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0 / 75
LIBERTY. ...THE CONSTITUTION;
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PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAY
BY THOMAS WATSON.
At three dollars per annumr payable in advance?
LAWS OF THE UNITED BTATES.
r.vssED It the second sessiqn of the twenty-fihst
ACT making provision for a subscription
compilation of Congressional docu-
irtents. , '
f oe 11 enaciea oy inc &enaie ana nuuse uj jvr
prekentativcs of the United States of America
in, Congress assembled, That the clerk of the
IIousrf Represehtatives?be and he hereby is,
authorised and directed to subscribedor seven
iiunorecj and fifty copies of the compilation of
rii-.irrrVcinnnl dncument.s nronnspd tn -hp nnb-
-vUlii:lvwlv"w . ... " r- w w
jished by Gales fe Seaton ; Provided, That the
documents sshall be selected under the direc
tion of the Secretary of the Senate and the
Clerk ojfr the House of Representatives : jnd
provided, aho, That the price paid for the
printing of the said copies shall be at a rate
printer of Congress for printing the documents
oi the two Houses.
Speaker of the House of Representatives
JOHN C. (CALHOUN.
President of the Senate.
Approved, March'2 , 1831.
ACT making appropriations lor the Indian
. Department for the year;one thousand eight
hundred and thirty-one.
B& it enacted by the Senateand' House of
Tioonnf?iiirt nf fhp TTnit.p.d.Stn.tr.s nf iAmr-
rica in Congress assmbledj, That the follow
ing sums be appropriated, to be. pa id out of any
unappropriated', money inthe Treasury, for
the Iiujian Department, for the year one thou
sand !eht hundred and thirty-one, viz:
Fof" pay of the Superintendent of Indian Af
fairs at St. Louis and the; several Indian agents
as ajithprizid by law, twenty-nine thousand
ivo hundred dollars.
For pay of sub-agents, as authorized by law,
nineteen thousand five hundred dollars.
For pr esents to Indians, as authorized by the
art ol" one thousand eight hundred and twelve,
litie-ch thousand dollars.,
. For pay of Indian interpreters and transla-
oyed at the several superintendences
twenty-one thousand five hun-
For pay of gun and blacksmiths, and their
assistants, .employed within the supeiintenden-
cies and agencies, unaer me ireaiy provisions
and the orders of the Secretary of War, eigh
teen thousand three hundred and forty dollars.
For iron, steel, coal, and other expenses at
tending jhe gun and blacksmith'. ckoF,
thousand! four hundred and itwenty-six dollars.
FnV Pnnnsr of transportation ana aistnuu
linn k( Jndinri annuities, nine thousand nine
May, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, four
thousand eight' hundred and fifty-seven dollars.
I For carrying into effect the treaty of sixth
May, eighteen hundred and twenty-eight, with
the Cherokee Indians, for their removal, &c.
from Georgia, per act twenty-fourth May, one
thousand eight hundred and twenty-eight, fifty
nine, thousand one hundred and thirty-four dol
lars and nineteen cents.
For expense of Indian delegations to explore
the country West of the Mississippi, per act
twenty-fourth May, eighteen hundred and r-ven-ty-eight,
one hundred and fifty-nine dollars.
1 For running the Indian boundary line in
Florida, per act twenty-sixth May, eighteen
hundred and twenty-four, one -hundred and
thirty-five dollars and forty-nine cents.
; For purchase of Creek and Cherokee reser
vations, per act second March, eighteen hun
dred and twenty-three, twenty-one hundred
For expense of treating with the Choctaws
and Chicasaws, for extingiushment of their title
to lands within the limits of Mississippi, per act,
twentieth May, eighteen hundred and twenty
six, six hundred and fifty-eight dollars.
Approved, March 2d, 1831.
AN. ACT to extend the act, entitled "An act
for the further extending the powers of the
Judges of the Superior Court of the Terri
tory of Arkansas, under the act of the twen-ty-sxith
day of May, one thousand eight hun
dred and twenty-four, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Re
presentatives of the United States of America
in Congress assembled, That the act, entitled
"Anact for the further extending the powers of
the Judges of the Superior Court of the Terri
tory of Arkansas, under the act 6f the twenty
sixth day of May, one thousand eight hundred
and twenty-four, and for other purposes," ap
proved on the eighth day of May, one thousand
eight hundred I and thirty, be, and the same is
hereby, extended and continued in force until
the eighth day of May, one thousand eight hun
dred and thirty-two.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That each
of the Judges of the Superior Court of the
Territory of Arkansas shall, whilst in the dis
charge of the duties imposed by this act, be al
lowed at the rate of eight hundred dollars per
annum, in addition to their salary as Judges of
the Superior Court for the said Territory, which
shall be in full their of services, to be paid
out of any ,money in the Treasury not other
wise appropriated. '
Approved, March 2, 1831.
AN ACT to extend the patent of Samuel Brownine
for a further period of fourteen 1 years.
it enaciea oy the senate and House of
csciuanves oj trie united states of Ame
rica in Congress assembled That there be,
ana nereby is, granted unto Samuel Browning,
a citizen of the United States his h eirs admin
istrators, and assigns, for the term of fourteen
years trom the twenty-fourth day of November,
eignteen hundred and twenty-eight, the full
and exclusive right and liberty of making, con
siructing, using, and vending to others to be
used, his improvement called a U magnetic se
parating machine," a description of which is
giveji in a schedule annexed to letters patent
granted to the said Samuel Browniiig for ,the
same on tne twenty-fifth day of November,
eighteen hundred and fourteen.
Approved March 3 1831;
AN ACT making appropriations for the public
buildings, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repre
sentatives of the United States of America in Con
gress assembled, That the following sums be,
and thaoompflrp UU.r, A-.rvlcl, j MiUUI'I
ated, to be paid out of any money in the Treas
ury nototherwise appropriated, for the follow-
ing purposes, that is to say
hundred and htty-nme aonars.
:. For expense of provisions for Indians at the
distribution of annuities while on visits of busi
ness with the different superintendents and
agents, aiid when assembled on business eleven
thousand eigbj hundred and ninety dollars.
For contingencies of the Indian Department,
.For Expenses incurred in surveying the
northwestern boundary lines of the Miami and
Fotawatamie cession by treaties of sixteenth
October,1, "one thousand eight hundred and
twenly-slx, and twenty-third October,
thousand! eight hundred and twenty six,
hundred and twenty-seven dollars.
For surveying and dividing, the reservation
r -granted to the halt-Dreed sacs ana r oxes Dy
the treaty of fourth August, one thousand eight
hundred land twenty four, two hundred dollars.
For the payment of sundry claims for Indian
depredations, heretofore allowed at the De
partment of War, one thousand three hundred
F6r payments made for provisions and neces
sary 'assistance to Indians emigrating to the
yest, and to those tribes now settled on or
rinr itVin I KniiTac rutror Wpt nf thf MlSSmiTl.
in addition to the approbation heretofore made
tor that object oy act 01 nrntn iviay, one inou-
: iand ei?ht himdred and twentv-eight, three
'ihoiisan'dj five hundred and sixty-two dollars
For provisions and. other assistance to In
dians! reriioving to the West from Ohio, Indiana
Illinois and Missouri, required in one thousand
' eight! 'hiindred and thirty-one, five thousand
For ;building houses for Indian agents, sub
agents, blacksmith's shops in all the several
agencies, seven thousand dollars.
Spp 2i . A lid he ft further rnnr.tprl- That, tbp
lollowing sums, carried to the surplus tund,
at the commenpement of the present year, be
and tie same are hereby appropriated, viz : ! -
"For additional expense at the Red river
agency per act of ninth May, one thousand
J .-tight! hundred and twenty-eight, thirteen hun
AN ACT to incorporate a Fire Insurance Company
j 11 yeurgerown in tne Uistnct ot Columbia.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
xve preventatives oj the United States of Ame
rica in Congress assembled,- That the sub
scribers to this company, their successors and
assigns, shall be, and they are hereby,, created
a body politic and corporate, by the name and
style of the "Potomac Fire Insurance ! Compa
ny of Georgetown;" and shall by that name
have succession, and shall be able to sue : and
be sued, implead and be impleaded, in all courts
of law in the United States, and to make and
use one common seal, and the same to alter and
amend at their pleasure.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That sub
scriptions be opened in Georgetown, in the
District aforesaid, under the qirection of Fran
cis Dodge, Raphael Semmes, Walter Smith,
John Kurtz, William S. Nicholls, L. G. Da
vidson, John Marbury, Joel Cruttenden, O. M.
Linthicum, James Dunlop, William G. Ridge
ley, Samuel Humphreys, and William Hayman
as Commissioners, orVmajority of them, for
raising a capital stock of two-hundred thousand
dollars, divided into eight thousand shares of
twenty-five dollars each.
Sec. And be it further enacted, That the
said Commissioners after giving ten days pre
vious notice of the time and place for recei
ving subscriptions of the said stock shall pro
ceed to receive the same ; and should the num
ber of shares subscribed exceed the number of
which the capital stock consists, then, and in
such case, the said Commissioners are hereby
authorized and directed so to apportion the
shares subscribed among the several subscri
bers, by proportional reduction, as may reduce
the whole to the aforesaid number of eight thou
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That, the
sum of one dollar on each shjjre shall be paid
to the Commissioners at the I time of subscri
bing, and a further sum. of four dollars on each
tV days previous notice to the stockholders, in
one or more newspapers printed in the District
of Columbia, not exceeding two "dollars on
each share: and that the remainder of the said
For completing the painting of the Capitol, twentv-five dollars shall be secured bv notes
three thousand, seven hundred and sixty dol- payable on demand, signed and endorsed to the
ars. cnticfnrtirm nf thp Prpsidpnt and directors.
The said notes shall be renewed whenever the
directors may consider it proper; but the di
rectors are hereby required tp cause the same to
be renewed at least once in. every twelve
months; and every stockholder neglecting or
refusing to renew his note, or neglecting or
refusing to Dav anv instalment, when required
mates of the year one thousand eight hundred byhe President and Directors so to do, shall
For planting and improving the ground with
, the enclosure of the Capitol square, includ-
the gardener s salary for one thousand
eight hundred and thirty, and one thousand eight
hundred and thirty-one; and pay of laborers,
hree thousand dollars. ,
To make good the deficiency in the esti-
the president and directors elected as aforesaid ; -that
the president shall preside at all meetings!
01 the directors, and, in case of absence, his 1
piace may be supplied by one of the directors,
appointed by the board; that the president and
dlrctors shall have power and authority to
make alLkinds of insurances against loss or
damage by fire, and insurances on inland trans
portation of goods, wares, merchandise, and
teountry produce, not exceeding ten thousand
JV'T .ne Tolicy and to invest the
r " .T ""ion in stock, or dispose of
the sime in such manner as in their judgement
may be most advantageous to the said institu
tion; that they shall have full power and au
thority to appoint a secretary, and such other
clerks and servants under them as shall be Ac
cessary for transacting the business of the said
institution and may allow them such salary as
they shall judge reasonable; to ordain and
establish such by-laws, ordinances, and regu-
auons, as snail appear to them necessary for
For extinguishment of the title of the Creeks
to land in Georgia, per act twenty-sixth May,
me thousand eight hundred and twenty-four, ba
lance re-appropriatcd twenty-first March, eigh
teen hundred and twenty-eight, four, thousand
nine hundred and eighty-nine dollars and fifty
For claim&.ao-ainst the Osages,by citizens of
- the United States, per act third March, eigh'
teen hundred and ihineteen. balanccreappro-
priated tiwpnty-first March, eighteen Tiundred
and twenty-eight,- ejight hundred and thirty
: lour jdollars and fifty cents. ;:.'
-Folr extinguishment of the claims of the
Cherpkees to their lands in Georgia, per act
mntlj May, one thousand eight hundred and
i twenty-eight, fortysix thousand one hundred
and four I dollars and fifty cents:
For carrvinor intn effect the treatv concluded
with1 the Creeks, fifteenth November, eighteen
hundred twenty-seven, per act twenty-fourth
and twenty-nine, for finshing gates and fences,
thousand nine hundred and eaghty-four
For lighting lamps in and round the square,
and erecting twenty-four new lamps, one tho-
sand five hundred dollars.
For alterations and repairs, five hundred
For new stoves for warming and ventilating
the hall of the House of Representatives," eight
, For purchasing Seneca stone flagging for the
terrace and walks adjoining the Capitol, three
-mm -W 1 "T m A
For employing Jonn r razee to execute a
bust of John Jay for the Supreme Court room,
four hundred dollars.
For painting the President's house, inside
and out, three thousand : tour hundred ana
eighty-two dollars. i j
For planting, and improving'jthe grounds a
bout the President's housed including the gar
dener's salary, four thousand dollars.
For alterations and repairs of the President's
house, five hundred dollars.
For funiture, and repairs of furniture, five
thousand dollars. 1
For compensation to Charles Bulfinch, late
Architect of the Capitol, for his extra services
in planning and superintending the huilding of
the penitentiary at Washington, the jail in
Alexandria, the additional buildings for the
Post Qffice and Patent Office, and for allow.
ancefo returning with his familyl to Boston,
eleven hundred dollars.
1 Approved, March 2, 1831.
forfeit, all his interest in this company, and be
- - - M.
held liable for his proportion of any loss which
may have occurred previous to such neglect or
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That,
should any forfeiture be incurred by any mem
ber of this institution, the same may be annul
led, remitted, and made void by a majority of
the whole board of directors present at the
meeting at which the motion for such remis
sion shall be made : Provided, That no remit
tance of any forfeiture under this act shall take
place without the payment of the principal of
said instalment, and interest thereon, or the re
newal of his note, as required by the directors,
as also the payment of his proportion of such
loss as mav have occurred ore vious to such
-j ----- X
Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, 1 hat, as
soon as two thousand shares shall be subscribed
for, the Commissioners hereby authorized to
receive subscriptions shall call a meeting of the
subscribers, after giving ten days notice in one
or more of the newspapers printed in the Dis
trict of Columbia, and the subscribers who shal
assemble in consequence of such notice, or ap
npnr bv nroYV. shall choose bv ballot from
amonff the stockholders, by a majority of votes
twelve directors, who shall continue in office
until the first Monday m August, in the year
one thousand eight hundred and thirty one ; on
which Monday in August, in every! succeeding
year thereafter, an election shall be neia tor
twelve directors as aforesaid, whoishaii con
tinue in' office for one-year from the time of
their election, ajiu until others be chosen in
thpir atpnrl - and thp said directors, at their
1 . a -. .
regulating and conducting the concerns of
said institution, not being contrary to, or in
consistent with, this act, or the laws and con
stitution of the United States; that the said
president and directors shall conduct business
in Georgetown, that they shall keep full, fair,
and correct entries of their transactions, which
shall be at all times open to the inspection of
the stockholders ; they shall also have power
Jo hire or purchase a suitable building or build
ings in Georgetown, for the purpose of trans
acting the affairs of the institution ; that the
president, or such other person as may be ap
pointed in his place, and four directors, shall
form a quorum for transacting business, and all
questions which may come before them shall
be decided by a plurality of votes.
feec. 9. And be it further enacted, That, all
policies of insurance made bv this corporation
shall be signed bv the nresidpnr. .if.tpst.pd hv
the Secretary, and sealed with the common
seal thereof ; and all losses on any such policy
or policies shall be adjusted by the president and
board of directors, and paid agreeably to the terms of
tne policy, out ol the tunds ot the company.
Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That, di
vidends of the nett profits arising on the card-
- 1 1
tal stock, or so much thereof as to them may
appear advisable, alter reserving one third of
the nett profits as a surplus fund, until it shall
amount to the sum of twenty thousand dollars,
shall be made at such periods as the president
and directors may judge proper, not oftener
than once in six months, and the same shall be
paid to the stockholders or their legal repre
sentatives ; but if a dividend shall at any time
be declared of greater amount than the nett
profits of the said company at the time of mak
ing the same, each and every director that con
sented thereto shall, and is hereby declared to
be liable for, in his individual capacity, and
bound to contribute to make ood thj defici
ency in tne capital stock occasioned by such
Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That, no
stockholder shall be answerable, in his person
or individual property, for any contract or
agreement of said company, or for any losses,
deficiences, or failures, of the capital stock of
said institution, except in the case of a director
declaring an improper dividend, as before
provided for in the tenth section of this act ;
but the whole of the said capital stock together
with all property, rights, and credits, belong
ing thereto, and nothing more, shall at any
ime be answerable for the demands against the
Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That the
stock of this institution is hereby declared per
sonal and not real estate, and may be assigned
and transterred on the books 01 the company,
in person or by power of attorney only ; but no
stockholder indebted to the company shall be
permitted to make a transfer, or receive a divi
dend, until such debt is paid or secured to the sa
tisfaction of the president and board of directors.
Sec. 13. And be it further enacted, That this
act shall be and continue in force until the first
day of December, in the year one thousand
eight hundred and fifty, and until the end of
the next session of Congress which shall hap
pen thereafter; and on the dissolution or expi
ration of thisi-charler, the president and direc
tors for the time being shall take prompt and
effectual measures for closing all its concerns :
but no such disolution or expiration shall ope
rate so as to prevent any suits to be brought or
continued by or against the said corporation,
for any debt or claim due by or to, the same,
and which arose previously to laid dissolution
expiration ; but tor the purpose of closing
AN ACT for the relief of , John Gough, and first meeting, shall choose from among them-
other Canadian refugees. selves, or from the stockholders at large, a
Bp it prtar.tp.d hv the Senate and House of president, and allow him a reasonable com-
Renresentatives of the United States of, Ame- pensation for his services; and, in case of death,
rica in Congress assembled, That the Presi- removal, resignation, or other disqualification
rfp.nt of thpTTnitpH States be autnorizea to issue ot me president or any 01 me uireciuis,
to John Gouah. of Indiana, a patent tor the remaining directors may elect others to supply
.1 . 1 . 1 - j I a 1 " 1 J I .Atniiinilaii rC Vtt lorm
norineast quarter ol section eieveu, m iuwsm tneir places uunug n iciuoumci ui
twelve, north, of range nine, west, in tne vm- for which they were cnosen.
its concerns, its corporate powers shall remain
Approved, March 2, 1831.
AN ACT for the relief of certain holders of certificates
issued in lieu ol lands injured by earthquakes in
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of Ame
rica in Congress assembled, That the legal
owners of any certificate's of new location is
sued under the act of seventeenth Febuary, one
thousand eight hundred and hiteen, for the re
lief of pcrsous whose lands were injured by
earthquakes in Missouri, which may have been
located upon lands, any part of which has been
adjudged to any person or persons as a right
of pre-emption, shall be authorized to locate
such warrants, upon such lands as are liable
to entry at private sale, Provided, That previ
ous to making such new location, the owners
cennes land district, upon the condition ex
pressed therein,' that neither said , John, nor
any person under him. shall claim any benefit
under a patent, erroneously issued for the south
east quarter of said section, and alleged to be
lost. '. ! j i , .
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the
existing laws for the correction of errors in the
purchase of the public land shall j be equally
applicable to erroneous locations of the war
rants of Canadian refugees. !
Approved, 2d March, 1831.
Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That eve
rv subscriber shall be entitled to vote by
lmsplf. his aorent or proxy, appointed under
his hand and seal, attested by two witnesses,
at all electio ns made by virtue of this act ; and
shall have as many votes as he holds shares, as
far as ten shares ; one yote for every five shares
which he may hold over ten shares as far as fif
ty other shares; and one vote fore very twenty
shares which he may hold oyer sixty shares ,
Sec. 8. And be it f urther enacted That, the
affairs of this, institution shall be conducted by
aforesaid . shall jejinquish to the United all
claim to the previous location. And Provided
further, That such locations shall be made and
patents issued thereior, unaer tne same regu
lations, and restrictions, as if the locations had
been made under the provisions the second
section of the act of the twenty-sixth April one
thousand eight hundred and twenty-two, enti
tled "An act) toperfect certain locations and
sales of 4he public lands in Missouri."
Sec. And be it further enacted, That this
act shall remain yi force for the term of eigh
teen months' from the passage thereof.
Apprcvrd, March Sf, 1531,
Niles to the friends of the American System.
AsMr. Niles is viewed as a sori of poMcal
oracleas one of the pillars of the American
&ystem--we shall offer to the public a brief
commentary oh his late address. q ' -
Mr. Niles sis out .by declaring the gratifica
jon each fnendf theystem must feel, jnthe
"present general prosperity of his country"
which is mainly, ifnoA solely attributed to this
operation of the American System. But, how
does he prove that the country is prosperous,
and, that it has been rendered $0 by the system
Why, forsooth, by alleging tbt we have an
unparalleled abundance of specie The bartial
failure of a crop or two in Europe and the
possibility of a general war in that hemisphere,
have not only increased the demand for mr
bread stuffs, but caused thousands of capitalists
to send their funds to this country, for safe-
Keepmrg; and the rapid liquidation of the na
tional debt is throwing back into circulation,
more than ten millions of dollars per annum.
1 hese are really the causes that ha produced
the temporary redundancy of circulating medi
um to which Mr. Niles refers; To prove that
it has not been the result of 'the protective
policy, it is only necessary to remark, that our
exports of cotton and woollen goods, amount to
little or nothing and that, owing to the pros
perous condition of this country, we cannot
expect, and ought not to- expect, for centu
ries to come, to be able to compete with Eng- '
land, in the busines of supplying other nations
with cotton or woollen goods The rectitude
of this -position is clearly demonstratpd. W ih
anxiety manifested by the manufacturers and '
.their friends, for the perpetuation of the exis
ting high duties on cotton and woollen cloths.
Would such solicitude be felt for the perpetu
ation of a scale of protecting duties, ranging
from fifty to two hundred per centum, if we
could really manufacture so cheap as to be able
to enter into competition with England in sup
plying other nations with such fabrics? The
very idea is preposterous. .
It will not be denied that manufactures tend
to increase our national wealth ; but it may be
safely asserted, that they have rtotyet had the
effect of perceptibly increasing the qdantity of
the precious metals in this country because
we have not been able to export a sufficient
amount of cotton or woollen goods to produce
such a result. So far from being able to enter
into competition with England, in supplying
other nations with cotton and woollen goods,
the amount of our imports from that kingdom
has not been materially diminished. On the
contrary, it is now increasing, will be de
monstrated by the next annualReport of the
Secretary of the Trasury; and it will continue
to increase with unprecedented rapidity, until
a thorough modification oTtlae xiwxitg tnriST
shall be effected;
The fact, that this country is flourishing,
proves nothing. Vast in extent, fertile, and
blessed with institutions which have not yet (
served to shackle, in, any material degree, the !
industry of its inhabitants, and serving asthe
asylum of the oppressed of all nations how
could it fail to flourish?,. The prosperity of a
country, receiving hundreds of . thousands Of
emigrants per yca so boundless, so rich in
soil and resourced, could only be checked by
the perpetuation of something like the existing
The remarks we have already made are quite
as pertinent as those of Mr. Niles. Like him,
we have, thus far, only referred to the effects
of the present tariff in general terms but,
while he is evidently charmed with its supposed
tendency to increase the happiness -and pros
perity of the nation, we contend that it is calr
culated, in the sequel, to undermine j all the
important manufacturing interests of the coun
try. z ' '
We are now importing manufacturesxfiron
trom England, jrom a horse-snoc nail to an
anchor. We can no longer ; supply ourselves
with chain cables or anchors drawing chains
hammers, hatchets, shovels, tongs, cast or
wrought hinges, hoes, frying pans, &c. &c.
&c. In short, we are importing, not only"
horse shoes and horse-shoe nails, with almost
every other species of manufacture of iron-
but our black-smiths arc, in a manner, Compel
led to buy English anvilsvices, hammersy&c
It is thus demonstrated, that, under the exis
ting tariff, our black-smiths cannot enter into
competition with those of England, in supply- .
ing their own tools ! Yet this is part of a sys.
tern which the mechanics of this country are
urged to support! !
The duty-on boots is $ 50 per pair on
shoes 25 cents per pair. On leather the duty
SO npr ppnt. advnlorem. The increased val
ue given to leather amounts to about one dol
lar on the stock of each pair ofAmerican boots
which leaves a protecting duty of not more
than 50 cents per pair in faror of the American
boot-maker, which is not sufficient to coyer Ahe
difference between the vaHe of labor in rxJh
"land and in the u. estates, lne protection
afforded to the American shoemaker is still
less, as it does not exceed 7 or 8 cents per pair,
on coarse and fine shoes for grown persdns.
The English government, by repealing I the
duty on leather, imported into that kingdom,
some two or three years since has, to a great
extent, if not effectually, counteracted the pro
tective policy of the American government, so
far, as it was designed rio operate in favb of
the maniifartirrp of boots and shoes. ne
prostration of that branch qf.iutJsfry in m
of the States and a great depression of it
throughout the Union, has bceriVthe natural"
consequence. . . -; . 1 L : !
The condition of the hatter is as oepioramr
c fbt ihe &hnp-ma1t er. and he is soon
tined to know and feel it. -In the, tot,; place;
by the operation of the tariff, he is compel
led to pay about fifty per-ceUUinOTre for furs
than the English manufacturer ij, th
the difference in labor, enables the Bngllslu
manufactures to ship vast quantities of hatto
i this country hnisAea ana unjunsnm. vj