luj (Jjjhatham Record.
H. A. LONDON, Jr.,
EDITOR AND IT.OPRIETOU.
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137" All kinds of produce taken.
W. L. LONDON,
Plttoboro'a N. Carolina.
H. A. LONDON, Jr.,
Attorney at Law,
PITTSBORO N. C.
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day to Insure for one thousand dollars.
Apply for further Information to
H.A. LONDON, Jr., Gen. Agt.
PITTSBOKO', N. C.
Dr. A. D. MOORE,
pittsboho n. c,
Oftrt his pffoajlopsl -! to tV oltlt.ai of
Citikm. WJth aa azpcriair.ex vf thirty y.ar te
hupt la giv illr UaCotlou.
Attorney at Law,
PITTSBQBO', . a,
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riTTHSORO', ST. CAR.
l'lty our tears.
Think of our loneliness all thro' the years.
Out In the cold,
OlMiii your hearts to us.
Tollers for gold.
l-lft your robes daintily,
Tis here we dwell
Close ou th confines or death and hell ;
Marrow and damp
With the mould .f a vault
Look hot so loathlngly.
Is It our fault ?
Once we were innocent,
Long. Ions a co
Only to think of It adds to our woe,
For vainly we lift up
Our eyes to the light,
We dwell in the 81 ailow
Of sin and of night.
Horn to bel uffeted
Hunger and scorn
re but our daily bread chi Id ren foiloi n.
All whoe'er loved us
Areuuder the sod.
Vit us, pray for us,
When the pale wreath Is laid upon the tomb.
Love's la.st found homage offered to the ttau!.
And the beret t, with tears and drooping head.
Rid uiute farewell on sadly turning home.
Sister and brother, widowed love and friend.
Review, as in a solemn vision then,
Their dear one's lire, its bliss and bitter pain.
Its restless hopes nw ever at an end.
The common thought lifts them above despair.
One brief thanksgiving is on t very tongue ;
That faithful i.eart shall never more be wrung
W Ilk cold unklndness or with aelilnsr care :
That generous mind no stern rebutfs shall vex ;
1 hat busy brain no problems dire pt iplex.
THE RECF.NT GREAT FRENCH DUEL.
BY MARK TWAIN.
As soon as I heard of the late fiery out
break between M. Gmbetia and M.
Fourtou in the French Assembly, I knew
that tumble must follow. 1 knew it be
cause a long personal friendship with M.
Gambetta had revealed lo rue the despe
rate and implacable nature of the man.
ast as re his physical proportions. 1
knew that the thirst for revenue would
penetrate to the remotest frontiers of his
1 did not wait for him to call on me.
but went at once to him. As I expected.
1 found the biave fellow steeped in a pro
found French calm. I say French calm,
because French calmness and English
calmness have points of difference. He was
moving swiftly back and forth among the
debris of his furniture, now and then stav
ing chance fragments of it across the
room wit r his foot; grinding a constant
grist of curses through his pet teeth; and
halting every little while to deposit an
other handlul of his hair on the pile
which he had been building of it on the
He threw his arms around mv neck,
bent me over his stomach to his" breast,
kissed me on both cheeks, hugged me
four or five times, and then placetf inc in
his own arm chair. As soon as I had got
well again, we besran business at once.
I said I supposed he would wish me to
act as his second, and he said, "Of
course." I said I must be allowed to act
under a French name, so that I might be
shielded from obloquy in my country, in
case of fatal results. He winced here,
probably at the suggestion that dueling
was not regarded with respect in America.
However, he agreed to my requirement.
This accounts for the fact that in all the
newspaper reports M. Gambetta's second
was apparently a Frenchman.
First, we drew up my principal's will.
I insisted upon this, and stuck to mv
point. I said I had never heard of a man
in his right mind going out to fight a duel
without first making his will. He said he
had never heard of a man in his right
mind doing anything of the kind. When
he had finished the will he wished to pro
ceed to a choice of his "last words." He
wanted to know how the following words,
as a dying exclamation, struck me: -
"I die for my God, for my country, for
freedom of speech, for progiess, and the
universal brotherhood of man!"
I objected that this would require too
lingering a death; it was a good speech
for a consumptive, but not suited to the
exigencies of the field of honor. "We
wrangled over a good many ante-mortem
outbursts, but I finally got him to cut his
obituary down lo this, which he copied
into his memorandum book, purposing to
get it by heait:
I die that France mat live."
I said that this remark seemed to lack
relevancy; but he said relevancy was a
matter of no consequence in last words,
what you wanted was thrill.
The next thing in order was the choice
of weapons. My principal said he was
not feeling well, and would leave that and
the other details of the proposed meeting
to me. Therefore I wrote the following
note and carried it to M. Fourtou
Sir: M. Gambetta accepts M. Fourtou's
challenge, and authorizes me to propose
Plesfcis-Piquet as the place of meeting; to
morrow morning at daybreak as the time;
and axes as the weapons. I am, sir, with
great respect, Mark Twain.
M. Fourtou's friend read this note, and
shuddered. Then he turned to me, and
R.-id, wi'h a suggestion of severity in his
"Have you considered, sir, what would
be the inevitable result of such a meeting
"Well, for instance, what would it be?"
"That's about the size of it," I said.
"Now, if it is a fair question, what was
your side proposing to shed?"
I had him, there. He saw he had made
a blunder, so he hastened to explain it
away. He said he had spoken jestingly.
Then he added that he and his principal
would enjoy axes, and indeed preferred
them, but uch weapons were barred by
the French code, and so I must change
1 walked the floor turning the thing
over in my mind, and finally it occurred
to me that Gatling guns at fifteen paces
would be a likely way to get a verdict on
the field of honor. So I framed this idea
into a proposition.
But it was not accepted. The code was
in the way again. I proposed rifles; then,
doubled-barrelled shot guns; then, Colt's
navy revolvers. These being all rejected,
I reflected a while, and sarcastically sug
gested brick-bats at three quarters of a
mile. I always hate to fool away a
humorous thing on a person who has no
PITTSBOBO', CHATHAM CO., N. C,
perception of humor; and it filled me with
bitterness when this man went soberly
away to submit the lat,i proposition to his
He came back presently, and said his
principal was charmed with the idea of
brick-bats at three-quarters of a mile, but
must decline on account of the danger to
disinterested parties passing between.
Then I said
"Well, I am at the end of my string,
now. Perhaps you would be good enough
to suggest a weapon? Perhaps you have
even had one in your mind all the time? '
nis countenance brightened, and he
said with alacrity
"Oh, without doubt, monsieur!"
So he fell to hunting in his pockets,
pocket after pocket, and he had plen y of
them, muttering all the while, "Now,
what could I have done with them?"
At last he was successful. He fished
out of his vest pocket a couple ot little
things which I carried to the light and
discovered to be pistols. They were single-barrelled
and silver mounted, and very
dainty and pretty. I was not able to speak
for emotion. 1 silently hung one of them
on my watch-chain, and returned the
other. My companion in crime now un
rolled a postage-stamp containing several
cartridges, and gave me one of them. I
asked if he meant to signify by this that
our men were to be allowed but one shot
apiece. He replied that the French code
permitted no more. I then begged him to
go on and suggest a distance, lor my mind
was growing weak and confused under
the strain which had been put upon it.
He named eixty -five yards. I nearly lost
my patience. I said
"Sixty five yards, with these instru
ments? Pop guns would be deadlier at
fifty. Consider, my friend, you and I are
banded together to destroy life, not make
But with all my persuasions, all my
arguments. I was only able to get him to
reduce the distance to thirty-five yards;
and even this concession he made with re
luctance, and said with a sigh
"I wash my hands of this slaughter; on
your head be it."
There was nothing for me but to go
home to my old lion-heart nd tell my
humiliating story. When I entered, M.
Gambetia was hiving his last lock of hair
upon the altar. He sprang toward me,
"You have m:de the fatal arrangements,
I see it in your eyes!''
His face paled a trifle, and he leaned
upon the table for support. He breathed
thick and heavily for a moment or two.
so tumultuous were his feelings: taen he
''The weapon, the weapon Quick!
what Is the weapon ?"
"This!" and 1 displayed that silver
mounted thing. He caught but one
glimpse of it, then swooned ponderously'
to the floor.
When he came to, he said mournfully,
"The unnatural calm to which I have
subjected myself has told upon my nerves.
But away with weakness! I will confront
my fate like a man and a Frenchman."
He rose to his feet, and assumed an at
titude which for sublimity has never been
approached by man, and has seldom been
surpassed by statues. Then he said, in
his deep bass tones
"Behold, I am calm, I am ready; reveal
to me the distance."
I could not lift him up, of course; but
I rolled him over, and poured water down
his back. He presently came to, and
"Thirty-five yards, without a rest?
But why ask ? Since murder was that
man's intention, why should he palter
with small details? But mark you one
thing: in my fall the world shall see how
the chivalry of France meets death."
After a long silence h'e asked
"Was nothing said about that man's
family standing up with him, as an offset
to my bulk? But no matter; I would not
stoop to make such a suggestion; if he is
not noble enough to suggest it himself, he
is welcome to this advantage, which no
honorable man would take. "
He now sank into a sort of stupor of re
flection, which lasted some minutes; after
which he broke silence with
"The hour, what is the hour fixed for
He seemed greatly surprised, and im
"Insanity! I never heard of such a
thing. Nobody u abroad at such an
"That is the reason I named it. Do you
mean to say you want an audience ?"
"It is no time to bandy words. I am
astonished that M. Fourtou should ever
have agreed to so strange an innovation.
Go at once and require a later hour."
I ran down-stairs, threw open the front
door, and almost plunged into the arms of
M. Fourtou's second. He said
"I have the honor to say that my prin
cipal strenuously objects to the hour
choscfn, and begs that you will consent to
change it to half-past nine."
"Any courtesy, sir, which it is in our
power to extend is at the service of your
excellent principal We agree to the pro
posed change of time."
"I beg you to accept the thanks of mv
client." Then he turned to a person be
hind him, and said, "You hear, M. Noir,
the hour is altered to half past nine."
Whereupon M. Noir bowed, expressed his
thanks, and went away. My accomplice
"If agreeable to you, your chief surgeons
and ours shall proceed to the field in the
same carriage, as is customary."
"It is entirely agreeable to fne, and I am
obliged to you for mentioning the sur
geons, for I am afraid I should not have
ihought of them? How many shall I
want? I supposed two or turee will be
"Two is the customary number for each
party. I refer to 'chief surgeons; but
considering the exalted posit ions occupied
by our clients, it will be well and decorous
that each of us appoint several consulting
surgeons, from among the highest in the
profession. These will come in their own
pri ate carriages. Have you engaged a
"Bless my stupidity, I never thought of
it! I will attend to it right away. I must
seem very ignorant to you; but you must
try to overlook that, because I have never
had any experience of such a swell duel as
this before I have had a good deal to do
with duels on the Pacific coast, but I see
now that they were crude affaire. A
hearse, sho! we used to leave the elected
lyinir around loose, and let anybody cord
them up and cart them off that wanted to.
Have you anything further to suggest?"
"Nothing, except that the head under
takers shall ride together, as is usual. The
subordinates and mutes will go on foot,
as is also uaual. I will see you at eight
o'clock in the morning, and we will
then arrange the order of the procession.
I have the honor to bid you a good
I returned to my client, who said,
"Very well; at what hour is the engage
ment to begin ?"
"Very good indeed. Have you sent the
fact to the newspapers?"
"" If after our long and intimate
friendship you can for a moment deem me
capable of so base a treachery"
"Tut, tut! What words are these, my
dear friend ? Have I wounded you ? Ah !
forgive me; I am overloading you with
labor. Therefore go on with the other
details, and drop this one from your list.
The bloody-minded Fourtou will be sure
to attend o it. Or I myself yes, to make
certain, I will drop a note to my journal
istic friend, M. Noir."
"Oh, come to think, you may save your
self the trouble; that other second has in
formed M. Noir."
'm! I might have known it. It is just
like that Fourtou, who always wants to
make a display."
At half-past nine in the morning the
procession approached the field of Plessis
Piquet in the following order: first came
our carriage nobody in it but M. Gam
betta and myself; then a carriage contain
ing M. Fourtou and his second; then a
carriage containing two poet-orators who
did not believe in God, and these had MS.
funeral orations projecting from their
breast pockets; then a carriage containing
the head surgeons and their cases ol in
struments; then eight private carriages
containing consulting surgeons; then a
hack containing the corone; ; then the two
hearse; then a carriage containing the
head undertakers; then a train of assist
ants and mutes on foot; and after these
came plodding through the fog a long
procession of camp followers, police, and
citizens generally. It was a noble turnout,
and would have made a fine display if we
had had thinner weather.
There was no conversation. I spoke
several times to my principal, but I judge
he was not aware of it, tor he always re
ferred to his note-book and muttered ab
sently, -1 die that France may live."
Arrived on the field, my fellow-second
and I paced oft the thirty -five yards, and
then drew lots of choice of position. This
latter was but an ornamental ceremony,
lor all choices were alike in such weather.
These preliminaries being ended, I went
to my principal and asked him if he was
ready, lie spread himself out to his full
width, and said in a stern voice, "Kcady!
Let the batteries be charged."
The loading was done in the presence
of duly consutnied witnesses. Wc con
sidered it best to perform this delicate
service with the assistance of a lantern, on
account of the state of the weather. We
now placed our men.
At this point the police noticed that the
public had massed themselves together on
the right and left of the field; they there
fore begged a delay, w hile they should
put these poor people in a place of
safety. The request was granted.
The police having ordered the two multi
tudes to take positions behind the duelists,
we were once moie ready. The weather
growing still more opaque, it was agreed
between myself and the other second that
before giving the fatal signal we should
each deliver a loud whoop to enable the
combatants to ascertain each other's
I now returned to my principal, and
was distressed to observe that he had lost
a good deal of his sj irit. I tried my best
to hearten him. I said, "Indeed, sir,
things are not as bad as they seem. Con
sidering the character of the weapons, the
limited number of shots allowed, the gen
erous distance, the impenetrable solidity
of the fog, and the added fact that one of
the combatants is one-eyed and the other
cross-eyed and near-sighted, it seems to
me that the conflict need not necessarily
be fatal. There are chances that both of
yon may survive. Therefore, cheer up;
do not be down-hearted."
This speech had so good an effect that
my principal immediately stretched forth
his hand and said, "Iain myself again;
give me the weapon,"
I laid it, all lonely and forlorn, in the
centre of the vast solitude of his palm
He gazed at it and shuddered. And still
mournfully contemplating it, he mur
mured, in a broken voice
"Alas, it is not death dread, but muti
lation." I heartened him once more, and with
such success that he presently said, ' Let
the tragedy begin. Stand at my back; do
not desert me in this solemn hour, my
I gave him my promise. I now assisted
him to point his pistol toward the spot
where 1 judged his adversary to be stand
ing, and cautioned him to listen well and
further guide himself by my fellow
second's whoop. Then I propped myself
against M Gambetta's back, and raised a
rousing "vVhoopee!" The was answered
from out the far distances of the fog, and I
"One two three; fire "
Two little sounds liko spit! spit! broke
upon my ear, and in the same instant I
was crushed to the earth under a moun
tain of flesh. Buried as I was. I wa3 still
able to catch a faint accent from above, to
"1 die for . . . for . . . perdition take
it, what is it I die for? ... oh, yes
Fkance! 1 die that France may live"
Tiie surgeons swarmed around with
their probes in their hands, and applied
their microscopes to the whole area of M.
Gambetta's pcison, with the happy result
of finding nothing in the nature of a
wound. Then a scene ensued which was
in every way gratifying and inspiriting.
The two gladiators fell upon each other's
necks, with floods of proud and happy
tears; that other second embraced me; the
surgeons the orators, the undertakers, the
police, everybody embraced, everybody
congratulated, everybody cried, and the
whole atmosphere was tilled with praise
and with joy unspeakable.
It seemed to me then that I would rather
be the hero of a French duel than a
crowned and sceptcred monarch.
When the commotion had somewhat
subsided, the body of surgeons held a con
sultation, and after a good deal of debate,
decided that with proper care and nursing
there was reason to believe that I would
survive my injuries. My internal hurts
were deemed the most serious, since it was
apparent that a broken rib had penetrated
my left lung, and that many of my organs
had been pressed out so far to one side or
the other of where they belonged, that it
was doubtful if they would ever learn to
perform their functions in such remote
and unaccustomed localities. . They then
AyAyA Ay a
MARCH 6, 1879.
set my left arm in two places, pulled my
right hip into its socket again, and re
elevated my nose. I was an object of
great interest, and even admiration; and
many sincere and warm-hearted persons
had themselves introduced to me, and
said they were proud to know the only
man who had been hurt in a French duel
for forty years.
I was placed in an ambulance at the
very head of the procession; and thus with
gratfying eclat I was marched into Paris,
the most conspicuous figure in that great
spectacle, and deposited at the hospital.
The cross of the Legion of Honor has
been conferred upon me. However, few
escape that distinction.
Such is the true version of the most
memorable private conflict of the age.
My recovery is still doubtful, but there
are hopes. I am able to dictate, but there
is no knowing when I shall be able to
I have no complaints ts make against
any one. I acted for myself, and I can
stand the consequences. Without boast
ing, I think I may say I am not afraid to
stand before a modern French duelist, but
I will never consent to stand behind one
again. Atlantic Monthly.
WHAT PEOPLE EAT.
Mr. George T. Angell recently read
a paper before the American Social
Science Association in Boston, on
"Public Health Association," in which
he made some startling assertions about
the adulteration of food. He said:
Cayenne pepper is adulterated with
red lead , mustard with chromate of
lead, curry powder with red lead,
vinegarwith sulphuric acid, arsenic and
corrosive sublimate. It is stated that
probably half the vinegar now sold id
our cities is rank poison. One of our
Boston chemists recently analyzed
twelve packages of pickles put up by
twelve different wholesale dealers, and
found copper in ten of them. Manv
of our flavoring oils, syrups, jellies, and
preserved fruits contain poisons. The
adulterations of tea are too numerous
to meDtion. Coffee is not only adul
terated, but a patent has been taken
out for molding chiccory into the form
of coffee berries, and I am told that
lay is now molded, and perhaps flavored
with an essence, to represent coffee.
Cocoa and chocolate are adulterated
with various mineral substances.
Several mills in New England, and
probably many elsewhere, are now en
gaged in grinding white stone 'into a
tine powder for the purposes of adul
teration. Smie of these mills grind
three grades soda grade, sugi r grade
atid flour grade. It sells for about a
half a cent a pound. Flour has been
adulterated in England, and probably
here, with plaster of Paris, bone dust,
sand, clay, chalk and other articles. I
am told that large quantities of
damaged and unwholesome grain arc
ground in with flour, particularly with
the kikd called Gi aham flour. Certainly
hundreds, and probably thousands, of
barrels of "terra alba," or white earth
are sold in our cities every year to be
mixed with sugars in confectionery
and other white substances. I am told
by an eminent physician that this tends
to produce stone, kidney complaints,
and various diseases of the stomach.
A Boston chemist tells me that he has
found seventy-five per cent, of "terra
alba" in what was sold as cream of tar
tar, used for cooking. A large New York
house sells three grades of cream of tar
tar. A Boston chemist recently ana
lyzed a sample of the best grade, and
found fifty per cent, of terra alba in
that. Much of our confectionery con
tains thirty-three per cent, or more of
"terra alba." The coloring matter of
confectionery frtquently contains lead,
mercury, arsenic and powder. Baking
powders are widely sold which contain
a large percentage of "terra alba" and
It is not water alone that is mixed
with milk. Thousands of gallons, and
probably hundreds of thousands, are
sold in our cities which have passed
through large tins, or vats, in which it
has been mixed with various substances.
Receipts for the mixture can be bought
by new milkmen from old, on payment
of the required sum. I am assured,
upon wrhat I believe to be reliable
authority, that thousands of gallons of
so-called milk have been and probably
are, sold in this city, which do not con
tain one drop of the genuine article.
Large quantities of the meats of ani
mals, more or less diseased, are sold in
our markets. Cows in the neighbor
hood of our large citifs are fed upon
material which produces a large flow of
unwholesome milk. Poultry is fed
upon material which produces unwhole
some eggs. Meats and fish are made
unwholesome, frequently poisonous, by
careless and cruel methods of killing.
A California chemist recently analyzed
many samples of whisky, purchased at
different places in San Francisco. He
found them adulterated with creosote,
salts of copper, alum, aud other in
jurious substances. He states it, in
his published report, as his opinion that
there is hardly any pure whisky sold in
that city. A gentleman recently pur
chased from a prominent Boston firm
a cask of pure sherry wine for his sick
wife. His wife grew worse. He had
the wine anal zed, and found there
was not a drop of the juice of the grape
in it. An eminent mtdical gentleman
of Boston said lo me: kThe adultera
tions of drugs in this country are per
fectly abominable." I say that laws
should be enacted and enforced prohib
iting the manufacture and sale of
these poisonous articles under severe
penalties, and compelling the manufac
turers and sellers of adulterated articles
to tell buyers the precise character of
What I want to get at is the ani
mus of the transaction," said the
judge. "But, your Honor," said the
complainant, "there wasn't any at all.
He came up quiet-like and grabbed the
coat, aud was off with it before I saw
what he was at. No, sir, there wasn't
A mule's head does not contain a
brain capable of culture and refined
rearing, but it is wonderful to what an
extent the ether end of him caa be
We are accustomed to regard free
dom of opinion as a very sacred thing,
and almost every man speaks of "my
opinions" as something which he bears
in particular respect. "I have a right
to entertain what opinions I please," is
a phrase often heard; and perfect free
dom in the publication of opinions is a
principle of social polity which has
been powerfully argued for, and em
braced by a large section of educated
humanity. But while the words opin
ion and opinions ate of this importance
with mankind, how strange it is to re
flect the very little pains which most
men take to ascertain whether the
opinions are well-founded or not! It is
no uncharitable presumption, that
probably not one man in a hundred ever
seriously considers how far the opinions
which he cherishes have a sound basis,
or whether they are in reality anything
but a series of impressions which have
been made upon him, or of mere senti
mental biases which he has insensibly
contracted through the effect of cir
cumstances in the course of his life
time. There can be no doubt that of the
opinions of all men a vast portion have
been received from others with little or
no examination. We hear, in our early
years, persons whom we venerate ex
pressing a particular set of opinions,
and decrying or scoffing at those which
are opposite. Respect for these persons,
and a desire of possessing their appro
bation, are strong inducements to us to
adopt their opinions, even should we
not insensibly contract them from the
mere frequency of their being im
pressed on our minds. Hearing little
or nothing that is inconsistent with
these prepossessions, we retain them
from year to year, without ever dream
ing that they possibly may be fallacious
or ill founded, or that the opposite set
which we have been accustomed to
hear decried may. perhaps be, after all,
the more correct. Nor, though we
were to conceive that they ought to be
examined, have all men the leisure or
power of doing so. The consequence
is, that the opinions which we have re
ceived from mere authority, which we
have never examined, and do not sup
pose are in any need of examination,
remain with us through life, ranking
us in parties or sects, governing the
strain of our conversation, and opera
ting in all the principal affairs of our
lives. It may be reasonably asked, are
opinions so acquired and so chei isht d
eutithd to any particular respect? As
suredly no one would think of modify
ing his actions from the dictates of any
such opinions in another. Viewing
them objectively in a fellow-creature,
they only can appear as a set of crude
haphazard ideas, which may be right
or wrong, but bear no stamp to assure
us of their being entitled to authority.
Such opinions, therefore, are manifestly
of no sort of value, and the arrogant
and jealous terms in which they are oc
casionally spoken of by thoae holding
them, are simply ridiculous.
Interest and convienence also influence
opinion to a great extent, or may even
b said to be sources of it. Few men
would admit this in their own case,
and most are in a manner blind to the
fact; but it is nevertheless true. When
a man finds it either incompatible with
an object which he deems important,
to retain opinions which he has for
merly cherished, or necessary to that
object to adopt other opinions which he
had once disregarded or disliked, it is
surprising how adroitly some occult
power within will bring him about to
the point, without in the least alarm
ing his conscientiousness. The ex
pedient most commonly adopted by this
internal agent to reconcile us to a de
sertion, is to get up a little pique
against some person identified with the
opinions to be deserted. I differ from
that man on some trivial point I be
come irritated, and speak sharply
there is a retort, at which I fly off.
My fidelity is then questioned I fel
indignant at the whole party a lit le
whiie sees me ranked on the other side,
professing those opposite opinions which
1 had desired to adopt. The same re
suit may be brought about by com
mencing with a sudden start at one of
the measures, or new applications of
the opinions of the party, or by split
ting with respect to some dogma which
may be wakened up from its sleep for
the purpose. In short, there never can
be wanting soma pretext for such a
revolution, sufficient to pass muster
with poor self-deceiving human nature.
Coolly to adopt opinions previously re
jected, is a more difficult task, but it is
not in general beyond men's power.
By giving to that side the benefit of
every doubt, and treating the other un
candidly, it is possible, iii a little time,
to see things in the desired light.
Handsome is that handsome does,
and we naturally incline to think
those abstractions good and beautiful,
which are essentially connected with
honor and profit. A little anger at ob
jections helps the process wonderfully,
and if to this be added a notion that
the new opinions are the best for the
public intere&t. the matter is settled.
The subject must be regarded in two
divisions. Considered collectively, we
are forced to receive the opinions of
mankind, such as they are, with re
spect, for there is no other guide for ad
common affairs. There may be vast
and pernicious error, but we cannot
help it for the time. Let every means
be taken to extinguish the error, and
introduce truth in its stead; but still
we must meanwhile submit to the gen
eral dictate as it has been given forth.
Very differently, however, may the
opinions of an mdividu.il be regarded.
Here we are clearly at liberty to in
quire how these have originated, and to
consider the general intellectual grade
of the man, so as to judge of his power
of forming sound opinions. If he is a
mere impulsive being, inspired with
another man's breath, actuated solely
by his fetlings and interests, and who
has never taken any pains to ascertain
the soundness or fallacy of any of his
thoughts, all his self-complacent talk
about his opinions on this and that
subject ought to pass for only so much
empty air. On the other hand, where
we find a free and active intellect in
2 ham- Jucoid.
One square, one Insertion,
One square, two innertlon.
One square, one month, -
Tor larger advertisements liberal contracts will b
union with a respectable moral nature,
the opinions of the individual must be
entitled to respectful attention, and
ought to have their due sway in the
determination of affairs in which he is
a party concerned.
It is not given to all men to possess
the clear judgment or tbe logical mind
which is the most likely to give sound
ness to their opinions; but all men have
it, nevertheless, in their power to give
them some degree of correctness and
value. The first duty is to look search
ingly and challengingly into all those
already stored up, with a view to test
ing their accuracy, and to be prepared
to abandon those which shall appear
fallacious, however endeared they may
be to us from habit and association;
trusting fully in the maxim, that "noth
ing which is not true can be good." A
second duty is to watch carefully over
the feelings, especially all which relate
to sordid views of interest, so as to pre
vent them from corrupting judgment.
When any man is sure in his conscience
that he has done all which his nature
permits thus to secure right views of
abstract questions, he may be con
sidered as entitled to bring his opinions
before his fellow-creatures, to be
listened to and allowed their fair share
of influence but not, we humbly con
ceive, till then.
A Belgian physician, appointed to
report on the prevalence of color-blindness,
attributes that disease to the ex
cessive and general use of tobacco.
Iron railwav sleepers are said to
have proved, both in India and in Eng
land, much cheaper than wooden ones.
Their gradual adoption is predicted.
Frzth's celebrated painting, "The
Marriage of the Prince of Wales''
(which was at our Centennial) has been
sold for four hundred and fifty guineas.
Cork is comine into use in Germany
as a filling for winter bed coverlets, in
place ot leathers. It is said to be not
only lighter and cheaper, but decidedly
Mr. Parkman, the historian, has
returned to New York from Quebec,
where he has been accumulating ma
terials for his next book on Canada
undei the French regime.
Wild animals are disappearing from
Algiers. The French authorities pay
$10 for every lion or panther that is
killed, and about thirty-seven and a
half cents for every jackal.
In the libel suit of Whistler, the
painter, against Ruskin, for criticisms
Whistler's pictures exhibited in the
Grosvenor Gallery, a verdict was ren
dered of one farthing damages. The
judge refused to certiiy tne costs.
A curiosity in typographical blun
dering is noted in connection with the
official list of awards made to British
exhibitors at the Paris Exhibition,
which claims to have been " issued by
His Royal Bighntss the Prince of
Pope Leo XIII. is gradually re
moving the restrictions placed by his
predecessor on the study of art in the
Vatican galleries. Under Pius IX. it
was difficult to get at the master-pieces,
especially the Apollo Belvidere and the
group of Laocoon.
A great many people have the im
pression that it costs nothing, or next
to it, to publish a daily paper. That
must have been the belief of a good
old lady of Ohio, who left $113 to be
used in the publication of a daily re
ligious newspaper for a twelvemonth.
Do you know how a persou who
makes bonnets and such articles of
dress came to be called by the name of
" milliner? " It was originally " Mi
laner," meaning a resident of Milan,
Italy, and it arose from the fact that
at one time the fashions all came from
A curious incident occurred in the
course of the recent run on the Alders
gate street branch of the London and
County Bank. An enlightened butcher
came into the bank office when the run
was at high tide and carelessly threw
down dUU (3,000) as " something to
go on with."
A curious pair are two brothers in
Hartford, Conn., employed at the same
place of business several miles from
their homes, who had a falling out a
d zen years ago, and have never spoken
to each other since, though they
ride to and from work in the same
wagon, preserving a moody silence to
ward each other, with no other com
panion. " You cannot imagine the terror
with which the advancement of Ameri
can industries is filling British manu
facturers," said Prof. Silliman in a
recent address. " We, as you know,
tok the leading prize at Paris for the
best steam enginn in the world; and it
is not denied in Europe to-day that
America heads the li.-t in the manufac
ture of agricultural machinery."
The latter part of last September
discoveries of gold and silver were
made in Colorado where now is Lead
ville. At that time not a single house
was visible, and the men who were
there lived in tents. To-day Leadville
is a city of 7,500 inhabitants, with its
mayor, police, fire department, public
schools, national banks, and a post
office in which the post-master's salary
is $4,000 per year.
I would keep "better hours" if I
were a boy again; that is, I would go
to bed earlier than most boys do.
Nothing gives more mental and bodily
vigor than sound rt st when properly
applied. Sleep is our great replenisher,
and if we neglect to take it regularly
in childhood, all the worse for us when
we grow up. If we go to bed early, we
rip n; if we sit up late, we decay; and
sooner or later we contract a disease
called insomnia, allowing it to be per
manently fixed upon us, and then we
begin to' decay, even in youth. Late
hours are shadows from the grave.
.7. T. FieM