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lAYEriEVJLLE ;-PuBLitaD every SATURDAY by HODGE and BOYLAN.
S ATURD AY) March 25, 1797
. ' PHTT. A nF.l.PHl "A. March 6.
SA CUtvDrt 1 morning, tne Senate bt the United
. call of the Utc I'rclident, Thomas jefterlbu was
7 (wain. in as Vice-Preiident ot the Lnited States,
.and Prehcient of the Senate. he addrelied tlietn
' in thefollowing-extempoTe fpeech: - .- r-
. Gentlemen of the Senate,
-'-'Entering on the duties u. the office to which 1
am called, I feci it incumbent on me, to apologize
to this honourable houfe, for the insufficient mannei
-in- whichl fear-thev-mav be icnareedAtaiL4
earlier period of my lite, and through fome confi
derable portion of it, I have been a member ot legif
Jaiive bodies, and not altogether inattentive to the
forms'of their "proceedings.- But much time .have
clafped ; fince that other duties" have occupied my
mind, in a great, degree it has loft its familiarity,
With this tubject. 1 tear that the houre will have
7 bottoo frequent occafios to preceive the trirth 6
" this". acknowledgmenrr If" .r diligent attention'
. however, will enable me to fill the functions now
' affigned tne, I may promiie that diligence and at
, tention (hall be feduloufly employed. For one por
tion of my duty I fhall engage with more confi
dence, becaofe it will depend on my will, and not
On my capacity. 1 rL '
The rules which are to govern the proceedings
of this houfe,' fo far as they fhall depend on me for
their, application, fhall be applied with the molt
rigorous and inflexible impartiality, regarding
neither perfons, their views or principles, and fee
ing only theabftract propofiton fubjecf to my deci'
fion. If in. forming that opinion, 1 concur with
fome, and differ from others,; as niuft of neceflity
'nappeti, I (ball rely on the liberality and candour o;
thofe from whom 1 differ, to believe that 1 do it on"
pure motives. I mirlu here proceed, and with the
great eft truth, te declare mv zealous aitathmcn.
.- j" olhTco'nft i t u t i biroF tlieHDnlt e J"Stat es, thaF T con -
fi ler the union of thefe (laies asthe firlt of bleffitigs
and is the h'rft of duties, the prefer vation of that
Y'Cotiftitution1 which fecHres it; bul fuppoe thele
declarations not pertinent to the .occalion of enter-
ing into an office whole primary bulinels is rnere.lv
- to prcfide over- the forms of the Itoulekand oo one"
snore fincerely prays, that no accident may Call nit
to the higher and more' important' functions which .
the conftitution eventually devolve on this of! cc.
Thrfe have been juftly confided to tbe.emintnt cha
... racier which has preceded nu here, whofe talent
thtongh a long courie' of 'years,- have been the f.un
canon of a cordial and uninterrupted friendlhip be
tween us ; and I devoutly pray he may be long pi e -
icrvea tor tne government, the happinels, and pro
ferity of our common country.
Soon after the Senate removed to the chamber ot
the houfe of reprefentatives. r
Ar an early hour, a great number of cltizenshad
affemblcd round Congrefs Hal,to witnefs the retire
ment of our late worthy Prefident WASHINGTON
' from public life ; the coilcourfe increafed to fuch a
degree as to Jill :ther fteet, landj w.hen t.he gallery
- doors were thrown open, . the houfe was fuddchfy
--filled op, tojoverflpwingTheLadiesddedloThe
. :. dignity of the fcene," numbers of fienTwefe "Heated
In the chairs. of the re pre ten ta fives, and others were
accommodated with feats on the floor of" the houfe.
A few minutes after the Senate arrived preceded by
their prefident t George Wafhington entered, but
before he had advanced-half way acrbfrthe nWr.a
w burft of applaufe broke forth from every quarter of
tne homeon the entrance of John Adams, like
marks of approbation wer: expreflid.
: -The chief juftiire of theUhlted States, Oliver Elf
. Worth, together with judges Bafhink, Wilfon. an
Iredel, were feated at a table in front of the-e levari
ed feat the Prefident then delivered the 'folio wing
'ipeech ; : - ' '''" .
P PL E S I D E N T's S PEE C H.
. When it was firft pfeceiyed in early times that no
..Lliddleieottrfc'6fl'America remained,' between unli
snhed fubmidion to a foreign legiflaiure, and a total
independence of its claims, men of reflection were
. Jef apprehenfive of danger, from the formidable
- power of fleet s and armies, they muft determine to
r. refill, than from thofe contefts and diffentions which
Would certainly. arife, concernine the forms f go
-TcrnrtimF tome niuceoover tne w noie ana"PVeT
tlif sf t hiisjsxt eiili s ecouiritryr"- R el y Ing hb w"
" i ever," on . the purify of their intensions, the juftice ot
their-caufe, apd the integrity and intelligence of th
people, underlain'" over-ruling: providence. "whicli
tail To fignally protefted this country from the firft,
the r.eprejsntativts of this nation'' tittle mWe lfihajfl
, ... ifj jrefiii number, no! oh!j tivke jopL'CeJ Ihibutitl .
wb eh w e frgingt and iht rod of itoh that voj fitted
up, lutjtmkli tuf efunier the ties mhich had hound thtm)
g!td tgunckedJm m.mMdtt0iiJ.
The zeal and -ardour of the people during the re
volutionary war (upplyiog the place otgevernmen.
commanded a degree of order iuflicient at leaft for
the temporary prefervatlon of focictyi"! he con;e
leration which was early felt to be neceliary, wa -prepared
from the models of the Batav hn and Hel
vetic confederacies, the only example which reman
with any detail and precifion, in hiftory ; and cer
:ainlv the nnlv nnrs - whicb the ctoole at lart.
. . . - . 43 . . i I fi;- i . : LJ....LI. !- l : r : -
difference, in lo many partiiulars, between tli?s
country and thofe,J where a courier may go from th
(eat ot governmenr ro thefroiitiersin a lirrgte day"
it was ti eh certainly forefeen by fome who affilte
4noBgrcfstheUnftoation of it, that it coulc
fpeflable, when it defcends from accidents, or inftU
tutions eftabiiflied in remote antiquity, than when
it fDrincs ft eft frem the hearts and iudments of an
honelt and enlightened people f r or it is the people .
only that are reprtientea i u is meir power ana ma,
jefty that is reflecltd, and only for iheir good in e
vcfy"ieitime it may appear; theexiftence of fuch a government
as ours for any length of time, is a lull proof of a
general dilBemination of knowledge and virtue,
throughout the whble,body ot the people and hat
obteit or conlideration more piealing tnan this can,
not be durable.
Neelitrencc of its reealations, inattention of its
recommendations, . if not-dilobe' ier.ee to Us autro J
rity , not only individuals, but in iLtts, uon appear
ed witli their melancho) confequencf s, univtila
langour, jealqufies, and revalues or Kates, decline
of navigation and commerce, diltouragemeHt o
necefiary manufadories, nniverftd fall in tfje value
of lands, and ot her produce i , con t mpt of public and
private faith, loU .ol (ionfideration and credit with
foreign nation': ; and at length in dilcoctents and
an molities, combinations, partial conventions, and
inlurrecltions, threatening fome great national cala
tiiitv. - ' - ' .
.u this dangerous crifis the people of America
wetenot abandoned by their, ufual good fenfc, pre
lence of mind, refolution and integrity.' Meaiures
were purfued to concert a plan, to form a more per
fect union, eftablifh-juftice, inlure dbnicitic trah
quility, provided for the common defence, promote
i he general welfare, ahlTfccure the blellings ot li
berty. The public difquilitions,, difcufllons and de
liberations ilJued in the prefeiit happy tomtitution
Employed in the fervke of my country abro d
during the whole cauie of thele tranfailions, 1 hrft
taw the conltitution of the United' States in a fo
re ign country I r r ilated by litera ry alt e rcations,
rinimated by no public debates, haXt-J by no party
aaimohty, 1 rt-ad ic-AMith "great fatistaction as the
reful t of good heads pi ompied by good hearts, as an
txperiment, better adapted to tlie genius, chara&er,
inuation, and relations pi this nation and country
.4ian any which had tver been propofed orfuggeKed"
In its general principles and great outlines, it was
conformable to luch a lyltein of government as 1 had
yver mod etteemed, and in fome ftates, my native
'late, in particular,, had contributed to eftablifh.
'v 1 aiming a right -of futtrage in connmcn with my
.LtUow.cUtzen, in the- adaption-or -rejection - ot a
c'liiftiiutjon, whish was to rule me and ray pofterity,
s well as them and theirs, I did-not helitate to ex
pref rtiy approbation of it, on all occafions, in pub
lic and in private. It was hot then, nor has it been
fincepany objeftions to it, in my mind, that the ex
ecutive and fenute were not more permanent. Nor
have ( ever ntertained a thought of promotjng any.
alteration in it, bat' fuch "as thm(el ves in the courie
"their" cxperienc'ei'ftbnld fc'en'b "' be'necek.
Tary or expedfent, and by their reprefentative in
cbngrels, and ftate legiflatures, according. to the
conltitution itfelf, adopt and ordain.
r- -' Returning to the bolom of my country, after a
painful feparation from it for ten years, I had the
honour to be eleitedjo a ftauon uncler the newjor
rQWogI repafcdljr laid my felt under thf
moft ferious obligations to fiipport the conftitution.
The operaupnof r'hasequallecLthe moft fanguine
expecUtionsof its friends, ai d from an habitual
aiuntion to it, fatisfadfion in its adminillration and
. deUght: in its effects, upon the pece, order, pro
fptrity, and happineiCdf the nation, 1 have acquired
.in habitual attachment to it, and vencraiion for it
What other jonn of- government indeed can fo well dem
jerve our ejieetn ana love f
is ever jultifiablc or eitulable, it is when it fprings
not from power or riches, grandeur or glory, but
pfom con vict idn
and benevolence. '
n the midft of thefc pleafing ideaSj we fl.otild be
There may be little folidity in an ancient idea.
i hat congrVgationl of men -into hatibnVand cities,
Ire the -in oft pleating objects in the fight of Superior
intelligences f-hut this is very certainnhat TO a ber
nevolent human mind, there can be no fpectacle
pre ented by any nation more pleafirg, more noble,
Jirajeftic, or- Auguft, than an aflembl y like to that
wiMcn nas io oiten oecn teen in tins and the other
-T- .- ', i' - . .
f xe cutivc - autrorny t aswei i astnat of a I It he
branches of the legiflture,lre exercifed by citizen?
Icledtedat regular periods, by their neighbours,
to make and execute laws for the general good. Cair
any thing effential, any thing more than mere orna
meat and decoration, be added to this by robes or
diamonds ?-au utUoiitj'iie mure jUniable'oFfe"
unfaithful to ourfelyes, if we ftouldever lofe fipht
of the danger to our liberties it ahy thing partial
or extraneous ftould infect the purity of our. free
fair, virtuous and independent elediiohs It ar e
lectibn Is to be determined b a majority of a tingle
vote, and that can be procured by a party, through
artifice or corruption, ;the. govemmeiu may te tle
choice of a party, for its own ends, not of a nation,
for the national good. If tl at folitary luflragt can
be obtained by foreign nations, by flattery orrne
naces, by fraud or violence, by terror, jntiigne or
venality, the government may rot .be the cheice of
i he. American people, but of foreign nations. It
niav be foreign nations who govern us, and vvt we
the people wno govern ourfelve. And men, can
did men w,ill acknowledge, that in fuih cafes, choice
would have a little advantage to boaft of, over lot
r chance, . . .-- .1
Such is the amiable and interefl irg fyflem. of go
vernment (and fuch are fome of the atults to which
it mav be' exDofed which the people of America
have exhibited to the admiration ana anxiety of ti e
,"f.t?rr:r' t "it..-.'' - r -!rrzrrtlz?i r.' -g-n.- '.''
wife and virtuous ofall nation?, for eight years. un
derthe adminiftration of a citizen, who by a long
courfe -of great actions, regelated by prudence, uif-
jice, temperance, and fortitude, conducting a ped.
:'t 9fT. i A -L- i-. J
pic, uiipircu wiiii me tame virtues, ana, animatea
.with the fame ardent patriotifro and love of liberty ,
to independence and peace, to encreafing wealth and
unexampled prosperity ; has merited the gratitude
of hisfelIow.citizens,commah"ded the highett praifes
of foreign, nations, and fecured immortal glory,"
V- In that retirement; which is his voluntary choree"
may lie long live to enjoy the delicious recollection
oF Jiis fervices, the gratitude of mankind ; the hapt :
py fruits of them to himfelf and the worjd, which
arc dally increafing ; and lhat lplendid protpert of
the future fortunes of his country, which is opening
I&om year to year ; his name may be ftill st rampart,
and the knowledge that he lives a bulwark, agaiult
all open or fecret enemies of his country's peace.
This example has-been recommended' to the imi
tation of his lucceflbrs, by both Houfes of C'prigrefs,
and by he voice of this legiflatures and the people,
throughput the nation. ' -
On thisTubject it might become me better to te
filentrbr to fpea
mittedls an apology, if 1 venture to fay that, .
If a preference upon frincipie of a free Republi
can government, formed upon long and ferious re
flection after a diligent and hnpartial enquiry after
truth ; if an attachmtut to the conftitution ot the
United States and a jconfclcnuous deterniination. to .
fiipport it, until it fhall be altered by the judgmetit
and wifhes of the" people exprefled in the mode pre
scribed In it i -,-if refpecllul attention to the con
ftjtutions" of the- individual .ftates, and a conftant
caotioa and delicacy towards the ftate governments;
if an equal and Impartial regard to the rights, in
.tcrefisonour.aiidhanpimlsof all the ftates in the
Upton, witlibot preference or regard r6 a northern
or fontltern, an eaftern or weftern pofition, their va
rious political opinions on uneffcntial points, or their
perlbhal attachments ; if a love of virtuous men of
all pafti es a n djdenbmTpa t ion s -i f a love ot -- fcience r
and letters, and a Vifhro patronize eveiy national
effort to'encourage fchools,ollpge8puniverfities7a
cadtmics, ahd every: inflirution, for propagating
knowledge1, virtue' and religion, among all claffes ot
the people ; not only for their benign influence o '
the ha ppinefs of lif e , in all itsi ftages and clafles. and
prefervincoor conftitution from its nat
the fpirit of fophiftry, the fpirit pf party j the Ipirit
of intrigue,, the proflieacy of corruption, aril the
peftilence of foreign influence, wiiich is the angel of
deftruaidn to; tlecliveovf-rrments ; if a love of e.
oual 1 aws, of juftice, and humanity, in the jdIcxiqE
aiBinmrain rir'linntlinatlon JO Improve. aeri
cuture, commerce and manufactures for necefliry.
. . I A