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THE CAROLINA WATCHMAN, SALISBURY, N. C.
WHY AND HOW OF BUDDING EXPLAINED
STKcir Care and
Pergolas Add to the Beauty of the Home Grounds..
PERGOLAS PRETTY AND CHEAP
It doesn't take much time or need
not cost any money to have a pretty
pergola in your garden. Of course if
one has the time and the money the
scheme may be widened to any desired
extent and the structure may be as
costly and as elaborate as the heart
wishes. But a simple bit of -work,
planned with the eye of an artist, is
often more fetching than a studied and
Rustic pergolas may be made of
peeled oak or pine,, or any other dura
ble branches that are at hand, except
ing birch. Birch will not last beyond
one season. There is no better or
prettier way of training vines than
by making the pergola the base and
' there will be many hours of real pleas
ure in the creation once it is done.
By L. M. BENNINGTON.
The field morning-glory resembles
the cultivated kind and unlike the bind
weed, grow only from seed. We find
four varieties of morning-glories on
our lowland farms, so the only remedy
Is to prevent the seeding.
The field bindweed is a morning
glory with small flowers and vinelike
stems that entwine closely about any
thing they reach.
The numerous roots send out plants
from every eye. These roots being
spread by the plow or cultivator form
new plants, until in a short time the
cornfield is completely covered.
They start so early in the spring
that before the corn is large enough to
cultivate, the rows are so hidden that
they must be cleaned out with hoe be
fore cultivation is begun.
Another variety called hedge bind
weed, pea-vine, morning-glory has
large funnel-shaped flowers and a more
slender vine than the other varieties.
In the central states we find still an
other of the prolific pests. This is the
wild sweet potato or man-of-the-earth
vine. Its roots resemble in shape the
cultivated sweet potato, but are much
larger and penetrate far below the
Cutting the tops does little good and
cutting the "roots only multiplies the
number of vines as all pieces of roots
grow the same as the edible sweet po
tato. The plow only serves as a means of
spreading and transplanting the pieces
of roots, which grow new plants. Cov
ering with salt or injecting sulphuric
acid into the roots are as effective as
any remedy for the weed, which for
tunately is not so Common as the other
varieties of morning-glory.
Hogs are very fond of the roots and
are a great help In cleaning up badly
infested ground. Plowing during July
and August prevents the plants from
growing again in the same season and
mMsm' t " -
?"r - - 'Jy :
will make them much less plentiful the
Lambs also like the vines wonder
fully weH and few will be left in the
fall if they are turned on before the
bindweeds go to seed.
Our experience with bindweeds is
that spring plowing and persistent use
of the cultivator only serve to spread
the roots over greater areas.
The lowlands where the bindweed
flourishes are also suitable for alfalfa.
We find that between the cuttings of
alfalfa the bindweed has no oppor
tunity to seed and in a few years a
plant can hardly be found in an alfalfa
The bindweed when once estab
lished In a field Is there to stay or put
up a strenuous fight and no halfway
methods will accomplish anything In
the way of getting rid of this pest.
When plowing or cultivating through
small spots of morning-glory, it pays to
clean the plow or cultivator of all roots
to prevent the spreading of the growth
of new plants.
The use of the disk harrow and disk
cultivators will help to prevent the
spread of this pest.
Prevention and the use of every
known means of destruction must be
used if we would rid our farms of this
To successfully transplant, a great
deal of care Is necessary. Observe
these few important simple rules:
If possible, choose a cloudy day for
this work, or do it in the evening. Wa
ter the plants so that the soil is thor
oughly saturated; then lift the seed
lings carefully with plenty of soil and
gently separate the plants.
With a sharp knife remove about
two-thirds of the leaves and stems and
then puddle the roots. On no account
should the sun reach the roots, even
for a moment.
The holes should be ready to receive
the plants. Fill them with water1 and
set the plants firmly into the soil,
pressing the soil carefully about the
plants drawing dry soil on top of the
If the sun shines shade the plants
for a few days.
There should be a corner in the
home garden for the old-fashioned
flowers so loved by our grandmothers
and mothers. The fragrant pink and
sweet william, the sun-warmed marl
gold, the scented mignonette, the state
ly wall flower and the sweet alyssum
that so often encircles all the others
with its snowy border.
How they each and every one flash
into our hearts memories of other days
and of lovely faces now gone, and how
they inspire us to a higher and better
SELF-FEEDER IS PRACTICAL
Device Has Been Found Satisfactory in
Fattening Nearly Grown Shoats
or Young Hogs.
(By W. B. FRUDDEN, in Popular Me
While a self-feeder is not desirable
for general use in swine feeding, it has
been found practical in the quick fat
tening of nearly grown shoats or
End View of Self-Feeder.
young hogs, and is a useful device
where many hogs are to be fed. The
feeder shown in the illustration is sim
ple in construction and may be made
In the farm workshop. At the left is
a sketch with portions cut away, ex
posing the Interior construction. The
view at the right shows the end of
the feeder, with the right half cut
away to show the details of the fram
ing. No length Is given, as this may be
varied to suit the individual needs.
The framework consists of sections
built up of 2-by-4-lnch material and
set on -18-inch centers. Fixed to them,
at the bottom, are 2-by-4-inch supports
for the ridge-shaped bottom of the
feed bin. The sections are 5 feet high
to the upper side of the plate,
as shown in the sectional view, and
4 feet wide at the top and bottom.
They are strongly braced, to resist the
pressure of the contents, 2-by-4-lnch
braces being used at the top and 1-by-6-inch
braces at the apex of the bot
tom of the bin.
Tongue-and-groove stock is best
for the flooring and siding, as well as
the roof, and should not be over 6
inches wide. The flow of the feed
into the trough is regulated by an 8
inch board, 1 inch thick, fitted to slide
Front and End View.
vertically along the sides above tjie
trough, behind cleats. The rafters are
2-by-4-inch stock, and may be set at
a convenient pitch, one to three, as
shown. The lids extend one-half the
length of the feeder, but may be made
the full length if not too heavy. They
are supported on strap hinges and have
sufficient overhang at the eaves and ga
bles to protect the feeder from rain.
Skids may be prepared for trans
portation. WARM WEATHER HORSE RULE
Load Lightly, Drive Slowly and Rest
in Shade If Possible Sponge on
Head Is Good.
Load lightly and drive slowly.
Stop in the shade if possible.
Do not use a horse-hat, unless It Is
a canopy-top hat. The ordinary bell
shaped hat does more harm than good.
A sponge on top of. the head, or
even a cloth, is good if kept wet. If
dry it is worse than nothing.
When he comes In after work,
sponge off the harness marks and
sweat, his eyes, his nose and mouth,
and the dock. Wash his feet but not
If the thermometer Is 75 degrees or
higher, wipe him all over with a damp
sponge. Use vinegar water If possi
ble. Do not turn the hose on him.
Saturday night, give a bran mash,
lukewarm ; and add a tablespoonful of
REASONS FOR RAISING STOCK
While Owner Is Resting and Sleeping
Animals Are Working All Rough
age Is Utilized.
There are a thousand and one rea
sons why we should raise live tock
an the farm, and here are a few of
Because, while the owner Is resting
and sleeping, live stock are working
for him. They are grazing in the
fields, eating hay in the barns, or di
gesting the food they have eaten,
whether they are receiving any atten
tion from their owners or not.
Because live stock utilize the rough
er kinds of herbage on the farms,
which roughage cannot be turned into
money In any other way.
Successive Stages of Making Incisions
W. L. HOWARD, Professor of Horti
culture, University of Missouri.)
jjlfEvery boy who has lived In the
country, and many from the cities and
tgwns, have heard folks talk about
snme fruit trees as seedlings and oth
fejj3 as budded or grafted trees. The
bys know two distinguishing features
between seedlings and budded fruits.
2iey know that seedlings are dug up
ffjpm beneath old trees and transplant
ed to garden or orchard, and that the
tmdded trees are purchased from a
osjrsery. They also know, and this is
avery vivid memory, that the peaches
fjpm the budded trees often ripened In
fiiy, that they were nearly always
limestones, and that they were much
fS'ger and finer looking than seedlings.
(&f this point most boys' knowledge of
Mference between seedlings and bud-
d trees leaves off suddenly. Grownups
tp often are apt to find themselves
equally in the dark.
MThere is nothing mysterious or even
difiicult about the process of budding
frtiit trees. To many people the terms
w$udded" or "grafted" are associated
wth things that are mysterious. This
Isfbecause the methods of budding and
grafting are little understood by the
masses of the people.
s4 Interchangeable Methods.
Whlle the nurserymen commonly
hind certain trees and graft others,
r ese two methods of propagation are
u mally interchangeable. The' nursery
man makes use of the one that is
Cheapest and most convenient. As a
ifgjle, all the stone fruits (peaches,
rjftims, cherries, etc.) are always bud
oeji, while apples and pears may be
budded if desired but generally are
. 5Tees are budded because it Is Im
possible to grow desirable varieties
frdm seed. Now and then a peach
will be found that can safely be
A Represents a Peach Budding Stick Best Buds Are Located Where
Leaves Are Removed At B Is Shown How to Remove a Bud from a
;:: Stick Make a Crosscut Near Bottom of Knife Blade and Peel Bud From
Wood With Thumb and Finger At 1 Is Shown Shield-Shaped Piece of
Bark Containing Bud At 2 Is Seen How First Cut Included Slice of
.Wood, but How This Wood Was Left Behind When Bark and Bud Were
grown from seed, but the most impor
tad commercial varieties like the El
bertu, Belle of Georgia, Carman,
Champion, etc, must be grown from
Budded trees are commonly thought
to be more tender than seedlings.
There Is some ground for this belief,
but they are not weaker because they
have been budded. The budding itself
does not affect the vigor of a tree in
the 'least. Trees are never budded
unless budding makes them more val
uable than seedlings. If they are
moj-e valuable it is because they are
more highly Improved than the seed-lings-rthat
is (in the case of peaches),
the7 fruit is larger, juicier and of bet
ter: flavor. However, it seems to be
va law of nature that when a plant or
animal is improved greatly in one dl
reion there is a corresponding loss
in another direction. Still some of
this loss may be imaginary.
In. the case of fruit trees, new forms
are constantly arising. Most of the
new varieties are chance seedlings.
If a large number of seeds, espe
cially from improved varieties, were
planted there might be found among
the entire lot one that was better
than any of the parents. This might
be regarded as a new variety. How
ever, in order to perpetuate this va
riejjr it would be necessary to resort
tolfiuddine. as the seeds, if Dlanted.
j TTould produce trees that would bear
r-.d Inserting Bud in Seedling Peach
peaches that would be a mixture of
many kinds. If this new variety has
larger fruit than its parents or is su
perior in some other way, it may or
may not have lost in point of vigor.
Varieties often do lose some of their
original power of resistance to co!4
or disease at the .time they become
more desirable on account of their
fruit. But whatever the tree may be,
if we want to grow other trees of ex
actly the same kind we must do so
Stone Fruits Budded.
Stone fruits, such as peaches,
plums, cherries, apricots and nectar
ines are always budded. This is done
by transferring a single bud from a
new twig to a young, one-year-old
plant, usually of the same species,
and causing It to grow. Peach seeds
are generally planted in the spring
and by the last of August the little
seedling trees are ready for budding.
The nurseryman takes his buds from
the desired va iety of tree, with each
bud bearing a piece of bark perhaps
three-quarters of an Inch long; then
by making thfi proper cuts in the bark
of the seedling, the bud can be in
serted next to the wood and tied
there, where it will readily unite and
grow up and make a tree. During that
same season the bud does nothing
but unite with the stock plant ; but
the following spring, when growth be
gins, the top of the seedling tree is
cut off and thus the bud we have in
serted is forced to grow. The bud
readily grows into a tree which the
first season will reach a height of three
or four feet. Such trees are then
ready to dig up and plant in the or
chard. The stone fruits are closely enough
related so that in some cases one may
be budded upon the other. Peaches
J will grow as readily upon plums as
they will upon peach roots, and, on
the other hand, plums grow quite read
ily upon peach seedlings. However,
neither will do well upon the cherry,
and the cherry will not grow upon
them successfully. Peaches and nec
tarines are easily interbudded. In
this connection it might be well to say
that the nectarine is the result of a
strange variation In the type of a
peach, which occurred in the bud. Oc
casionally a nectarine will be found
growing upon a peach tree. The nec
tarine is nothing more than a perfect
ly smooth or fuzzless peach. A nec
tarine tree, on the other hand, may pos
sibly bear a peach. The seeds of nec
tarine trees, if planted, may produce
peach trees. Whenever a variation
in a peach tree occurs, such as to
produce a branch that bears nectar
ines, buds may be taken from such a
branch and propagated and come true
to yartety that is, they can always
be depended upon to produce nectar
ines instead of peaches.
It is thus seen that varieties always
come true from buds. It is perhaps
possible to graft or bud any plant
that is, an oak tree could possibly be
grafted or budded upon another oak,
or an Osage orange readily budded or
grafted upon another Osage orange.
The apple and the oak, and also the
apple and Osage orange are in no way
related, and hence one cannot be made
to grow upon the other.
Mrs. Quinn's Experience
Ought to Help You Over
the Critical Period.
Lowell. Mass. "For the last three
years I nave been troubled with the
T ' f .
unange oi Liiie ana
the bad feelings
common at that
time. I was in a
verv nervou9 condi.
Ition, with headaches
and pain a good
ideal of the time so T
was unfit to do my
work. A friend
asked me to try
Lydia E. Pinkham's
pound, which T rHr!
and it has helped me in every way. I
am not nearly so nervous, no headache
or pain. I must say that Lydia E.
Pinkham's Vegetable Compound is the
best remedy any sick woman can take. "
Mrs. Margaret Quinn, Rear 259
Worthen St., Lowell, Mass.
Other warning symptoms are a sense
of , suffocation, hot flashes, headaches,
backaches, dread of impending evil,
timidity, sounds in the ears, palpitation
of the heart, sparks before the eyes,
irregularities, constipation, variable
appetite, weakness, inquietude, and
If you need special advice, write to
the Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Co.
confidential), Lynn, Mass.
Honey back without question
ii HUNT'S CURE fails in the
treatment of ITCH, ECZEMA,
RING WORM.TETTER or other
itching skin diseases. Price
50c at druggists, or direct from
A. I. Richards Medicine Co. . Shermanjex.
Aroused, Then Mollified.
Mr. Binks I met a woman today
that I thought a good deal of once.
Mrs. Binks Oh, you did?
"Yes. I used to do my very best to
"I did everything I could to win her
"And at last I flattered myself that
"She granted all that I asked, and by
so doing made me the happiest man
"I asked her to come up to the house
with me today, but she had some shop
ping to do, and cannot get here until
I supper time."
"Mr. Binks, I am going to my moth
er." "She isn't home, my dear. It was
your mother that I met. She gave me
you." Pittsburgh Chronicle.
Flight of Time.
"I saw him kiss you," cried her dear
est girl friend.
"I acknowledge it," she answered,
"Don't squeal. We are engaged."
"Did he kiss you before or after he
proposed to you?"
"I can't tell you that. In the ex
citement of the moment I didn't keep
track of the minor details." Cleve
land Plain Dealer. . .
"I took first prize at the dog show,"
"What were you entered as?" in
quired Wombat with an irritating
smirk. Kansas City Journal.
"Does your dog ever growl?"
"No. He knows that my husband
has him hopelessly outclassed."
Many people seem able
to drink coffee for a time
without apparent harm, but
when health disturbance,
even though slight, follows
coffee's use, it is wise to
Thousands of homes,
where coffee was found to
disagree, have changed the
family table drink to
With improved health,
and it usually follows,
the change made becomes
a permanent one. It pays
to prepare for the health
There's a Reason