LIBERTY. ...THE CONSTITCTION....CNI0N.
NEWBERN, FRIDAY, AUGUST 3 O, 1833.
BV THOMAS WATSON.
Thrce dollars per annum, payable in advance
prom the Richmond Enquirer.
le scze this opportunity to lay before our readers
. bViowin Exposition from the pen of Hill Carter,
eV.riev- well known as one of the best among the
cdigbteDe(l :irmcrs on the Jamea Rver.
From the Farmers' Register.
THE FOUR SHIFT SYSTEM.
behest rotation for James River lands, or any
good wheat and Corn soils.
r imagine no one will deny that the best rotation of
c-ops is lr,at wnwn yieins tne greatest pront to tne
r-Vmer. and at the pame time enables him to improve
hig land the most rapidly. The great, object is to
combine both profit and improvement. By some
systems, you may improve faster than by the above,
hut theivyou mr-ke much les3 profit; and by none,
In a series of years, will you make more profit with
he same improvement.
I think I cannot establish the above theory in a
r.orc satisfactory manner than by giving a concise
nccount of the system practised on a James river
farm for the last seventeen years, with what success
I leave the reader to judge from the product. In the
year 1816, 1 came to live on Shirley, a farm of nine
hundred acres, six hundred and fifty of which were
cleared, and which had been in the hands of over
seers for many years previous, who cultivated it on
the old-fashioned system of three shifts that is to say,
the first year in corn, second in wheat, and third in
pasturethe most ruinous system that could be in
rented, taking into consideration the shallow plough
ing; and waste of manure, or almost total disuse of it.
By this system the farm was so much impoverished,
that it barely supported itself two years out of the
three, when'the two best fields were cultivated ; and
the third year, they had to bring corn to support it
!rom other lands at a distance. The whole farm was
covered with galls. I merely mention these things
10 prove the impoverished state of the land.
1 will also state the crops reported to have been
,1. nmtriniia in mv rnmincr here in live. TVrnfn
twelve hundred to fifteen hundred bushels of wheat,
(sometimes not merchantable,) and four hundred to
6ix hundred barrels of corn on either oPthe best shifts
of two hundred acres each, was considered freat crop
ping by the overseers; and seven hundred to one
tSusand bushels of wheat, and three hundred to
four hundred barrels of corn on the third shift of t wo
hundred and fifty acres, was considered "still better as
that was the poorest. This was about six or seven
bushels of wheat, or two or three barrels of corn to the
acre, on the best field?, and much less on the poorest:
so that it may be supposed the land must have been
vptv much exhausted, and the management very
bad. When I first came home to live I knew nothing
of acriculture, nd for tne first three vear: continucd
the three shift system. But 1 soon saw that the over
seer knew little or nothing of his trade, and what lit
tle he did k now, did not practice; so that 1 dismissed
him as soon as his term expired, and employed, for
1817, a man who was industrious, and one of the
best corn makers in the state, (having been all his
life in the great com country on the Pamunkey.)
From him 1 learnt how to make corn, but he knew
nothing of wheat, clover and plaster, or any of the
present modes of improvement. However, by the aid
of good ploughing, and collecting all the manure
which had been neglected for years on the farm, he
made a better crop of corn on the poorest shift, than
had been made for manv vears back, even on the
best. He made eight hundred barrels. His crop of
' wheat in 1818, following this crop of corn, was mdir
. ferenu f being still on the three shift system.) only
1 eleven hundred and fifty bushels. I saw that there
was something wrong about this system, and began
to read a little on the subject of aericulture, and soon
discovered that the three shift system was totally
wrong; and alt'.iugh I sowed clover and plaster it
would not answer. At the same time that I began
to ri 1 on the subject of agriculture, I went frequent
ly to&iit mv good friend John G. Mosby, who then
lived'in Curies' Neck, on James river, and to whom
low r V f;iiiia, or ;it leat lower J.-inie rsver, is more
in-Jebt'jJ than to any other man in the State, for the
introduction of clover and plaster, and the fallow sys
tfm ihr- three forming the sheet anchor on a farm
. for when ill seems to be lost, they will save the ship
From mv friend J
Another change was made in 1826, and will con
tinue through the remained of the table, viz : the corn
crops were altogether derived from the reclaimed
swamp, then brought into cultivation, (as described
in my previous Communication,) and oats occupied
the whole of the field before used for corn, and there
after was the only spring crop of the rotation on high
land, with a single exception in 1831. I will here
remark that having a corn mill on the estate, which
yielded enough toll corn to feed the labourers and
raise the hogs, and the oats being more than sufficient
to feed the horses and other stock, the com became
all (or very nearly all) a sale crop. Besides the crop
stated in the table, we generally made enough cotton
to clothe the negroes, and pork to feed them, all of
which had been purchased under the former three
v Wheat. Corn. Oats.
Year Bushels. Barrels. Bushels.
1826 4030 445 2500
1827 2945 408 6000
182cV 3300 508 1463
18297 3150 833 2255
1830t 3G81 620 2433
1831fc 3860 562 2300
1832 5900 509 good crop.
X but used
fl This was the greatest oat year ever known in
our country. We threshed and measured only half
the shocks, which made three thousand bushels, and
the remainder estimated at the same, was cut and
fed away in the straw.
g Ploughed in fifty acres of oats to ameliorate
the land, having a large supply of the preceding
year's crop on hand still. The effect produced by
ploughing in the oats, did not justify the repetition.
A Some oats cut up for feeding this year and the
next, are not included in the quantity stated for those
i Limed fifty acres fallowed land with five hun
dred casks of stone lime the effect very considerable
on the wheat
k Two hundred barrels of this crop of corn were
from twenty -five acres of the oat field, which is the
only exception to the general practice of corn being
excluded from the highland.
i Three hundred and twenty-five acres in wheat,
instead of two hundred as before, by an addition from
the land before kept lor pasture.
In the fall of 1831, the standing pasture (two hun
dred and fifty acres,) was divided into four equal
parts, and one of them added to each of the lour fields,
so as to increase the size of each to one hundred and
sixty-two and a half acres. This year ( 1833,) I have
purchased two hundred acres for a standing pasture,
to make my Fystem complete: and the next winter,
shall clear twenty five acres more to add to mv cul
tivated fields, which (with the 25 acres in lots kept
for grazing,) will make seven hundred acres for cul
tivation, and two hundred acres for pasture, exclusive
of the reclaimed land. I now expect to begin to reap
the full benefit of m v system of cultivation. The first
r it i
our Hundred acres may be considered as permanent-
v improved, and the reoent addition from the formor
pasture in a fair way of improvement, as it is wel
taken with clover, and the whole crops ought now
to increase every year.
Since. 1825, we have mowed very little clover, as
the cultivation and other labors of the reclaimed
swamp have left but little time tor hay-making. Con
sequently, nearly all the clover has been ploughed in
to improve the soil:
In addition to the results above stated, i will now
give my reasons for thinking the four shift system the
best for our James River lands.
In the first place, one of the obiects of the Virginia
farmer should be, to make as much as possible for each
hand employed, as labor is much dearer than land in
this country, and he cannot make a full profit to the
hand without cultivating a tolerably large sunace,
which the four shift system enables him to do.
Secondly, no farmer can improve his land or keep
up its fertility, without a great deal ot manure, and
that manure cannot be made without a great deal of
offal, of which to make it. The four shifts, with the
standing pasture, give him more offal than any other
system. J he standing pasture supports stock enough
through the summer, without grazing his clover
fields, to convert his offal into manure during winter;
and it is all important in this system not to graze
your clover fields which are to be fallowed, so as to
havo a heavy clover lay to turn under, to restore the
land after the three successive grain crops, as well as
n tf tuhn hv the hv was to make a good crop ol wheat the ensuing year.
u- """ . ' . I - .u . i. - : u .1
one ofthehpst farmers in the stated I Obtained a m im miru piuce, 11 is my upuiiuu mat wie iuu.c
i ir . t 1
grt deal of useful information; and in the fall ot lrequentiy you plough up your land, provided you
taiA aiinMa.1 tua, hn,,r ohift t hv thmw ho1 out turn un.ter manure, or a gooa my 01 some kiiiu, iciu-
the poorest field of t wo hundred and fifty acres, and ver is the best,j the laster you improve it ; and mere
making pasture of it, and cultivating the other two is uu system in wmciiyuucanraanmuu. T"U1C
KTi;rfa in r. ..!.! r, htmHrmi nrrpa Mr.h. instead or so often turn under the clover lay as m this.
of two. oi two hundred acres each. This change re-1 nne on tne sunjeci 01 manures, i win uigress v.
ou red annnallv nne field of one hundred acres m mue.iu meuuuii some lew expen.uemB i nave mauo,
enm ,.,ha,t ..ftor m third in clover J and will first state, that it is of very little consequence
Rnrl . frtw ,v,., rnf nn.l ihe sue.- in my opinion, now you use your manure, provmea
cession of crops on each separate field was in the lore- ym really do use it. The great art is to make it
going order, of 1st com 2d: wheat 3d. clovei 4th. and that m large quantities. It is like money : any
wheat, t he standing Dasture Drevented the neces- one can spcuu u, uut icw aUlcl ,
titv of rrmzincr in the rnltiuuo,i rt nf the farm. t- m any quantity.
. ; I f a : ( lOOO f ,1. U- (Xllnnrmr nTnopi
cent orrnsional v. 'hp.t L m-.i rr r The. in uicByrm w iwo, i umuc mc luiiunme twtu
cron of whent afterthp rinvorTll iftio uriia37ifi ment. Mv farm pen manure, which . I generally
f - si iuiiu fit III A w . . . ll . 1
OUFhe r. r Which I carr pH in Mow VnrL- nl irnt n aOPIV OV PlOUgnillg 111 vviui utc tiuvri mimw in w;
hnh nriP Cnr Tho Urr c Li ki fall, iust before sowinsr wheat, was divided into four
. ... ' I . 1 l I VA Ml V W k A V1 I
ms lour hundred and eighty-seven barrels. 1 now P3 one ol wnicn was nauieu uui wujrm npm,
Cotluliy into the clover, plaster and fallow system, and plougned in a second pan was uauieu oui, auu
and will now state the amount of crops, the seasons, used as a top-dressing on the clover, which was back-
the success, and failures, causes, &c. &c. and by way ward and unpromising a third was bauled out and
of fair comparison, will becin with 1816, the vear I left in heaps, each heap a wagon load, and well co-
begun farming, vered with earth until the fall, and then ploughed in
just before sowing wheat; and tne lourm was leu in
Ko farm irar aa liaim 1 with me. until the fall, and
then hauled out, and ploughed in, just before sowing
wheat. The top dressing produced the Dest wneat
that which was left in the farm yard until the fall,
the nextand that which was ploughed under in
April, the worst. But in the crops since that time,
there has been no difference visible, and all the pieces
very much improved : so that I am ot the
opinion stated before, that it is of little consequence
how you use manure, so that it is really used and
mat it w spread well over the surface, which is very
important. There is one exception to the above opin-
ion, li it could be practised but I have never seen
the farmer in our climate in the lower country who
could. I allude to the winter ton dressing of wheat.
which is certainly the quickest in effect, and the most
permanent in duration : but we can never use it in
that way to anv extent in our climate, for several
is very important on weak land ; and then in the sum
mer, it protects the young clover from our hot sun
and great draughts which we freanentlv i
consider a good crop of clover as equal to two manu
rings, ana it is mat wnicn makes the top dressing in
winter so durable, because it secures the r1m, i
top dress a little, though very little, every winter
and I am sure that I can go now and point out everv
spot that has been done so for the last ten years, so
ycimtuieiu is uiis way oi manuring. There is fre
quently great waste of manure from applying too
much to the acre. The object, of a farmer should be
to cover a large surfacenarith his manure just apply-
iii euuugn io mane ine ciover taKe wen, and bv
pjasienng nis ciover ne will have the best possible
manure in a good clover lay. My practice is to put
twenty-two good wagon loads of stable manure to
the acre, and thirty verylieavy wagon loads of farm
pen manure to the acre; as that is very inferior to the
stable manure, and in that manner I get over about
50 acres of land per annum.
i will now return to the reasoning on the four shift
system. In the fourth place, our lands are very lia
ble to weeds of every kind, to onions, blue grass, wire
grass, partridge pea, and many others, so that they
require a spring hoe crop very frequently to keep
them clean ; the four shift system, with corn every
lounn year, win do mat very eriectually. I have
tried the oat crop instead of the corn crop as a clean
ser, but it will not answer. The oat crop is an effec
tual cleanser of onions for the time being, that is to
say your crop of wheat for two or three years after
tne oats will be perlectly free from onions, but they
will return after a while, if you stop the oat svstem.
But the oats do not in the 1 .ast prevent the growth of
oiue grass, wire grass, or patridee pea. and a hoe
crop is the only remedy. I shall now be compelled,
to my sorrow, to abandon oats as a cleanser, and sub
stitute the corn crop, so loul has my land become of
every thing except the onion, which the oat crop has
Kept under, l have this year lost one-third of ray
l A L 11 T I .1 r.
wueui oy Diue grass, i consider tne oat crop il a
heavy one, fully as exhausting as the corn crop ; and
1 do not regret being obliged to abandon it and take
up the corn crop, on that account, but I regret it on
account oi tne onion, ol which the corn crop is not
half so good a cleanser; and, besides, I shall find it
too laborious to cultivate one-fourth of my land in
corn, in addition to my swamp land : but it must be
done there is no alternative, for the blue grass must
The fifth and last reason in favour of the four shift
system, with standing pasture, is, that it requires less
fencing than any other. You may have your four
fields either under one fence or divivided into two
equal divisions, with a fence to each, which is the
most convenient, as you may then occasioally graze
your fields, when it will be the least iniurious. It
will be found that the non-grazing system will not
do altogether; for, after awhile the land become
too much puffed up, and too full of vegetable matter,
to make a good crop of wheat. That may be reme
died though, by grazing immediately after haulins
off your wheat every year: and provided you take
your cattle ott whenever the ground is too wet it
does not in jure the young clover in the least, but ra
ther benefits it for clover ; like wheat, requires the
hoof op the land occasionally, or the land becomes
too porous and puffed up by the Vegetable matter ;
and besides, the young clover is very much protected
by the growth ot weeds, which require breaking and
trampling down. You may graze your fields from
which you have taken your wheat, until you put
your cattle up into winter quarters, with the forego
ing precaution in wet weather. But never suffer
any thing to run on your clover field the year you
expect to iollow it. It is that which I have hereto-
ore spoKen oi as so oojcctionaie.
I have frequently remarked that a field of clover
which was grazed moderately while young, from
tne time tne wheat was taken ott until the time to
put cattle up into winter quarters, would take a
much earlier start the next spring than one which
had not been grazed, owing to the weeds in the kit-
lev case cnoKinsr ud ana ReeDin Dack tne vounf
The standing pasture may be made of the most
inferior land on the farm, which will, in the course of
some years, be very much improved by it; or, you
may convert your woods into a standing pasture by
enclosing them, and clearing up the undergrowth,
&c; and frequently on farms there are swamps,
marshes, or strips of lands that cannot be cultivated,
which make very good standing pastures ; so that,
in the two last cases, you have all your cleared land
to cultivate. One of the strongest proofs of the supe
riority of the four shift system is, that my friend
Selden of Westover, who has adopted it, now makes
double as large crops as his predecessors did, and has
put entirely a different face on the land: though,
he would make good crops under any system, for he
is a first-rate farmer.
or growing into the greatest State of the Union. It ; Woods, Mrs. Simons, Mrs. Tayon, Madam Batcbio
can support, without difficulty, a people as dense as ' and three children, Mr. Berdeau, Mrs. Conn and
that ol Holland. i child. Mrs. Jam's. Mrs. A. Jams, of cholera.
Ohio contains but 39,000 square miles,, while Vir- Rev. Thomas R. Rufee, Mr. Stewart, Mr. Smith,
ginia contains 64,1)00 which is witMn 1000 of the Mr. Knicht, Mrs. J. Beaochamp, Miss Kellv, Mrs.
whole area of New England, and makes Virginia ! Paulina C. Camrjell. Mrs. Machett, aged 70. Mnr
the largest as well as oldest State. The next in Knight and infant, of fever.
order is Georgia 62,000, and Missouri 60,000. Illi- j At present our village is nearly deserted it is diC
nois contains 55.000. Florida 50.000, New York, ficult to get anv thinr to eat nothing is doing, ex-
46,000, Pennsylvania 44,000, North Carolina and cept dealing in medicine. We have no idea when
j-wuisimia o.uuu eacn. ueiaware contains oiuu. me scourge win re remnveri. xnnn. nnwever. tnere
By the following diagram it may be seen, that if the four fields
can be laid off by two lines intersecting near the middle of the cul
tivated lai.d, the half on the left, and that on the ritrht, will alter
nately be in wheat, and therefore that a single dividing fence,
(a, b,) will suffice to permit half the land to be grazed, after it is
cleared of the crop of wheat.
Yar Wheat. Corn. " '
, ' ' Bushels. Barrels.
18 16 . U00 45) The three fields
1817 1475 800 amounting to 650
1818 1150 670 acres.
hundred acres, (until 1832.)
YpnP Wheat. Corn. Oats. Clover.
1 ear Bushels. Barrels. Bushels. Tons.
1819 3715 487 A little
1820a 1761 534 mow'deach
18216 1668 375 1000 year.
1822c 1720 387 1170 00
1823 2458 520 1751 30
md ,5322 383 loOO 25
1825 e 2700 464 1000 40
First Field in Second
Wlieat Field, in
after Ctover. Corn.
Road or turn-row.
Third, in Fourth,
after Com. ; Clover.
and Rhode Island 1350.
The most raDid increase of nonulation we observe
is in the case of Ohi o. tvhirh inrrpnRed from 3f)00 to
45,000 in ten years, and in the next ten to 230,000.
i nia last was at the rate of 409 per cent, in ten
years, whereas the average rate of the whole Union
r theJast ten has been but 33 per cent, and that of
New England but a little less than 19. That of
New York was never greater than 72. of Maine, 58,
l2,a?a? 1&4' I,,inois 350. Indiana, 500, Michigan,
. i, nausds, iW. i ne most ra pid increase, has,
ol course, been in the early settlements.
ine population ot the United States in 1840 is
rated at 17 millions. What it will he a h nnitrit
years hence, it is not easy to calculate. What it may
be, however, is inferable from the fact that our terri
tory is immensely extensive ; that a vast amount of
ncn land is yet unoccupied ; that lands now culti
vated may be made vastly more productive ; that a
large portion of our country is under Ironical climates.
and that if the whole country should support but 230
muduiidius to a square mile, as England now does,
weshould have, as the Editor of the Register observes,
more than four hundred and fifty millions.
SUMMARY STATISTICAL REPORT
Of the Presbyterian Church in the United States
of America, for 1833.
This portion of the Catholic Church of Christ in
the world, under one General Assembly of Bishops
and Ruling Elders, stvled Commissioners, which.
c - j j j j
with the Delegates, from Corresponding bodies, in
May last, consisted of two hundred and seventy four
persons, comprehends, according to the returns now
in ray possession, twenty-two Synods; one hundred
and eleven Presbyteries; eighteen hundred and fifty
five ordained Bishops; two hundred and fifteen Li
centiates, making two thousand and seventy Preach
ers of the Gospel ; two hundred and twenty nine
Candidates in a. state of preparation for the ministry;
twenty-five hundred churches; and two hundred and
thirty-three thousand five hundred and eighty Com
municants. Our increase during the last year has
been in BisJiops one hundred and twenty-five, in
Licentiates ten, in Candidates nine, in ordained and
licensed Preachers one hundred and thirty-five, in !
Churches one hundred and nineteen, and in Commu
nicants sixteen thousand two hundred and forty-two.
The Communicants added on examination last year
were twenty three thousand five hundred and forty
six ; being ten thousand six hundred and fourteen
less than were reported in 1832 as added in the same
way. Seven thousand two hundred and fifty-two
were added last year by certificate from other chur
ches, or passed from one of our congregations to ano
ther, being three hundred and sixty-six more than
were received in the same manner the year previous
The total of additions now reported is thirty thousand
seven hundred and ninety-eight. Of these fourteen
thousand five hundred and fitty-six must be consider
ed as equal to the number of persons who have de
ceased or been dismissed or suspended, or who were
at the time ot making the reports in a state of transi
tion from the care of one session to another, or who
for some reason have not been reported as members :
leaving as above stated the net gam ot communicants
of 1833 over the whole number of 1832 at sixteen
thousand two hundred and forty-two. The baptisms
now returned amount to twenty one thousand eight
hundred and twenty ; ol which six thousand nine
hundred and fifty were of adults, fourteen thousand
and thirty-five infants, and eight hundred and thirty
five persons not distinguished. The baptisms of 1832
exceeded those of 1833 by two thousand eight hun
dred and eighty-three. The funds reported as ha
ving been collected in the year preceding the meet
ing ol the last General Assembly were, for missionary
purposes, seventy six thousand four hundred and
twenty'clollars and thirty nine cents; for defraying
the expenses of Commissioners to the Assembly, four
thousand six hundred eighty nine dollars and fifty
eight cents ; for different Theological Seminaries six
thousand three hundred eleven dollars and twenty
three cents ; for the Education of poor and pious youth,
principally with reference of their becoming ministers
ol the gospel, forty seven thousand one hundred fifty
three dollars and sixty-hve cents; and lor the Con
tingent Expenses of the Assembly, eight hundred
ninety-two dollars and eighty-seven cents; which
give a total of one hundred thirty-five thousand four
hundred sixty seven dollars and seventy-two cents
collected for charitable uses. This sum is less than
the total for the same objects in 1832 by two thousand
three hundred fifty one dollars and sixty seven cents.
Eleven Presbyteries have made no returns of any
collections ; and four have reported onlv on the Com
missioners' Fund. In all the Presbyteries there are
several churches which have made no reports on any
subject, for sometime past ; and some which have
never returned so much as the number of their com
municants since I have beenStated Clerk. Our sta-
istics, however are much more complete than they
brmerly were ; and must be regarded as a near ap-
proximatiorrtotm exact statement of the numbers and
operations of our whole body.
With lamentation that it should be necessary, we
state the fact of the suspension of three of our minis
ters during the last year; two of them for intemper
ance in drink; and one for heresy in doctrine.
1 he foregoing is a true summary, (E. E.) prepa
red by me this 31st day of July 1833.
EZRA STILES ELY,
Stated Clerk of the General Assembly.
win oe none leu upon whom to spend its fury, in the.
Catholic burying ground there are between 40 and
50 new graves Protestant, about 20. It is perhaps?
remarkable, that only two negroes have died durinp
the whole month. 1 do not pretend to give you harf
the names. In the town alone 12 families are com
pletely broken up. On Sunday last there were four
burials in the Catholic burying ground. The at
mosphere is so strongly impregnated with disease,
that you may literally smell death in the stieets.
Some years ago a case was sent to an eminent
lawyer for an opinion. The case stated was the mog
preposterous and improbable that had ever occurred
to the mind of man, and concluded by asking, whe
ther under such circumstances an action would lie t
He took his pen and wrote, 'Yes, if the witnesses
will Lje too, but not otherwise.'
A late number of the Edinburgh Evening Coucanf
has the following article :
Extraordinary Occurrence. On Thursda .
while Mr. Montgomery, a banker, in Irvine, and an
other gentleman were fishing in the river Garnock
they were struck with the appearance of a whirlpool
in the centre of the river, which appeared as if the
waters were rapidly descending into the earth. Thef
immediately concluded that the bed of the river had
given way and that the waters were descending in
to the colleries beneath, and hastened to the nearest
pit's mouth to give an alarm.
The men below soon heard the mighsy rushinr fj'
the waters, and hastened to escape, which providen
tially they all effected, though hout a moment La
spare, several of them being up to their necks in wa
ter. The water continued to pour into the expensive
cavities beneath, and the next day a tremenduously
large space broke down, into which the whole rives
descended, leaving its bed quite dry for the space oi'
a mile on each side of the aperture where it had pre
viously been full six feet deep. On the flowing of tho
tide the depth of the water below the chasm increased
to nine feet; the desolation was awful. The watci
still l ushed in a torrent into the earth. Three men
in a boat had an almost miraculous escape from be
ing sucked into the vortex ; they had no sooner "ot
out man ine uoui was urawii auwn wun ieanui r.v
The great body ol water continued to pour down
till the whole workings which extended many miles-,
were completely filled. A new scene of terror now
presented itself the imprisoned air, pressed by the
weight of water, burst through the surface of tho
earth in a thousand places, which, for the extent ol
many acres, presented the appearance of a boilinir
caldron. Immense quantities of sand anil water
were thrown up, and descended like torrents of rati;
for many hours. i3y this calamity six hundred per
sons are thrown out of employ; and so extensive is
the destruction as to preclude the hope that the worH?
are ever to be restored to their former state.
Difficulties of Commerce. The discharging n
the cargo of the ship Globe, Capt. Dixey, from Can
ton, has been interrupted, by information said to have
been sent from Boston, from an attempt made u
smuggle sewing silks, in tea boxes. The inspectors
of the custom house, of this port, acting under the in
structions of the surveyor, considered themselves
bound to bore the envelopes, greatly to the injury oi
the tea and boxes. A conference of the consignees
with the surveyor, was held this morning, the res nit.
of which we have not learned. This proceedinir.
with an officer who has been so long in trade as Cap;
Dixey, and whose integrity has never been question
ed, is regarded as not a little singular. Phild. Gaz.
A question of some interest to merchants and ship
owners, will arise in closing the business of the British
ship Ulster, wrecked off Long Beach a few davs
since. I he spars, rigging, cables, &c. of the ship,
which were saved by the exertions of the Wreck
Master, were disposed of by the Custom House officer,
at Tuckerton who sold them free of doty and all oth er
incumbrances. Most of the articles were pur
chased by gentlemen of this city, at that time on
Long Beach. A great portion of them were sent to
thi3 city, in the sloop De Witt Clinton, which arrived
yesterday. The facts being made known to the Cus
tom House officers, the rigging, sails, &c. were seized
for duty, the articles being regarded as regular im
portations, and ol course subject to duty. The pur
chasers of of the articles resist this exaction. lb.
a Wheat nearly destroyed by rust ' this year:
there was enough straw for four thousand bushels.
. 61 Wheat again nearly destroyed by rust very
wivy crop of straw. The oats made on forty acres
n me corn land thi nrcedinrj? vear,
The population of the United States. The Bos
ton Journal has some interesting suggestions on this
subject, derived from the last Quarterly Register.
The greatest population to a square mile is in the
niKtrir.t of Hnlnmhia. where it is 393 ; in Connecti
cut, 63; in Rhode Island, 72; Massachusetts 81;
Mafvland and New Jersey, 40; Ohio, 24; New
" v - vi wi.muw, i y . . wV
reasons, (mr wmtaw ka mmnnd t Vftrlr dl ? KP.ntlKVlvania. oU.
so rarely bard frozen enough to haul upon, that it is I The population of New Yprkm 1840, it is sup
impossible to do much at this kind of woVk. We are ! posed will be 200,000, or 200,000 mo than that of
compelled to bed and furrow oat land from one end all New England, and about equal to that of all the
to the other, and if heavy wagons were to run up- North Western Territories. 1 Jnn3 vania,
on it in our wet winters, and they are always wet, is rated at 1,700,000; of Ohio I,3003OUU That of
DOtn me lana and wheat onnM nA Ut I Viro ma is not at a lew ujuuuiu muic. niiu inus
t Ruaf on wh't nin-the. oats aa belore. and have not the least doubt, if it could he effected, that the oldest settled of the states, wnicn in I W, had a
the three next vears on Dart of the corn land of the " the y bestway of using manure. If done population of 747,00( willhave been overtaken by a
tstht xvnicn nou uu ww..i,4i. w mt uiu uiuu
jrevimiQ ir.o i nan v cucr bowiuir wneaL uimnmoM iha tahoat vru
11 Including some inferior grain got from the much, and it insures a heavy crop of clover after , one year before thai idate, am not become a State
Indeed, Oa hz9 tbs resource rtitica itself
screenings, the croo of wheat measured 5400 bushels, wheat, for it protects the clover from the spring frosts, until 180B, and nap, m a popolation oi only
Rurt again -27 destrc:tiv3 to tig wbeaL I M ecawes you to bow yor ctover seed early, which j 3DUO-
A Spanish Wife. A female of Puertoblane ,
(La Mancha,) shortly after retiring to rest with her
husband, plunged a poniard into his breast, and then
getting up, she ran out crying that her husband had
committed suicide. But the husband had time to de
clare that his wife had been the murderess.
Corns. Nearly nine tenths of mankind art-,
troubled with corns, a disease that is seldom ov
never occasioned but by tight shoes. All
methods of extracting corns seem but to afford,
temporary relief, and never will be attended
with complete success unless attention be paid
to the shoes. It is very dangerous to cut corn
too deep, on account" of the multiplicity o
nerves running in every direction of the toe?.
Easy shoes, frequent bathings of the feet in
lukewarm water, with a little salt and potasli
dissolved in it, and a plaster made of equal
parts of gumgalbanum, safiron and camphor
are the be5t remedies that can be recommend
ed againt this troublesome complaint. The
bunion is produced by the same cause as tfio
corn the irritation of which, namely, pressure,
being extended to the ccjlular substance, oc
casions thickening of it with effusion. The
treatment recommended for corns will succeed
in case of bunions, but in consequence of the
greater extension of the disease the ctire eh
course is more tedious.
Toilette of Health, Beauty, d),
A part of Missouri has been severely visited. The
latest accounts are truly melancholy.
St. Charles Missouri, July 30, 1833.
July 1833, has been to St. Charles a distressing
month. 1 ill then the Cholera ielayed its aDoroach,
but only delayed to strike more heavily j nor has it
come alone, its companion, if possible, more stub
born and latal than itseli. It is the congestive lever.
How many have been attacked no one can tell.
There is scarce a single iamilv in the village, or
a t- ' 1 i . i i a. m fmm i
ujree iii nets arouna it, wnicn is at presem
disease. It is anordinarv occurrence to see every
member of the family stretched upon the wot Orchards Among the fairest obiects oli
roomsic A number have .died which the eye rests are the orchards whieU
aiu. naa it noi oeen tor tne ui - Knrpad rnnnrt th hnnmon'.l, .ia.
i i . r. ii niirpc me uitircbB i i UUUUUU1U1I ouvijuc, wuciuur
several pnysicians irom ww. f- , cvpra, we conternolate thm W .
wouid have been incalculable. . l Wo ' rr, n V , w,,.
years I fear before we can recover the shock. Weny scented flowers and fall of neh perfume?,
have lost manv, armng wbomjvere ur best infcdi- the songs Gf birdg and the hum of becg r ln
tants. The number of deaths with m J the antumnal stillness with the branches ben-
past is upwards of 60. The hegl i ding with rosy-cheeked fruits. But we do not
and the SL most pro-1 gnify. with the name of orchards those eoJ
temperate have reeteen .ou p h
Pr olS j D. Williams, Mr. Chatoya, Sr the prunning saw has always been a
IreChatyi charks ctexr Mrs-Dr- wson ! and the skill of the cultivator has had no m
.Si fc'fl Mr Hanfcr Mr?. O. Maebett, Mrs. tcrcotnw.