THE CAROLINA WAfCHMAN, SALISBURY, N. C.
COL HOUSE WILSON AID IN PREPARING
FOR INEVITABLE PEACE CONFERENCE
President's Unofficial Counselor Undertakes Unusual Task at Re
quest of Chief ExecutiveNot Sign That Government
Expects Early End of War.
New York. Col. E. M. House, inti
mate friend and counselor of President
Wilson, has assumed an unusual and
complex task in accepting the .commis
sion of the president to gather infor
mation whieh will be greatly needed
by the United States government
when it enters the peace conference
which will end the present great war.
President Wilson, in making this move,
was cognizant of the fact that for
nearly three years the European gov
ernments have been making similar
preparations for the inevitable peace
Colonel House already has begun to
carry out the wishes of the president.
As his chief assistant in the work he
has selected Dr. John H. Finley, New
York state commissioner of education,
who recently returned to this country
from Europe after making an exten
sive investigation of conditions in sev
The selection of Doctor Fialey is in
dicative of the sort of experts with
whom Colonel House will confer. No
man or ' woman with a preconceived
opinion which might tempt one to color
circumstances so as to prove the cor
rectness of a personal potnt of view
will be permitted to participate in a
work where opon-mindedness is a pre
requisite to the arrival at conclusions
that will enable the government to de
termine upon a correct policy.
Emphasis is put upon the unalter
able determination that neither pro
fessional pacifists nor confirmed mili
tarists can be In the slightest degree
useful in preparing statistics for gov
ernmental guidance, which must be
without taint of bias.
In an interview Colonel House made
ft plain that his appointment does not
Indicate any. thought, of immediate
peace is now being entertained by the
United States government. He agrees
with Lord Northcliffe in his message
delivered before the American Bank
ers association In Atlantic City that
peace seems far off and America
should beware the trickery and treach
ery of such' propaganda. The truth is
that this effort on the. part of the
United States to analyze war condi
tions and evolve a plan of proceedure
when hostilities end is a, belated one.
Just as our military preparations
lagged for a period. But now it is
"full steam ahead and damn the tor
pedoes" with our army and navy with
not a thought of let-up In mind, so
from now on there will be urgent
prosecution of search for material, his
torical and informative, concerning the
world war. This quest of data will
keep pace with an energetic prosecu
tion of the contest, but will not halt it
in anv wnv. To nniisp now In nnv
phase' of belligerent endeavor might
make the prospect of peace even more
remote than it seems at prpsent.
No Sign of Early Peace.
The government sees nothing what
ever to Indicate the early approach of
peace, nor will Colonel House have
anything to do with ascertaining the
point of view of either the Entente
belligerents or the central powers, or
-possible terms upon the basis' of which
-they might be willing to enter into ne
gotiations. He will remain In the Unit
ed States. It is possible that the state
department will.be able to afford him
aid in ' the work he has undertaken,
but he will not work with the. depart
ment nor in a diplomatic capacity, for
mal or informal. He will have no title
nd will receive no salary.
The appointment of Colonel House
affords another illustration of the ex
panding position, of the United States
In world affairs. Heretofore the. state
department has been equipped with
-virtually all the information that was
necessary to the solution of interna
tional problems in which the United
States has taken a direct interest. The
war has brought new problems and
projected this country into a field of
international activity which it has sel
dom entered before,.
The questions which will come be
fore the peace- conference at the end
of the war will be multitudinous. The
freedom of the seas, the neutralization
of seaways, the political homeogeneity
of peoples who claim the right of self
government and" the disposition of ter
ritorial possessions involving economic,
historical and political questions, will
be some of the many subjects to
be considered, and the information
coon which conclusions may be based
and policies decided must be at hand.
With exclusive European problems,
It is not expected that the representa
tives of the United States at the peace
council will be concerned. But in the
disposition of general questions, relat
ing to economic intercourse and' po
litical development which will affect
virtually all the natious of the world,
the United States will have a potent
Difference in' Insignia.
A young lady is grieved and disap
pointed to learn that an eagle dis
played ou the shoulder or the collar
of a military person means that he
Is merely a colonel. In her opinion
so splendid a decoration ought to be
reserved for a full general at least.
She finds it difficult also to djstinguish
at anything but the closest range be
tween the oak leaf of a major and the
star of a brigadier. And after you.
learn the meaning of stars In the army
It Is frightfully upsetting to find that
voice. "In accordance with the policy
that has been consistently followed
since the outbreak of the war of hold- j
ing aloof from European combinations J
except in the prosecution of the war,
this government probably will not at
tempt to aid in the settlement of tradi
tional Euorpean quarrels, except pos
sibly as a matter of friendly interest
if opportunity arises.
House Likely to Be Delegate.
It was said unofficially that when
the time comes to organize a peace
conference, Colonel House, by virtue
of his present assignment, would in
all probability be selected as one of j
the delegates from the United States. !
It will be a part of Colonel House's
task to gather intelligence relating to
commercial, economic and political sit
uations abroad. He will keep abreast
of developments in all non-military af- i
fairs. . ' !
Colonel House will, have associated
with him, as has been stated, several ,
experts, probably college professors, j
economists and specialists in commer
cial and financial affairs. The work
he is to perform will not be connected ;
with similar undertakings in any of
the countries with which the United
States is associated in the war.
The United States government isn't
getting ready to enter into peace ne
gotiations with Germany, isn't going
to meddle in strictly European ques- :
tions relating to the war, and isn't ne- i
gotiating just yet on the problems of '
peace with the Entente, as has fre- j
quently been surmised.
Must Have Data in Advance.'
It is importantfor the United States
government now and will be even ,
more important later on to have a so-
called "who's who and what's what"
in the war in order that all phases In
volved may be properly understood by
reference to data compiled in advance.
In time of war the government that
fails to prepare for peace will ulti
mately be at a disadvantage, says the
Philadelphia Public Ledger in an edi-1
toriai. The representatives of Great
Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia, j
found this out after the fall of Na- j
poleon when they' met Prince Talley-
rand at Vienua. Talleyrand, sent by'
France, had learned enough of the sit
uation as it concerned all of the small
er European powers and as it con
cerned much of the opinion of Europe
to turn the tables upon the four great '
powers and to stand as the champion
of the public rights of Europe.' j
Prince Talleyrand maneuvered, and
successfully, according to the rules
of a secret diplomacy. He really
worked in behalf of selfish and na
tionalistic Interests. The partitioning
of Europe by the congress of Vienna
was the outcome of arbitrary compro
mise; it was prolific of future wars. '
The knowledge which the great dip
lomatic, exponent of , France displayed j
was more comprehensive than that of i
his foes, that is ail. Excepting that
he recognizes the oeed of precise in- j
formation, President Wilson acts up
on a principle different from that
which guided Talleyrand. He will
urge this nation into no -alliance, even
with the nations with whom it is as- :
sociated in the common war, against
the Teutonic powers. He proposes
simply to equip himself with knowl- 1
edge pertinent to the rights of all na-1
tions in common with America as they
may be concerned by the proceedings
of the peace conference.
To Show War Aims.
In this spirit the president has
asked Colonel House to survey the
field of military, naval and political
conditions in the countries of our en
emies. and our friends; to get at the
economic, political and emotional state
of things in every country, nd to tell
frankly to Great Britain, Russia,
France, Italy and the neutral powers
the things that we are doing and that
we intend to do in the war. More
over, an attempt will be made to lift
the heavy curtaiu of censorship Jn'j
Germany and Austria-IIimgary, in or
der to spread among their peoples a
comprehension of American war aims
Officials are anxious that no impres
sion should be created, as a result of
Colonel House's appointment, of anv
intention to start peace negotiations
in the near future. So far as the at
titude of the United States is con
cerned, the president's reply ' to the
pope still, remains the unaltered view
of the government, here.
The appointment of Colonel House
is recognition by the government of
the fact that the adjustment of peace i
terms will be a very complicated pro
ceeding. Many points of dispute must
be settled. Questions of all sorts,
economic, political, and historical, will
j come up for discussion.
stars in the navy do not always signify
the same thing. The young lady says
that every theater program ought to
print a key to the rank of officers of
the army and navy. Exchange.
Sorry He 'Asked.
Anxious Father Now, that you've
heard my daughter sing, what would
you advise me to do?
Music Master- Well, hardly know.
Don't suppose you could get her in
terested In settlement work or horse
back ridi ig, or something like that?
OLD NORTH STATE NEWS
Brief Notes Covering Happenings in
This States That Are of Interest to
All the People.
Governor Bickett has granted a par
don to Carl Thompson of Scotland
Newton D. Baker, secretary of war,
visited Charlotte and Camp Greene
Will White, a farmer of the Pitts
boro section, Chatham county, is ia
Watts hospital suffering from a brok
en collarbone and shattered leg sus
tained when he collided with an auto
mobile Walter Bradsher, a Durham tobac-
rn n i a t ficViorl aovon tinnro t fimitVi
Lkfi near Norfolk w wppv anl
hauled 79 pounds of fish to Durham
as a one-man. catch. They were fine
specimens, too; consisting of chub
Governor Bickett and AdjutanfGen-
eral- Young are to utilize the county
councils of defense in -the formation
of the selected military organizations
that are to be made up from the 5000
men who are to be called into ser-
vice for home guard purposes. These.'re 0Den again. and the streets at
county councils are to make up the
list of men to be asked to serve the
county organizations and report them
back to the governor through the adju
Answering a call for music for. the
r. c, ... . , ... , i jn"u w tone uare ui nuiiseii. nt;-
Camp Sevier, citizens of Asheville 4n .,.. . . . . . . ....
.. . . j ponsibility is all right, but the child,
the past two days have contributed 5T . ?
, . , ., ley nature unmindful of danger, is
three phonographs and a countless I z- . . ... . . ,.
i, . l ,i i especially oblivious of surroundings
number of records to be sent the bo3s e . , . .
. . mi. -j i. V while renewing companionships mter-
at the two camps. The idea was start? . . , ?.. , . , .
-ji. . . aj r-epted by vacation and recounting his
ed by a letter from Captain Adams, , ; . . .. -
j- i .,, . experiences of the summer,
commanding the Asheville boys at ( X
Camp Jackson, in which he suggests I JJHistory abounds in evidence that
that the boys would like to have a 4atomODists are capable of inflicting
"music box" to while away the long Abundant damage and injury among
hours. ?iieir kind without attacking the un?
t auspicting child, who may always be
A telegram received by the. presi- jSfunted on to do the unexpected thing
dent of the Durham Business School h the wjong time. If you drive a car,
announced the membership ; of the ' tke no chances on the child's seeing
school in the National Association of hu in time to avoid your . car; give
Accredited Commercial Schools. The- hfan plenty of time to cross your
Durham Business School, is the only paith. His antics may at times -bp
commercial school in North Carolina ntovoking, but if struck by an auto
that is a member of the National As- mobile the chances are against his
socia-tion of Accredited Commercial Iving to outgrow them.
Schools, it is said, and there are only-! '
five others so recognized south of the parents, do not trust too implicitly
Ohio and east of the Mississippi rJv- e of yur. lldMon 1
ers j jsted streets, especially the child
I wfro, is starting' to school for the first
In rounding out its work the cohfer-
?irft nf thfi stntp anrt n-niintv rniinclla
of defense adopted resolutions attest- more, and, endeavor to teach him by
ing thorough loyalty of the vast ma- r??ture and example the primary les-
jority of North Carolinians and calling of "Safety First and slf-preser-
for the expulsion from the United vtlon.
States senate of Robert M. LaFolleto 'Teachers, do not presume too much
for utterances detrimental to the sue- the child's knowledge and train
cess of the war and encouraging t?a- ifig; do..not hesitate to instruct him
son in effect. "We believe his conduct ihv the "simple but important art of
merits expulsion from the senate," the locking out for himself His idea of
resoluton read, "and we recommend danger may be changed altogether by
that ths course be adopted.
Food Administrator Henry A. Page
enthusiastically welcomed the an- : ' . . " , , K41,.
nouncement of the organization of the AsceKrtaia if your schpol building
"War Mothers" for service at home UV
in carrying out the program of the off inflammable rubbish. f not in-
food administration. "I desire to sug-t sf done' lt m Pre'
gest through the press that everv war a disaster-
mother of this- state attach herself as Qrdial co-operation on the part of
a volunteer to the school district com- pilperty owners has been given to
mittee which will have charge in' her de to the inspectors and special
district of the food pledge campaign, ants of the fire insurance compa
October 20-28th. No one will be able operating in the State as a part
to resist their appeal, and the work ofcjthe plan of assistance of the Na
that will be done during that cam- tiiai Board of Fire Underwriters, to
paign will mean the bringing back of thlkj' National Council of Defense in a
thousands of their boys who might- campaign to prevent flre waste and
otherwise find their last resting placs tlfif? destruction of foodstuffs especial
under the green sod of France." j lyfjturing the war. Throughout North
j Cp'ollna these agents have been in-
David A. Kanjpe, of Marion, said sctipg stores, warehouses, barns,
to be the only living survivor of Cus- !'c(ifon gins and compresses and every
ter Massacre, has cheerfully given up fom of property Vhere foodstuffs., and
all three of his sons for Uncle Sam's thvft?. supplies are stored that enter into
army to fight Germany. The oldest, i ttjp feeding or clothing of the nation
James Lafayette, is in the 321st regi- i a her allies in the war. Not. a sin
ment, infantry, Camp Jackson. S. C. j grease has been reported to the In
The next . oldest, Joseph Ed, is second ' stance Commissioner wherein a
lieutenant in the 316th regiment of
heavy artillery. Camp Jackson, S. C.
The youngest, Lee Royl, is in the navy
on the U. S. S. North Carolina. All
three of the sons are strong and ath
letic. " '
Miss Jeannette Rankin, member of
Congress from Montana, the first wo
man to ever occupy a seat in this
great law-making body, will visit Winston-Salem
Tuesday, October 16.
Morganton now has city mail de
livery. With the arrival of a liberal supply
of picks and shovels, the military com
panies of - the university,' under Cap
tain Allen's direction, will soon begin
the construction of military trenches
and begin trench warfare.
Willie Hoxit, the young son of H. J.
Hoxit, of Jackson, county, is in a local
hospital with the whole left side of
his face shot away as the result of an
accident while out hunting. The boy,
hunting rabbits, crawled through a
wire fence and as he drew the shot
gun after him, the trigger caught in a
wire and the entire load was discharg
ed into his face.
Miss Lizzie Roddick, who for the
past two years has been demonstrator
tn home economics in Forsyth county,
HlUe PARENTS TO
PSTRRETS ARE'NOW FILLED WITH
SCHOOL CHILDREN AND ACCI-
DENTS ARE NUMEROUS.
iSPATCHES FROM RALEIGH
Doings and Happenings That Mark
-the Progress of North Carolina Peo-
James R. Young, commissioner of
insurance, has just given out a very
timely statement in which he urges
the citizens of North Carolina to warn
lihe school children of the dangers of
grossing and playing in the streets,
g$he statement follows:
During tne nation months while
ten, a .. i ,
Sthe streets bave been more or less
jree rom children en masse there
Den a notaDle ana graittying.de-
jease in the number of accidents to
Lildren. . But now that the schools
'fvruun. nours are mrongea wun cnu-
'jiren or an age at wnicn they are
least cautions of danger, drivers of
Vehicles and parents of children
should take every precaution to pre
sent the numerous and needless acci-
-T!inta tTva lionallv frllrw tYta nnaninor
!f, - .t , , . - " .
rif tno sphAnl form TV Tint QTnart tVia
11 A i, - e i, : ic T-t
Ulne. .Better accompany him to and
fi'bm school for the first week or
aftword of caution from you. which
coming from parents might - soon be
pperty owner has failed to make the
corrections pointed out by the inspec-
fhe inspectors are experts in the
lie: of work in which they are en
gaged and they are making the in
s potions without regard to the que3
tii of insurance and without regard
tolfhe business of the companies they
rejresent. It is gratifying to see that
ths&citizenship of the State stands loy
al by in the effort to promote this
wtrk of conservation. When the war
haj ended and the special vigilance
noW' being observed has been relaxed,
th4 chances are that the people will
halfe learned how beneficial these pre
cautIonss have been and North Caro
ling will find itself greatly benefitted
byftiie lessons of carefulness and con
seftation which" will not speedily be
Public Schools Will Give
iflie public school system of the
stste is lining up solidly behind Food
Administrator Henrv A. Page in the
conduct of the camxiin for food con
secration. Dr. J. Y. Joyner, sunerin
teri&ent of education, is suggesting to
allf the county superintendents of the
sta'e a meeting of the teachers of the
va$ous counties October 12th or 13th
tforla conference with the county food
administrator, and the executive com
mittee for "full explanation and discus
sioj&of 'the plans for the camps i en Oc
Aid in Food Conservation
The greatest food show ever held in
North, Carolina is what the .State Pair
promises to be, Under 4;hev urge of na
tion and state more crops Were plant
ed in the spring than ever before, and
the harvests are proving exceedingly
bounteous: Not only have crops usual
ly raised been, greater and better, but
there has been a much greater diversi
fication. The result will make itself
felt in the agricultural exhibits at the
Applications for space are almost
double what they were at the same
time last year. The number of exhib
its from counties as units will be in
creased, and all will .be giVen an equal
show for the good premiums which
are offered. Pruta the excellence of
these exhibits in former years, the
people of the state have been trained
to expect . an agricultural show of an
unusualj nature, and the show this
year will exceed any that have gone
The conservation feature of the
State Fair is being especially stress
ed by the management. This will be
particularly exemplified in the new
Woman's building where Mrs. James
McKimmon and her corps of assist
ants fiom over sixty of . the counties of
the state will show what can be done
in the way of preserving food by can
ning, preserving and drying. Mrs. Mc
Kimmon has made much more than a
state-wide reputation on account of
the results that she has been able to
J obtain with her canning clubs in the
state, and the girls and their work
will be here to show both how and
what has been -accomplished.
Delegates to Farmers' Conference.
Governor Bickett has appointed
the following delegates to the Farm
ers' National Congress, which meets
in Springfield, Mo., October 23-26.
J. A. Wilkinson, Belhaven; F. P. La
tham, Belhaven; T. T. Speight, Wins
dor; C. W. Mtichell, Aulander; T. W.
Mason, Garysburg; B. B. Winbburne,
Murf reesboro ; Lycurgus -Hofier, Gates-"
ville; J. J. Laughinghouse, Grimes
land; J'D. Grimes, Washington; W.
F. Harper, Grifton; J. M- Mitchell,
Goldsboro; John Woodard, Wilson; J.
E. Cofleld, Everitts: G. A. Hblderness,
Tarboro; C. M. Parks, Tarboro; W. P.
Batchelor, Raleigh; A. C. Greene, Ra
leigh; Dr. J. M. Templeton, Cary;
Maj. H. A. London, Pittsboro; J. H.
Currie, Fayetteville; S. W. Cooper,
Fayetteville; Benehan Cameron, Stag-ville;-R.
W. Scott, Haw River; H. B.
Varner, Lexington; Dr. H. Q. Alexan-"
der, Matthews; J E. Erwin, Morgan
ton; B. B. Price. Marion; R. P. Hayes,
Asheville; R. R. Gotten. Cottendale;
A. W. Pate, Rowland: W. M. McLel
lan, Rowland; S. J. Smith, Elrod; Geo.
New Short jCourse at College.
The North Carolina State College
of Agriculture and Engineering opens
with the usual number of new stu
dents. The loss of many of the older
students by draft, by connection with
the state guard, by commission in the
army, and by opportunity for high pay
i in civil positions has reduced the
whole number by about one hundred.
The dormitories, therefore, are not all
fllled For this reason an effort will
be made to secure a big enrollment in
the four-months' course for farmers
and farm boys, which will begin on
October 30th. .
This course is now offered for the
first time. It is designed to give such
instruction as best meets the needs
of practical farmers. As described in
the current catalogue, it is divided so
that students also can be received in
Cheese Makers Prepare Exhibit.
North Carolina cheese-makers are
preparing for a stenuous drive for na
tional recognitipn. Already, the pro
duct manufactures, in the mountain
coves of western North Carolina once
famoirs for their moonshine, has been
sampled by competent judges who
have declared it good, surpassing even
in quality the Wisconsin cheese which
comes South. As the state's infant
industry, cheese-making stands with
soy-bean production as among the
very hopeful signs of spreading prog
ress. Completes Study of Cost.
Returning to his regular work at
the Agricultural Experiment Station
at West Raleigh .last week from
Greensboro and Winston-Salem, Mr.
Stanley Combs, of the Dairy Field
Office, completes his two years' study
of the cost of producing milk on 18
farms near these places. It will be
remembered that two years ago North
Carolina was selected as representa
tive of the Southeastern group of
States in which a study of the cost of
producing milk could be made. Other
stations in the division were also se
lected at the same time, such as Indi
ana in the Western and others in the
different remaining groups. The work
is Co-operative between the United
States Department of Agriculture and
the North Carolina Erperiment Stai
Mr. Combs has collected some inter
estlng and exceptionally good data
which -will be written up in the form
of a report dm Ing the next thre
months. When it is published it is
expected that the findings ' will be of
much value to dairymen, especially so
as the work has been-done during the
time of the war since all feedstffs
have been high in price and hard to
obtain. Authorities of the station hope
to have the material in the hands of
the printer in the near future in order
that it might be available soon
GOOD BUTTER-MAKING RULES
Best Churning Temperature Is '58 De
grtes on Ordinary Thermometer
Care for Cream.
(Clemson College Bulletin.)
Cream is made up of little fat glob
ales floating in milk. In making .but
ter the itt globules are Brought to
gether into a mass and the milk is re
moved as buttermilk. These fat glob
ules will stick better when they are
just the right temperature than they
will if either too warm or too coicL A
good temperature for churning Is 58
degrees on an ordinary, thermometer.
When the cream is the rTchf sourness
it churns better than when sweet or
too sour. The cream should be kept
ai jj ucicca ui iuncr 1111 me uaj , uc-
fore churning.-. Then warm it up to 70
degrees, or room heat, which will bring
about th souring by the next day.
low gas to escape every few minutes
at hrst. When the butter begins to
; come keep a close watch "and stop
churning when the butter granules
are the size of wheat kernels. Draw
off the buttermilk and wash in the
churn repeatedly with cold water till
the buttermilk is all removed. Then
remove the butter from churn and
work it with a paddle. Add an ounce
of salt per pound of butter.
MANNER OF HANDLING SILAGE
j When Time for Feeding Top Layer,
Which Has Molded, Should Be
Removed Heap Top Level.
(Clemson College Bulletin.)
When the time ; comes for feeding
silage the top layer, which will be
. found to be molded, should be re-
moved. The molded part usually ex
tends for several inches below the
surface. At least two indies of silage
should be fed each day, in order to
prevent the formation of the mold.
The top of the silage should be kept
. level so as to expose the smallest sur
i face possible to the air. .Only enough
silage for one feeding should be put
out, as it soon dries out if not fed at
ROUGHAGE OF HIGH QUALITY
Average New York Cow Credited With
$66.09 Yearly Income Scrub
Success in dairying is based on the
production of high quality roughage.
The' truth of this basic - principle of
dairy farm management finds support
in estimates recently made by the New
York State college of the average dairy
cow's product in that state. The aver
age New York cow is credited with only
$66.09 total income yearly. The cost
of maintaining her is estimated at
$61.85, not including the cost of labor.
The difference amounting to only $4.25
a cow, would give to the man who
I Splendid Type for Milk.
cared for 20 cows a yearly wage of
$85 which is less than the lowest wage
paid to ordinary farm labor. Scrub
cows are largely responsible, it is said,
for this poor showing in New York
and the college advises that they be
weeded out if dairy herds are to be
profitable to the farmer. These herds
may be improved greatly by better
breeding methods and by eliminating
the culls. Behind the cows lies the
farm on which they are kept. If the
i farm is not properly managed, the
j cows are laboring under a severe han
dicap. FIRST FEED FOR YOUNG CALF
Skim Milk Is Given Soon as Prac
ticable and Continued Until Ani
mal Is Six Months Old.
At first the calf is fed whole milk,
the quantity being gradually increased.
Skim milk is substituted as soon as
practicable and, if cheap, is continued
until the calf is six months old. Or
dinarily the maximum quantity vf skim
milk that can be fed economically In
20 pounds a day. When the calf is
two weeks old, grain and bright, clean
hay should be, offered; the quantity
fed should be increased as the calf a
COMMON CAUSES OF SCOURS
Overfeeding, Milk That Is Cold or Sour,
Dirty Pails, Troughs or Stalls
Indigestion is the cause of common
icours. This generally occurs when the
calf is from two weeks to a month
old. Prevention is the best remedy.
The common causes of indigestion are
overfeeding, feeding milk that is cold
or sour, feeding sweet milk one meal
and sour the next, dirty pails, troughs
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