! , :" ' . '.!- ' ;, '-' i - r'.
: " j. 1 i V !..
KM: rA.--; ,N fjsl vat PTTTTT?
I M A 1 YlVv I ril V I . . I I . 1 l'v I 1
.--t -ULZhA. J Li'- J N A Mi
: " - 1 1 L -- BP -ag- ju i. mimi lm
5 "r -
QTED AND PUBLISHED WEEKLY, BY
Pasteur & watson,
ISSCM HALF 1AT-BL 15 ADVAffCF.
fron the Washington Republican.
Thf following article, whicji we extract
of correct vievs and souuu condu
it is a source of real pleasure to u,
3ii.iJour labours backed vith so much
and aouiiy in vnai uisutui sccno.u m
L'.iion. It is one more aaueu 10 it?e
iv evidences we have received of the
.iretnesi of our opinions on the subject
jii opposition, and its nature and origen.
ae march of truth - has been rapid, tri-
.luh waits upon everwstep ; and when
i developernent shall be completed, er-
k aad intrigue must vanish together, and
lent and virtue be elevated to the high
r wnJ which it is their privilege alone to.
-fit and occupy.
WAR AT HOME.
A party of politicians, it seems, are ra
,U sprinsimr into existence, with Mr.
ji.vford the Secretary of the Treasury at
heir head, who are striving to get into
Ker by gradually undermining Mr. Mon-
Vie preseni vniei iiagisiraie 01 me
Union. With men, who have not merit
:i'tieir own to sustain their high preten-
t r f.i i 1-
iUlM I !- vim unit oifiuiiiiira ouwaj I
. - a r mm Mia iiiii nr.rv wsrwim i rv km a oiinnuok?-
ijl incii, to enaeavor to excite tne prej
to endeavor to excite the preju-. !
. J - !
rices of the community, against those'l
fL ..-u-.. j i
Whose virtues they cannot imitate, and up-
r . . , . . ' i
jices of the community, against those
r.i nose prcjuuices 10 nae into power.-
hjll tiiia scheme succeed in the election
. . i: j .,.. .
5U President of the United States?
Merit and justice have hitherto con-
cted tuose illustrious men to that ot-
fjc, who nave niiea it. onaii otners suc
Vl to it upon different principles ? When
ttempt to carry any point by the ruin
joiot!irs, ihe opposition to them is too
Radicating the conduct of those whose des
truction they meditate- The man who is
conscious of the purity of his own conduct,
and is thus assailed, (as is, we venture 10
uv. the rase with Air. Monroe'iis not satis-
uitW n mere rievelnnement nf thnce
'n.)iives, but wishes also to show that the
We of complaint against him is unfoun- ,
del: when he does this, he fights with a j
Txn-PiiireiJ swuru. iiiiu mux t?vciiiuaii v in-
umph. . a
The motive with this new party, con-
dsting of the restless and discontented of
all parties, is, however, the attainment of
power, iris is legioiy written on tne tore
fcead of every man who ha entered its
service, and in the accomplishment of this
object, they seem to rely upon shewing an
ibuse oft'iat power on the part of the Pre-
r',U., W. nnct tnt inn ,.1,',or,rC nn
tacnt auu nis constitutional advisers one
enlv excepted. Do they show it ? In so
last and extensive a country as the United
States, much of a nublic nature mav trans-
tire, ot wbico tne private citizen must ai-
raost oi necessity De ignorant. vv e snail
i- . sir its .
therefore be content with expressing our
opinion oi tne degree oi contidence due or
r.eneoD e ot this section 01 the Union to
the man whose closin? davs of nublic iife
O J 1
. ft a
arc now nttFinntekd to De emnilleied bv
these saltish and ungenerous attacks.
In doio this we are naturally led back
v that nbomv nenod of our historv when
the denotation of this country seemed to be
e j i
hourlv threatened hv the savao-es. For a
on period of the late war, it is known
hat we were almost entirely abandoned & '
k z ri irii i w w tiirr mBiiwvi iiinni nr mi ii iia i bj
of our defenceless froniipr spttlprq rnn nm-
c j - - ------ ... I
I t - .
- ' ----- ,
useiv. ar.uwe were witno-.it
the means to
rent it. At last Mr. Monroe. came into 4
W ar Liepartmrnt, and although he had I
i v iii.iii wi a inr- iriPii n ri i 1 t ri a
living upon him, which w ere both nume-
- " - - v iv,
tons and rimicult. vet he ar!.mfrfi cur i
7 - - - "-vivi ouvii
Of our liplnli; spltlpmpnr ht tUQ
"V thereafter was but little disturbed bv
For this, we all said at the time, " well
COnethnn faithtnl servant 7 Inil.U no otl
aTepfi. that he neither mnuseA tint- r..i.o,l
M f ft ft uuustu
lint as if resting on better ground in ma-
k:rp the nrrricafion. he is hnlHlv fS-imaA
With r 1 pf 1 n rm - nrl cmnilHcrinff tKia m.Ll!.
BoiiPV cinro h ht-ramp Presiilfnt SV
gettms ihe cross abuses of trust on the part
Oflhpir toorlar in tNu m ima na mmon
the monies rtoritrort from ihe sale nf tli
public lands, and denosited in the insol
ent banks, nlin xmndhntr shnns m the
cinr-r. tt, i i,n .r Je. coM
thpv rr,m ( ,.;, i
-- utric ittc loiiu a j diuui i
against the President, witlut deigninp to
-j lutwaiu "mi a-wftwwu ,
fornix r ' r ..r
WPlr nllr.r.-.t'. r II! . I . ...
v- .. . 1 ... . .
. JiililC Ul uruu 111 2U I UU ft, vl I
-(.""uilJi All ICUCiiiiir lull c4n..4j
sapported as it is, by any proof whatso
ever trill k-
TJati . . . 'i
" ftlft ..ftv ftt IICt,C9MI t iu ic 1 UI'U'l
---u assertion, the nrool that ihe rontra- i
y n true, bein? so ready
:ady at hand. What j
?ence could be more satisfactory? In !
Jpeatmg of ihe state of the Treasury, in
idmum r .u , .. r
v fn . f 1 ..I. C
K- . lv wgrc ui uic xiu ui
- m w ft . . li 1 i rip. T- I f l . ri r ftira
" A few prominent facts
ft irraAt inl.ratt in o 1nf
" On the 30th September,
" ed and floalin; debt
" was estimated at one hundred and nine
" teen millions, sir hundrednd thirty-five,
" thousand, five hundred and fiftv-eight
4t dollars. If to this sum
" mount of five per cent
uito the Bank of the Un
e Danfeol tne united tates, , me a -
it of 'Mississippi stock, and of the
which "was - issued subsequently to
"s that date, the balances ascertained to be
1" due to certain states for military services,
" and to individuals for supplies-furnished,
" and service rendered during the late war,
" the public debt may be estimated as .a-
1 " mounting at that date, and as after li-i
I quidated to one hundred and fiftu-etght.
4 fiullioiS) seven hundred and thirteen thou-
" semi and forty-nine dollars. : On the sert from the Conservateur Impartial of
" 30th day of Sept mber, 1 820, five years St. Petersburg, in praise of the Holy Alii
" thereafter it amounted to ninety-one miU ance.j ' When cool observers of the slate
lions y .nine hundred and ninety -three thou- of,JSurope are informed that this league a
" sand, eight hundred and eighty-three gainst liberty is justified on the ground of
Hollars, having been reduced in that in- its bfcinjL n more than a defensive league,
" terval five years by payments, sixty they will naturally ask what, and whence,
" six millions, tight hundred and seventy- is the; aggression ? When they are further
" nine thousand, one hundred, and sixty- assured by the Ministers of the Holy Alii
"j(ive dollars.99 boesthis lottk like wasting arice,jthat there exists a conspiracy against
and squandering the public m(mey? established Governments, a " secretly or
nq periof our history have such rapid ganizd conspiracy, which pmbraces in its
advances been made towards paying off iVttal ramifications all Europe? and whose
the public debt. existence 8c object every thing proves'
!But this is not all ; wchad just emerged the n4xt questions which offer are, " Who
from a distressing war with Great Britain, are the conspirators, and what is the
with bleeding proof of the want of a better,
. f . p - . . ,
JJ' "C mu
riavv than we linn thrniicrh tliuf cnnluct
r Z r .7
with our public edifices destroyed or rauti-
j . . .1 , J . . .
lated at the caoital of the nation, and with
all that exhaustion of nnhlic stores and n,.
; . li
, nitions ol war, .which war inevitably pro-
I.i ' -
duces. Unon those oh ects Iarre sum
haW also been espendeJ-our magazines
! replenished, our navv increased larre &
to, tear from James Monroe that share of
ubJic confidence v
Sevoion tolhe welf;
ole lite of
ire of his country, has
so; deservedly procured for him. Watch
ful as we are, and as we sliuld be, of our
public servants, it will be sinning against
wisdom ana justice to do so.
I have shewn that in the gloomy period
of the late war, the President, then ecret
eryofWar, did not netlect us. Has he
done so since? Will auv win deov that
;,u"enas oeenapenoa wunin uie lasunree
V Ud I 5 HIJfll UftUllicilV f IllUciH t! MII Cll I S Ul-
j dieted this country as sDiely as any coun-
try ever was afflicted ?
Will any man pretend to say that our
all as it were, was not at stake, previous
tothe passage of the law for the relief of
the purchasers oi the public land in 1820 ?
il care not whether you went into "tht
house of the wealthy, or the hut of the
I poor mat), you equally saw care and anxiety
j depicted in his countenance, and with e
i qual facility you found access lo the source
of his grief. It was, that, his house and his
j home were in danger of being forfeited,
, and his family being turned out of doors,
without some relief from the government.
Fully sensible of this state of things, ano'
feeling the weight of obligation that rested
in0 12s relief. vr lind him r x.? I torecom-
7 V" r
i nil i in am a t. mil a & in mt j jii c r
mend to Congress the measure that v;is a-
J - 1
dooted. and bv which the pillow aeain af-
forded its balmy refreshment to cur citi-
j y w w
zeps by which the desolation of the coun-
t .v junvprt. !.n,l nerhans civil war itself
! A or or tinno -k fa ooctf marta . ll'A - Il O rl'OV-
. :.!... a :u .
ingthe proof to support them. 'Of the in-
terest he felt for this country, then, let his
own words bear testimony. In the same
message to which I have already referred,
he savs : It is or6Der to add that there is
now due to the I ieasurv for the sales oi
,,. . . . , - , .,.
he jub he lands, twenty-Uvo m,U,,,, nine
hundred and n.ncty-s.x thousand Hve hnn-
dred apd forty.6e dollars In bringing
this subject to view, I consider it my duty
to submit t, conpen whether it may not
b adviseable u exe 0 Me jnircAr.
4uy? cAae,cA Aa, occred x4e
Ae ae.9, a reasonable indulgence. It is
Veil Lnnwn tw r....,i,aeAa n o mrlp
ftu the nr;,BnfflVO Kort n.n trt
" ....... ! i.iui nv mcii uiajv.j " - - .""
its ereatest heieht. and the instalments are
........ .v. . biiivi.
r-nm!na ' r ,t ,Wr.
extensive fortifications have been commen- is noti wanting to enforce, for a. time at
ced and in rapid progress- our capital re- least, ! upon millions of reasonable beings,
paired, &c. &c. I say all this has been the dictates and resolutions of those whose
' done, and still greater progress has been reason has deserted them ? What thena-
..made in paying off the public debt than ture of the conspiracy is, and has been,
was ever witnessed at any other period of will appear from this that in every part
our history. With this strong proof before botli of Europe and America, where a con
, us, shall we not require something more tinued spirit of resistance against the Gov-
from these gentlemen, who wish to rise eminent has shown itself, and wheie a rev-
upon the ruins of others, than bare and olutioii has within our memory been ac-
naked accusation, before we will consent coniolished or attempted. theice and or
mvww..... w. w ft,iiwu w. ---. .
. .... "..,. .
cempatible with the public interest, which i -
wouio auoru uiki ncuitif iu uiese ur
m r..j . ul'i ire.. .1
chitsers.il ere, then, is the FXRbT step
taken by the President himeif to get relief
for the suffering inhabitants of this and the
nlliar now ctut Vrtn IV i 1 1 hftat it Irl
th V., owi ...t
wiuw nt- -vw .iai oo'u
-.u. .u ,i i .u. i -'
inni 1111 11 ir-i m ur 1 miu ft 1 1 . inrniurr a 11 ft . c . r w
siqn. It is presumed that some plan can nte constitute its resisUess powers
l dev!t:Td by the wisdom ot Congwpi.i i thaf of go
ward in our behalf, and under his rpmmJun i, ..t:. n-.A.-ii.
, Jiendattoh we find R ELIEFas granted.
With these evidences of nobll and npni
. , ,.( !. . i -i
- unu up w? viawiuiur Jiinere be, it
must be because be is working for himself,
and not thepeople. Let the people think
of this I?
THE HOLY ALLIANCE.
"You know not, my sen,"! said an old
Swedish Minister, ' v ith howl little wis
dom the affairs of nations arepcondacfed.''
was the first reflection that occurred
to us on reading an article' which we
proof?" Now mark, the conspirators' are
e - l . t . -.47?
y ,r v,., .c . iu-
larilt the 1 .irhnrinri nf rVarl lht larn.
bins of t ranee ; the. VVhiteboys of Ireland ;
T . ' . c J .
nav the Indeoendents ol south America
are thrown in s a make-weight to the al.
j i j i i i f .l. i
ready l .aded scale ! Is it not humiliating
',.. - .
to mank nd hat such rank nsanilv shou d
assume to itself the attributes of high state
t.olicv : and mournful to think that Dower
i , ,
pression ot the d Government had been
j . ,
. notorious. - intolerable, and undisputed.
Will it be snid the Spaniards were well
governed before Lord Wellesly and his
colleagues in England, excited and assis
ted them to form their present Constitu
tion ?f or that the now' liberated Spanish
colonies were wrong in throwing off the
yoke of Spain herself? Will'it be aflirm
ed that the fraud and tyranny exer
cised towards the Neapolitans ought to
have been endured by that much injured
people, or that England, who had once
encouraged, ought to have betrayed them ?
Is there any Christian subject of any one
of thei Holy-allied Courts, enough of a ren
egado to hear with patience that the
G reeks ought not to have rebelled against
the infidels? that they ought to be robbed,
trampled down and butchered without re
sistance .' or that the wretched, untaught,
and famished Irish had no grievances ex-
ilantorv of their eagerness to revolt, with-
smracy "witn oreeKs or ieapomans : vuy
s there no active conspiracy amongst En
rnrv nmonnrst t n-
glishmen to destroy their established Gov
ernment ? Why, first, because we are,
? Why, first, because we are,
. . y i . ... w rt
tKoL- f-lrtfi. a our ancestors were- in DOS-
t Li , f .rl, r4
session (sneaking generally) of eyery good
... I t
MinnrriaL -iv itjii r iiitiviii - jiiiii xei in n il v
UV o tliaULWi j-v j v j . wwv.w..
u LJ uA nctitntinri a; pnmv affnrHa'
a IKI illlAC w " 1 " - 7
ufi a medium through which we may peace-
Ql,. ,ttain tn rrertion of all crvin
)rrection of all crying
.gain, the least symp-
Long the people of
c Ll y d Muti w - - - - a
onuses' Is there, a
tom 0( a conspiracy
.u. c. i,. .h.; .h fr rnn.
. .1 " ... . ,L t L. UA.r l.orl ot-i4nriart
. n . . . . . . - . .
.rv 77 X ' r rrl' u. ..
IIUIII x.iigiaiJ e
antee,! the'ohly one, against the conspira-
cies Df nationsj is to be found in the pleni-
tude of their enjoyments, and in the prac-
tjcaj excellence of their institutions. The
nlv AlUanrp vas buiit uDon falucv In
J t -
pnnVavnrinf to obviate the recurrence oi
tevou,ion, like that of France, the tamer
of tbe n0l,. Alliance shut b.s e,es at once
to the causes of that revolution and to , t,
consequences. He forgot that its true on-
lhe excess of lwiy poB.er, and
fhat iu effect has been acquisition of
power' bv the people.
PSist compLcy doe,, indeed, exist
.fflnnn c ltA nottnnc ito ranto are in the'
nninrp nt man nn 11 rnvpr tviin us uiau-
, i, TV : ; ..
rno. ine wnote suriace oi nvine sociciy.
aa :i ;. a k;. iar nd
. . ' ""I
,.fc nwu mm uuut.iJium.i..6 . "
Tne - to-tr-t tnrl unrlnrct-jnrlinn rI in fllTtllIl
. . . . rri
We;! tEverv individual re-acts un-
to., " -
..m arxr ceeks tr
a . . . 'wr .
rid himself, of
r,; Combined as mat
mankind ' now
tQroaihont their civil
JLrc. which thei
civilized cummunities, by
which their rulerswe too selfiih
.....' i . .1
to ahndee, ano OT me press.,WDltu uu w- ,
uu":tt"'. . . ;
. 1 mmmw A.a.n 1 f .iinfl. ft rft lftftfl -
a host ike this. As well might Alex
Under stamp his fool upon the earth and
I w vL l j;. .
i uiai uc udu wuucu ncr uiuruai mo
and moral world. The partisan of the
Holy Alliance asks, i What! would be
come of " civilization? but : for it ? It is
nev to us that arbitrary power had ever
yet civilized its victims. Monarchs are a
mended, Courts are purified ; but it is the
people who reform them) not they the peo
ple. Lomoi Times.
tl is not possible to
imagine a nobler
cause than the Greeks are now engaged in.
Whether we consider the Dast sutler inao nf
this, people, their present sufferings ami ses denominations of Law j some more,
dangers, and the cruel outrages that" are ! olhers les general tas '
daily committed against them, we catinot j 1 From the relation in which man
butsinceiely deplore their present situa- Utands to the Deity, arises religion, or th
tion. To Americans,! indeed, they seem divine law, comprehending those duties,
in a peculiar manner the objects ofj atten which as a creature variously endowed, he
tion and sympathy We cannot read the owes to the creator, from whom Ihese en
history of our own revolution, and coinpareldowments proceed. Possessing life, moral I
it with the accounts daily received from perception, reason, the affections of tho
Greece, without being J forcibly reminded ! heart, and all other sources of enjoyment
how much their present situation resem- incident to his condition, he recognizes iha ,
bles what our own' was forty years ago. duty of gratitude, as at once founded in
They are now emulating the noble exam- natural centimenr, and demanded by its
pies the Americans then set them, and for- own reasonableness. .
warding the great work the Americans Possessing intelligence by which he de
then began. rives a glimpse of that infinite wisdom and
The spectacfe now opening before the
! WUIJl 15 uu' E"uu'l f or upwaru oi
I- 1.. . t .. '
' four thousand years nave the nations of the
, . J . ,i ,JItt"u3 "c
oaiilh nrnanen nnnr thii vnta nf, Hanwm-
& . i J ."6
d,n !a very ' r wnet? iheA baTe bee"f
cu uu; par .a.
and ill-regulated freedom. During that
time empires have been! born, have flour-
ished, and have again become extinct.
The same rude forms of government havei
still prevailed, and handed down from age !
to. age, and fortified by the prejudices of
an ignprant and barbarous age, and by
long habits of implicit submission, have j
neia mantuna in a wuung ana degrading,
But a new era
has arisen. Ignorance
j. J . J - JJ TL
1 . , & e . Js , . ! CT i i
faded forms of antiquated despotism shrink
from the pure light of a liberal philosophy.
fThat nation which had so long bean the
sport of slaves, which had passed even into
fa jest and by-word for every thing degra
ded and contemptible, now leads the way
in the glorious career of freedom, It is re
ally an inspiring sight,! and promises well
for the future destinies of mankind, thus' to
behold a nation, so long oppressed, and
which seemed to have lost even the 'sense
of freedom, rising again from her ashes,
and setting an example to the world of
constancy, fortitude, perseverance and
exalted courage, which; would Have done
honor to the most brilliant era of Grecian
It is not a little painful to reflect that; the
fate of this noble people is uncertain.
Their short day of freedom may be quench
ed in blood. The rays; of promise which
has broken so suddenly through the gloom
s t riacrtnricm mivr noec flwau IjLta H a nmLr
,. , . r , " ' .'j e 'i i .
and heavier than ever, may succeed to this
"-r":":" 7 Bi I . 1M t ?'
litis, it i& uiuui auu uccin iu ft-rv- i lli ft.ift.vi
' 17 . . .
that a stern and necessary policy should
. . . . . r . J . ,
be at variance with these generous impul-
Aaa whioli oil nl us muct1 laol I MA ltv rt
self-preservation, which is tolerajed among
, , F . , .
"cculuca uuv'w f
Recourse of Wan events, to postpone
justice in particular cases, to a sense of
roriurfii aTnariiAnv An imnrnvnlfprl i
Peces out ioo irequepuy necessary it.
general expeaiency. An unprovoitea iu
nation miisr am avs ne ninreraus. as
" J r ITT '. 7 .
encroachment upon the landmarks
ternational law. let, if it were possible
to imagine a case where 'such an in.erfet
ence might be deemed justifiable, I know
none which has so good a claim to be tho't
so as that of the Greeks'' The cruel war
rtr PTtprm nautili. wiiimi iui iiiaiiv
, . . 7 ,
monins nas oeen watrru uiiaiusi iucu wuu
nnnrelnti and ''..ngV.nary a .pirk,
uf,er . contempt of all the
Uzzi Warfare, 'fan placed their
" V "l " ,
manity and f " Nor shbuld the
intercourse sof nations.! .ftor should he
Seir arC' ?, wa,
. i .
thevwlio, three tnousano years ago, hi
Thermopylae and sa.amts, in a struggle no
. . .t . . .: i:
ess generous man u.c .c...
cated their liberty against a nost oi Asiatic
udl UCLi laiu , " "7 7
i i . o.ifi wfin. at a maturer nenod.
and after the vivifying effects of their lib
erty, thus nobly preserved, began to be
felt, produced those imperishable monu
ment of art, of science, and of ' literature,
which have been the admiration of all suc
ceeding peafjsations. I Let America let '
ceeuing ge u.uu. ..v.
LnclaoO '1CI turope, ininw oi mis :
- k ' t-4-n:m.
r . HatlOTUU ll&tlllB3lK
From the Freeman's Journal.
OF LAW IV GENERAL.
Fatere lecm quAm ipse tulutl.
Law, as applicable to human conduct id
general, may be defined a rule of moral
action proceeding from a superior havin?
right to command, and directed to inferi
ors bound to obey. ' Of this authority on
the one hand, and obligation to obedience
on the other, the foundation, or principle.
is the happiness of those to whom the rule
is directed. If the rule does not aubstao
ially contemplate this happiness, it had
proceeded without the correspondent au
thority in the superior, and is not obligate
ry on the inferior. i
From the various relations in which th
human species is placed, arise various clai
power which appear to pervade creation,
U ; - t I I . w
no in uiut; .ni....er af.uw.eugw ui uc
the sentiment and the duty of adoration
..M"C,,M ' " - , j-
I In nanfan t mm ihv tr rfau tnr air a www
g?? ne !nJyS' d f0' .ot then-
; r .uJg muuCutc co,.uun.on w.i
Being so hojy, so beneficent, so poweiful,
he feels his obligation to prcycr9 and de
lights in the exercise of it.
Perceiving, in fine, that what a re usually
called the evils of life cannot, consistently
with the notions of perfection which he is
forced from every . consideration to form
of the divine nature, be otherwise. Tegar-
uea man as uiumaieiy connected wiin a
scheme of infinite beneficence: and await
ing upon grounds of the highest reason,
. u . .t J: e . .
1 scheme will be fully disclosed, he recog-
. i. mil r ii . i " j t
nizes the duty of resignation, and derives
from the practice of it, a support and sat
isfaction infinitely beyond the reacji of uny
philosophical precepts unconhected with,
that principle. J
Thus, from the various oints of rela
tion between man, and his Creator, may
be deemed the various, duties of religion,
or those divine laws wliich the Deity hus
made it at once the duty and happiness of
all his rational creatures to observe.
But to these obligations which are. com
mon to all the species,' being the duties of
mere natural religion, the doctrines and
duties of revealed religion are tp be super
added, which, as christians, we are in like
manner bound to believe and practice.
2. From the relations in which, as parta
king of one common natuje, the different
individuals of the species, under whatever
government, or in whatever region of the
globe they may be placed, stand to one
another, arise the obligation of morality,
or ethics. Hence the duty of benevolence,
or an affectionate desire of the happiness
of all men, prompting us to the actual per
formance of every kind office within our
power. Hence, likewise, the obligations
of justice, truths candor, jand all (the other
duties which form the proper subject of
the moralist. . v ; L
3. From the relation subsisting between
men as cqustitutiog different nations,
communities, or bodies politic, is! derived
inter-national lau, or as it is usually,1 tiro
less accurately called, the law of nutions,
4. From the relation subsisting between
the different individuals who compose one
nation, or community, arises civil or muni
cipal laic; being that bodyof rule, which,
issuing from a supreme authority, duly
constituted by national consent, direct ur
implied, are, obligatory on each individual
alike, for the good of all. Thus, there
are as many separate systems of civil ur
municipal law, as there are srpara.e and in
dependent communities 5 for no people can
exist in a state of union without a system
of rules of some sort or another, by which
their transactions and conduct may be
more or. less. regulated and eoritrouled.
Each of these general departments, or
sorts of law, may again be divided int. dis
tinct subordinate branches, accrdin to
the subject or class of ctrcumitauce to
which they more immediately refer. Thua
civil law may be divided into thej following
jlepartments, or heads, viz : j
political law, which relates to the prin
ciples of the constitution of the state,' and
the rights and duties of the governors
and governed relatively to one mother.
Criminal to, which refers to the moral
conduct of the citizens, in cases of sucli a
trocity- as are thought to aflWi the general
pewe and welfare oi Uie corjoaiu-iiu3