fifty feet,
with a trunk diameter of three feet or
more. The foliage consists of large heart
shaped, long petiolcd leaves of a peculiar
shade of green, and having a silky luster.
The blossoms iu great profusion in June,
and is then especially ornamental. The
flowers, disposed in large showy panicles,
are about an inch long, bell-shaped, with
a five lobed, wavy border, anil arc white,
spotted internally with ellow and violet.
The flowers are succeeded by slender, cyl
indrical, dark brown pods, often a foot
long, which hang until spring. 'These pods
are divided lengthwise into two cells,
which are lilled with flat seeds having
cottony wings. When perfectly ripe and
dry, the capsules arc often used as cigars
bv boys (the cottony contents readily burn
ing and producing much smoke), aud are
hence familiarly known as ''smoking
Mr. E. E. Barney, the veteran car bn.il
der of Dayton, Ohio, has recently brought
together all the fact and observations iu
his possession touching the economic val
ue of this tree, and published them in
pamphlet form. From this we learn that
there are two marked varieties of the ca
talpa, one blooming two weeks earlier
than the other. The blossoms of the ear
ly bloomer are larger, more profuse, and
less tinged with purple pods longer aud
finer - the bark dark colored and furrow -
! rambling the bark of elm and locust
1 trees of the same age. The bark of the
late bloomer is laminated.
sm and light colored! Th crly va- and Z:
!S f "T!.rap,d.firow.rt-' nud Kfood, wlment. ami .helterare '
Mnuguier auu xaiier, aud Has been found ;
to endure a winter that killed the other.
Mr. S. H. Biukley has on his farm, sever
al miles from Dayton, a grove of six hun
dred catalpa trees, of the late blooming
variety, planted from seed twelve years
ago. They are now from 25 to 30 feet tall
and from 4 to 8 inches in diameter at the
ground. They would now make twenty
five hundred fence posts. Eighteen years
ago, while repairing a fence, Mr. Binkley,
lacking a few stakes, trimmed up some
catalpa limbs, three or four inches in di
ameter, aud used them for stakes, think
ing they might last one season. A recent
examination of these stakes, which, have
beeu in the ground for eighteen y ears, has
shown them to be perfectly sound. Tlie
valueable qualities of the tree, to sum up
the evidence presented by Mr. Barney,
are: Its easy and rapid growth in almost
any kind of soil, freedom from the attack
of insects, aud the great value of its tim
ber as regards its durability either iu the
earth or exposed to the air. The princi
pal demand for the timber will be fori ait
road ties ; for this purpose wood should be
durable when exposed to the weather, and
neither too soft to resist crushing weight
on the rails nor too hard to hold the spikes
properly. These qualites, Mr. Barney as
serts, are found combind. in the catalpa.
Iu addition to its durability, catalpa pos
sesses qualities that render it one of the
finest of woods for inside finish and cabi
net work, inasmuch as it has a beautiful
tine grain, of a warm yellow color, and is
susceptible of a high polish.
Mr. Barney's pamphlet is published for
the purpose of disseminating knowledge
a to the value of the tree and to promote
ii cultivation. The author estimates that
at present prices a plantation of catalpa
will yield a return of -$25 per acre for
each year of the time during which the
trees occupy the ground. Mr. S. Foster,
a horticulturist of Iowa, thinks tlyit the
common (or late flowering) variety can
not be depended upon north of St. Louis,
while the early bloomer has endured the
severest winters of the Western States
w ithout injury.
Dr. Franklin B. Hough, in his recently
issued "Keport upon Forestry," prepared
under the direction of tho Commissioner
of Agriculture, says that according to re
cent estimates the cost of the fences in the
United States amounts to 1,700,000,000,
and the annual expense of maintenance is
$108,000,000, excluding interest at (J per
cent, on the original cost. We confess to
never having had much faith in the
accuracy of big-figured statistics of this
sort, for the reason in this case that we
fail to see exactly how they are reached.
Perh a j is to take the totals representing
one State would be to convey a better
idea, and these are furnished by the Maine
Board of Agriculture, which fix the total
length of fences in that State at between
127,000 and 131,000 miles. The first cost
is reckoned at 81 per rod, and the interest
on this sum, with repairs, etc., conies to
about u000, KM) per" annum. This ex
cludes the value of the land covered by
the fence itself, which at $30 per acre is
worth $975,! WJ.
With some notions of the large sums in
vested iu fences thus attained, it is not at
all difficult to realize the importance of
the statement quoted by the author, to the
effect that "from one-quarter to one-eighth
of the present fences of the country would
be amply sufficient to keep stock within
limits fwircMllv sin(i it mi'iear
i""P' """"'i ,7 "i i
that we are wasting money through a
wrong appreciation of the use of fences
w hich any one so far as he is personally
concerned, can remedy for himself.
The question is: Arc we to fence to
kee? cattle out of fields where they an
not wanted, or iu fields where they are .'
The geueral rule is to do the first : but
just here, D. Hough says7 we are doing
exactly wrong, and hence by simply
changing our practice the way to economy
is open. It is very much cheaper to fence
the adjacent lots of a large field than it is
to fence each lot separately. Supposing,
for instance, an area of one square mile be
divided into font KJO acre lots. These, if
adjacent, would require 1,020 rods offence.
If separate fences were erected about each
lot, then the length of fence would lw 2,
50') rods. Supposing the number of fields
to be 04. of 10 acres each, if adjacent, 5.75 )
rods of fencing would be needed ; separat"
fences would require 10,240 rols, aad here
there would be a saving of seven rods of
fence per acre ; that is at $1 per rod, 7
per acre, or oa the entire urea the neat
sum of $4,3i0. The difference is saved by
,1... ....w. unlxlivision f uies nnsweriir'
MIL DOio - - - -.
for the adjacent fields. ! the outrageous custom originated in Kng-
j land about three hundred year ag', as a
The South as a Field for Manufactures. . means of displaying tb F.nglish '-enat-of-
Iu a speech on the Texas Faeitic Uail- amis." He argues that tiie borse without
way, Senator Lamar lately dwelt at gieat , them w ill endure more hardships and re
length ou the natural advantages o. the 1 quire less fo.nl tiuiu with them: that lie i
South for suscessful manufacturing. Eve-j less liable to Iwcome ..frightened; that
ry condition of soil, climate, and raw ma- j blinders, irritating the eyes, cause tj
tcriid for the development of a great in - , hote in many instance to become btiii-l.
dustriai community are there. The South' 1 that in backing or turning around he w:M
has already begun her industries of the ' step or stumble over things that he would
future, and the profits tint are reili. -d : doubtless avoid, if hi sight was not coo
, . t fi'o-d hv Minders..' One horse ear compa-
from them are, 111 some instances, pro..!- ,,-,Ju..,' , . . ,. . , ' lk
" ' . 1 ; nv t .'lo.-toij ha c, r .n c.t bliudcia tioin
gious. But to develop th-se industries, ,,,.;,. mrM. and it is cUiuied that bUtceu
she must have fice access to the markets i,0:ses without blinder do th" w. k
of the world, aud be able to attract toner- of twenty with b'imlcis. .ruhcnthn. ;
And taxation i . :.... .......... "
uuruensome. In everything except capi
tal, skill, and exieriejicet the manufactu
rers of the South are on ,,n equalitv v it h
those of England, and tha saving iu bal
ing, waste, and transportation gives tho
South great advantages. Nowhere in the
world can cotton be manufactured so
cheaply as on the spot where it is grown,
where water power is so abundant and
unfailing; and every factory set up there
will help 0 develop the 'diversities k
Southern agriculture lTro " cotton crop
List year amounted to 4,700,000 bales f yet
the Southern States have but a small part
of their cotton laud. under cultivation.
Prorjreoit in Hard 77Hf..-N,twithsian.
ding-the times, it is jfbuhtful if the coun
try ever made greater or more rapid prog
ress in substantial wealth 1h.n1 during the
past seven years. From a ('omparison of
the statistics of tho cen-oi' H70 wit';
those furnished by tho Bureau of Agricul
ture for H77, it appear , that there were
31,000,000 more acres of land under culti
vation last year than iu 170, an increase
of 34 per cent. The percentag: of iacreaso
iu ti ie number of bushels of corn produce.!
was '22 i ; of wheat, 5',' ; of i ye, 4t; of b i -ley.
;i5 : i:i tons of hay. ')! ; and iu poumU
of tobaveo, !M per cent. The live stock
over the aggregate of 1870 was, horses4 !
per -cent ; mules, 45 ; cow s. "jt ; oxeirnud
other cattle, 29; sheep.Tl; swine 23 per
cent: Toe aggreg lie iarn af.e in tl e nnr..
ber of live animal." amoa-.te ! to a!otit
25,000,000 head. The excess of the grain
crop of 1577 over that of 1?70 was neariy
550,1)00.000 bushcls. Our exports for the
y ar ending June JiO, 1 77, exclusive of
gold and oilverT amounted to SM,),-0-0.
The Influence oJhiv Mill. A siuglo
woolen mill iu the city of Lawrence pro
duces every week a million yards of dyed
or printed cloths. It pays s 100,000 a week
as wages. It employs 5,-")0 persons, pay
ing them at au average rate of 05 cents a
day to women aud, girls, and $1.40 a d;Ty
to men; It consumes 500 tons of starch,
and expends 400,000 for printing aud
dveing materials-every vear. Thowo:d
it requires calls for the fleeces of 10,4)00
head of sheep. It secures food, clothing,
and usually respectable savings to 5,'iOO
persons and their dependeuts-r-not less
than 10,0iW souls altogether. This, with
the freights paid for transportation ofifs
materials aud products, shows what one
mill contributes to the wealth, power and
prosperity of the country. The woolen
industry of the w hole country amounts to
more than 200,0: )0,K)0a year. There are -nearly
a thousand woolen mills in Ohio
and other Western States.
-Alilericaj'i Workmanship. fn the com so
of a description of a visit to.,the French
war vessel, the liichelieu, a foreign corres
pondent remarks that it seems impossible
for one tfi go anywhere without some spe
cimen of American ingenuity cropping up;
accordingly, on the quarter deck of tho
liichelieu was a Gatliug gun lieside a mit
railleuse. It is astonishing, the corres
pondent adds, how7 tateful Americans are
in everything relating to machinery. Tho
Gatling, beside the dull, heavy, somlwr
French piece, looked like a bit of jewelry,
its steel and brass Hashing -like gold ami
silver i:i the bright sunlight of the Medit
erranean. And this is more noteworthy
' lH-c.mu the- F reach have a decided bent
; toward decoration, and generally male
things look as ell a's possible.
A WIN TEK I'EACH.
The Petersburg (Va.) Unral Mcxsfit'jrr
I thus describes this fruit, which it says
originated with Mr. James Hawkins, of
Dinwiddic. Va., bef.-rethe war,and which
is called the "Hawkins Winter Peach."
That gentleman has-bad fov -toe ycas
trees in full Ix-ai ing :
"The fruit doe not '"' Jn Trnip u until
the leaves have fallen h-nu the trees in
November; is no way injured by th-- se
vere frosts of that season, and haugs. on
the trees until it assumes 'a beautiful red
cheek. When ripe they may be picked
and put away to be carried'. to market at
leisure say any time iu November or
eat ly P ember, The fruit is large, (the
ti:-t iin j.oi taut item in a market -'peach:)
coim whitish, with led cheek; flesh" whit
ish, 1 i'li, juicy, and pleasant. It will
keep far into December without rotting.
It can be handled plenty much theanso
BLINDEUS ON imRs!:
Samuel Page, of llo-ton, ban influenced
manv of late to remove the blinders, from
tlie undies, or t heir horses, lie says
. .... ....