f. ; .- - . r. ' ' ' . -v ; ; '
?-' " - ' ? ! ; - . " t
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Qt tll . ... :
" r- ; ' ; ' : ; : -f. " SSSSSS - - '
AN INDEPENDENT FAMILY NEWSPAPER.
. TERMS, '
TWO DOLLARS FEB AMDI
Bctotctr to all fyt Sn taxte of tyc Soutf), $iteratttvefc Suc ation, mtt,turxy $fai3, iWarfccto, &c.
RALEIGH, JORTH CAHOLTN A, SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1855.
WHOLE M 161
I p ipiou of time, from au r'lt that appears
I VVa it very h--sriiiiiiiig. s i records proclaim,
jpai which, read Ha lis writ'en ly uninspired s-e s,
IjSjHIs backward and forward precisely the same. ,
city tr lowri in- a provincr of France,
tlt in rbltfs'and lioc.ti8 commend it to '"arne,
aearctf it out on tlwuiap, yU vsilt s"S ! ulaace,
I Th u 'backward or forward it still spells the same.'
Xn action; t fjict.nhd an ins'ruinpiit tio,
AWut which tin; lawyeis lull often declaim,
X-i l which, bk, lb -tr.pMctijs. ali tfu v .V thr nigh, ;
R;.,J;i bi .:kw,tr i a 1 1 t..r a- ir 1 .rw.ij.y me same.
A j-iilrj;w I whie'i. yo-i will freely .id li'rt,
Is, a? l-miaine- sh J lie, meek, cctfl'e nnd tame, -
JiYh k naiiw. however iiroimnnced. sho-ii-l he writ.
? 'S-j-ili.it. b'u-kw ird or Forward lis always ilu same.
ati .itl,t'ctivc. eotiimonly sc-ving to alio v
f A ;rit t'i'it n J ;p- liii. it 111 ly ! of sh ima, .
"(t jpjiiiiei, of im et,or in irn in a !iv.,
-"Wini-h iu -ward or f jrwar.l s;i lit ever thj sime.
I ' '
TVre .nee as a lady, a p'incew, a q-ien
f A pr .phefi oft t. the tiiii)est li ; earn ',
I Iii I .wiie'r wnlks now ofie:it.m -,s s'-eii,
rf.jj'.t backward or forw trd hor nam Ulte ame.
A .tit I? once-worn by tins lady and otin-rs,
I A'tenu ,f r !-p ;--t .v'l cS tru-.s n it'o n 1,1 iv claim ,
Thoti.hfs iMctitnes w't'i'i.-!d by 'finoeciit i.ro'Jiors,
I And backward or f.r.v ird rc id- always tiu same.
A hdy, I kmv n t w'i -re !-iv sh ti it dwj'.t,
V A'ljwat i M-i's-d air'Her. w!i .?o I'uleil j1 nam",
A.4 well ath-:it!.-!-!i rfv i !t
: B.jth bac'i -v trd -ti J f .rward exactly the same.
' ! A ster, a dn :'r. a e i-:. a pel ,
''.'. Y i'tr i t hi e y -if p it ir ii e te'i ehil.lish gime,
; W'U -- a J 1.' o ! - i wi.-i i.; re d w'i ;r -v.-r y ia nu t,
. 'I'akcn b.iikw i d or f -r v ird is a.w iys the sail.-.'.
' ' ' . . .
?. Til re are riv v.s in S vit.t tI.i i 1, I'o' in l in I France,
.And eL- M-'kire. or :rle iT I'.etteers -iro to iiianie, ,
if It:i ii..i!f wayi u ik . .by. sone -i t'i :ir chance,
$ Jjjl'eh'bickwa.-d a i If i.-w ird pr- ;'.? t c s line.
7 ' - -
' A vvod t icnir lan-jnase and lex " known,
I Which silence ami secrecy h i t r its aim-,
I " (.fcr.uatl al. or a m iUin, t i!;.' eith.'r a'o;i.
I . A id fi ic .vard or i irward ;t still s.-ieim ihe Jaaie. '
i ' T;i"' w.isim inaxh. Iieou-J nm well n,i,
r6rrs iu iow. hi-i Wii i.u u:i lers: indiu-f was lame,-W.i'vwll-'tlier
h ' ifi! 1 t-v i la -e.- or one.
Wjat ti-.takward'or forward irecij!y I he sirae.
V.i i :ii ike a'l t" ni n, a laU' o-l or tr -e. -,
Vo'jiit. i',.- i- ' i i w ,ri'iv ;;iin's nunc,
Yo i ap;)! I fr ).n th i i v to y tr n m-jj'iS jro, yon do
'l'n it w'lie.h bi:'v.virJ a il t.rr.v.i, J rctdj always the
A wind iw fro n w'r h it i pleasure lo look.
An or-l I? w'i -we in isu is iiois'ie s, not lame,
A d.-vis to nuk" u (! I a needie or li . d,
. W.u..!1! i v .v ir I . fi.-vv irl s,ul!s aiw ays tlie same.
A vi'ih'. or a part'-i-iji'e, ned to emblaze
A 'in r: ! mi ley es l'ted to l.tni
IV ot iMi-ly :id 'i.-d t i.iolatroii'i plira e,
' U'fitcli nark ward or forward spe'ls al .vay the same. '
. i nji, . ;lil;"ciivc, vt r', w!ih h'-vcr yon will,
A tir 1' l-.i ri'dn :c, t" striTi;'hcn to tame,
'IV vUii.'i in ! i 'i;es,s.irV'-yors,enmcers sspjK'al,
AVu.eh h-ickwrd or-torw ird is always the same.
A:t old p-o;io-it'.u. Iiy ;ioi-;s ivf-irr-d,
A ij i out ai.d iaro a v ri w - nr. !cr:is d:::liiiii,
A vef ol iii iiMf, or . xt u-i .n, hea il,
Wii eii ba.kA.i d or iorwarJ no a;. I sli iUe sauip.
Tlie init'a s i.l'thr .- make out th c.l; oin-u
Or ii'vcry ',od m m, wh .'m tiio '.K i.i .di-t claim,
Winch, ih iil':i n . i -'jl'i t:ii rxac: i for two men. .
Heads'b ick wa d a al lorward (i ccise'y lln4. same:'
; . Hatchet.
TIxE DIFFERENCE 'B2TWEEM A HLR0
AND A BULLY.
- i '
1'KOM TH K I H KM'II -
()v th,; cvetiiiig .i short tin. :i r th.; hit tic amongst the g.m lemen w!io f rmed the lioise
of iM.ut.nc"', (17-1.) ) a group "d th kmj's : !mlJ guml of the king of France, carried with
holv -'ii i:d wa- coiif,-.Mf.ir--.l u -.ir th 1, .toua ! !i ii piiiiciples which re-naine-d mi onupted
l.;ihin, at .Wi-saiil -s, li-t 'niif.' to two ..f i hen- ! amid the fivolities of one of the mo-t li
n'u nh r di-.cn ---.in ; a suij ct w-.ieh at 'that J -e.Hos courts in Eu ope. Such, however, is
p rio ! : was raivdy a iinttjr of controversy in l ,!'C charm of tirtue. even in the nvdst of vice,
inilit ii v ciieles.
' 'Mlefu-.. a du 1 after a ptthiie a.T.ont !" cx
chiiinod the t ill '.-t i.'th i sp Mk-T-S wliosj bi-on-z
vl f -atars w r.i r -n 1 -red al-ii'ist f-roctous-by.
the thick r. d m visticli;; " it is a stain that
wat.-rs of t!j deiu wuul-1. not wash
" I rep- it, Mosiis .nr d M
the otiler in a cal.ii. p .i,t ; toT1 tutt tv,re U
more courage in r -tt'u.s'ni -1'; m i. Hee -pfiog a
duel. What is moiv c mi n ,;i th in to yi 11 t
passion, ) envy or v.i -uio ; an 1 W s:lt inoi
rare iiiiin in i-mi i i -in . I n -i
virtue when exhibited at th p i,
opinvpii ; f ir what co.sts n 'thin ; i-
it is u
of public i
' "ii oil as
wo;th nothing " ,,f S . Lo i is from th; king's own hand on the
" A marvel ! Mains'i u'i- d' i r nn , 1 woul 1 "el 1, the e dogiu it of M irshal Save, and a re
advis if;evt;r -th k'i ti uiv s ti, t .., , 1 1 doubl d enmity on the part of De Malatour. "
of a con.puny. tih-iv - . nrrav -. ., . Sl!!Vs Th fi -st care of the vou .g ba-on, on aniving
of the soldi rs th- co .i.n lu l l, nt - TU.m ',ah
' And wherefoi.; not ? His m j sty would'
hav; hotter serv'ints. and t!i ; country fewer
pluni -rets, if we had in our r-;gi-n lit more sol-
di -rs an l fewr bulli ;s
I'.ik , as an ex inipl.;,
him with whmi-ymi s -i n so in i ;'i im ns ;d ;
has he not nobly nv, -n-t, what you call an af
front by taking, with his own hands, an enemy's
1 -r, i .i-i i c i
voioia, n:ie nm Knaves most iiiiciy loi iiicii, a
prudent n s i ve Ik bind the baggage?
" Cowards tlvemselves have their moments of
" Ai d the brave . lso heir moments of fear."
vThe exp essi- n is not .thav of a gentl man.''
'' Jf is that of Monsi ur d; T netiues, whose
. fan.ilv qua hd either of ours, a id a ho avowed
lUa'-' h, wa not exviup; from sue.. tajuieuU.
Evert body has beard of his conduct towards A
lr.ii.'jfHliK.-io, who boasted in his presence that
lie had never ktiownfe tr. lie suddenly pas-e-l
alighted candle unler the speaker's noe, who
iu-t:ii ly diew dack his head to the great
amusement of ilie bystanders, who laughed
hvar ily at this singular mode oftesting the other's
" None but a marshal, of France had dared to
act;- sucti 'easantiy.-To- our- &yHfaxjL.
maintain that your frieud is a coward, and you.
. And I repeated D'Argentre, hi -eyes
flashing and h s lips firmly compressed.
" Holla, gentlem n !" exclaim -d a th rd p uty,
who o ing to the warmth of th argument, had
joined the group tinperceived. "Tins is my af
fair," sad he to Monsieur d' Argentre, holding
his arm ; then turning to his adversary, added :
Monsieur d; .Malar our,- I am at your orde s.''
" In that, case, af er you, if necessary," said
d' Argentre, 'with his usual calmness.
" By my honor, you charm me, gen i lemon!
L-t us go."
" One nioment," rep' ed the new comer, who,
vouti'f as hi was, wore the cross of St. Lou;s.
' No rema ks. Gentlemen hasten."
' Too gr. at ha te in 'such case- evinces less a,
contempt for death than an anxiety to gel rid
of his phantom."
" Monsieur d' Argentre just now stated that
the brave -t "have fheir mom-nts of fear. Witii
i.ut taking as serious h s anecdote of Monsieur
de Tiirentie, I hall add that vvi.h the excepti"ii
of the difference that exists, between muscles
and nerves, the cotir ige .f ike duellist is inor.;
an affair ot habit than of principle ; frit is lhe
natural -ta'e of man to hve peace, if not for the
sake of others at least for hlm-clf. Do you wi--h
me io prove it ?"
" Euo-igh, sir, we are not here to 1 sten to a
" Yet a moment. Hero is my proposition :
we are a 1 assem'-le l this even:n previous to
our leave of absence; I invite you, then, a also
Hih e g utletnen pre enf, to a beir-lmnt oi my
estate, or rather amo ig.st t'ie precipices of Clat,
in the Ea-t rn Pyren tees. You are v-ry i-xp -it,
Monsieur de Malatour y . u can snuff a cand e.
with a pis-ol at 'wen'y pice-, aid you hav-; no
equal at tha sma'I -word. We 1, I shall placa
you before a liear, an I if yo i succ ed -l do not
s;i- in lodo; n t a bull in his head, but merely in
tireing upon him I shall submit imme liat-ly
after to ni'-et y u face to face with any weapons
you choose to n ime, s:nee it is only at that price
I am to gain your good opinion."
" Are you playing a comply, s-ir '"
" Quite the contrary. And I even repeat that
this extr. me haste shows more the courng.' of
the nerves, than of the tiue courage arising from
" What guaranty have I, should I accept your
p o o-';tion, that you will not again endeavor to
evade ,m e ?"
" Mv w ird, sir ; which I take all rny c m
.i;id' to witn ss and place in.der the saf -guard
of tln-r I oner.''
Th. re tan through his audit" ry such a buzz
of approba ion i h it De M dato ir, though w.th
a be I g ace, was obliged to accede to the ar
r.ioffeinenf. It was th -n agreed that on the 1st
I ot S:.-pt- mber all pre-ent should assemble at thd
I Cli iteau du Chit.
l h I t the young lord of the m inor is mak-
,iig the t ec. ssary p ejiaations for their reception.
i. we shall explain die accusation of which lie was
the ' 1-j ot, yt which had not branded him with
any mark of disgrace among a class of men so
punctilious on the point of honor.
yung Iiaron de illetreton, ih enterlnc
t' at Irs exemp'ary conduct had not only gained
him the esteem of his officers, and friend-hip of
his c -m panto i-, but had attracted tfie attention
of tiie king himsel1''. One alone among his com
rades, M n ieur de Malatour, took umbrage at
this gener il fav ir, an I, on the occasion of sonu
trifl ng expression or gesture, publicly instilled
him. Villetreton refu-ed to challenge him, as
b -ing contrary to his principles, but determine I
that his s-ening c ward ice, in not fighting a
wel -ku wn du qlist, -houl I be redeemed by s me
ac i 'ti of eclat during ihe campaign ju-t com
menced. That m m uit had airiv.d; and for
hi- no de conduct in taking the English color.
la the h i tie of Fo iteucy he rece've I the c oss
at t .is e -tate, was to call his major-domo, an old
" 1 h ive bust a. ss with thee, mv ma-ter,"' said
-oid! hy sliaking him by the hand.
4 Speak, uviu-eg.Bur;' replied the ps
who w.s dee ly att.ched to 1.5. vnnmr lord
,; - y.-u know the old hunter is yours to his last
j drop of bloo I."
j " I never d mht -1 it, my old friend. Did vou
r . ...... 1. ; i.i i ...... '
icecMe iuy letter irom ran-P
"Yes, sir; a..d thse gentlemen, your com-rad-
Sj will Lave some work before them."
"Are ther b -ars already on the heights
then ?" asked Videtreton, extending his hand in
the di recti .n of one xf the lofty peaks, whose
summit, cov.-red with snow, glitteied in the
" Fivu in all a complete mtnage father,
mother an 1 children ; besides an old bache'or,
whom the Spaniards li d driven to this side.''
In les than a week we shall go in pursuit
of them. Do you knof, paretir, some of my
comrades are rather rouh sjioristiien ? th-re is
one of them who is abl to siitiff a candle with a
pistol at twenty pac s "
" Easier, perhaps, thanto snuff a bear at
fouf," replied th ol I jnan.flaughir-g.
M That ia ft-i-tmA4&Vxxii&j
wish to julje for myself of hi pro ess, you
- - .
m ist pi tee us t-.g-t'ier at the same post at the
bridge of Maure, for insttinee."
' Hum !" sii l the parenr, scra'cldng his ear;
"it would better please m- to hav - you cdse
" Because t guarl th s pos, a man ought to
be in a state of g-'ac fo.- lie will be between
two deaths tlr bears and the prec pice."
"I know the one, an 1 do not feir the other;
th :inks to v'our 1 -sons " " j
"I am snre of that. I'm?, with your leave, I
should iik-; to gu ild the brdge myself."
" Sure ves , but quite sure no. Reoo'lect
that they are sullen and p ti le t Iwists, wlrch
never confide their pi n of route to any one."
"It is agreed on. I slia 1 gu ird the brdge
: with mv comr..d . Now go, and have ihe track
I ers r-ady."
! " Verv well, ery wi ll," murmur d the pareur,
I as be retired; '! -h-dl have mv cvh on him."
Eight -lavs aft-rwar-'s a 1 th s invited, not
j except ng Monsi- ur de M. dato ir who, despite
I the deli -ate atientions of the ho-t, pr serv(.d a
j co! I ies rve ere ass -nibl' d at the chateau
j T;,e inagnifi e -t granil ur of the Pyr nnees
their slim ng s mi n t- r -Iieved iguust the blue
skv of Span, was an un ooke 1-1. r pie isuiv to
the great num'vr of the goest.s. who for the
nv st p.iri b 1 nge 1 to the rich an 1 fertile p ains
of the int rior.
Th mo id jrf. 1 -wi'ig the'r airiv a body of
tr i. k -rs .nd sc at , prov d d with all manner of
' discord int insiru u nt :ru , pets, satic pans,
j drums, itc. t ., were as-eiiibl ' l under the wails
! of the coat a i, with the pareur at the:r head ;
while by his sile -too 1 he ma drin who proud
ly guarded a doz 1 irge m istiffs h Id in lettsli
by- hi- vigcous he pers. The young ba'on ai d
his fri i ds. arm d with carb n s and hunting
kn ve-, had so.n-ely ppe red, - h n by a sign
from the pareur, tie wh le troop moved si ently
forw ird. T..e do;s heinslves s -etned to under
stand the import mce of this inovement, and
n 'tli'iig was heaol but the co'il'used tramp of
feet, blending with t-e n ise i f the distant tor
ren', or, at interwi's the cry of s -me b-la'ed
n'ght bird, living h avily homeward in the
doubtful glimmer of the vet unop-ned day.
As t.'ie party reached the crel of tin moiin
ta;n wh'c'i immediately overhung the chat; an,
the first rays of th - sun breaki g from the east
glan ed on the summit of the Pi rennees, aii
sud b illy ilbiminating the landscape, di-coyered
beneath them a Jeep v , Hey, coveri d wi h ma
jestic pine trees, which murmured in tlie f.esh
bteze of the morning.
Opp s'te to them th-o lining wa'ers of a cas
cade fell some hundreds of feet through a cleft
which divided the m unfa n from the summit to
the b i-e. By o ie of the.-e catrices of nature
which testifv the irimitive convulsi ns of ur
globe, the chasm was sir mounted bT a natutal
b-i.lg- t!"e riles of grani e a "each side heiue
.-- i t-
j ined by one imtuen o fl it ro k. a'most see i
ing to verify the fab'e of tin- Titans; for it ap
i petrel im iossib'e iliiit th -se en nn us b'o-k- of
j stone conl I hav ; ever been raised to such an
I el- va'i hi bv human agonev.
I ' ' .
Sin-s'er leg nds were attache 1 to the p'ace,
and the m .uat.iin -ers recounted with terror that
! no hunter, with t' e exception of the pareur.
had ever been p-sie I 'at the bridge of Maure,
without becoming the p-ey of either the bears
or the precipice. But the pa-ear was too goo 1
a Christian to partake of this ridiculous preju
dice; Ire attribute! the fata'ity ton's p-vd caue
the duziness arisin : fr m the s'g'u of the b ars
i and'the pr -cipice combine 1, by d -stroyiiig the
hunter's pr senee of mind, male his ain un
steady, ae-d his ilea; h the inevitable cons- quence.
He could not, however, altogether divest him-elf
of fea s for his young master, who obstinately
persevered in his intention of occupy:ng the
bri 'g -with h:s ant igon'st.
Af-cr placing the bao-i's companions at posts
whi h he considered the ra st advantageous, the
pareur rejoined his m n, and di-pos:ug them so
as to encompass the y.d ey frcing the cascade,
com nanded the utmost si left re to b; p-eserved
until they should hear the firt bark of his dog.
At the -dgnal ihe m istiffs were to be nnlashid,
the i nst rum nts sounded an 1 all to move slowly
forward, con'r.tf ing the circl- as they approach
ed the cas ade. Thee" arra genients being
ni ule, ihe pir.mr and li s dog, f dlo-ved by the
mandrin alone, disa. peired in the depth of the
For some minutes the sih-n-e had remainel
unbroken, when -oid 1 -n'y a f irious Imrkmg com
meneed. a -com a ned bv lo v growling. Each
prep ired bis a ms, the instruments sound-d. and
th mastiffs b ing let loose, precipitated them-s-l
ve- pell-mell in the direction of the struggle.
Their furious barking was soon confoun M with
the cri s of th hn iters and the din of the in
stm nents, ming'ed with the formidable growl
ing of the be ir, making altogfther a hideous
concrt. which rolling along the s'des of the
valley, was repeated by the distant echo. At
this mom nt the yotr-g bafoa regarded his com
panion, wh s? count nan e, tho igh pale, re
Bk -iued calm a..d so. rfuL ;
"Attention, s:r," snid he in a dw voice.
"The bears are not far frJm us, let your aim be
true, or else " , v': -
"Iv-ep your counsels for yourself,r(4r F
" Alten ion !" repeated Vil elreton, without
seeming to notice the surly re pow,?-r:'v he ap
proaches." . . - -
Those who were placed , in front a- th. ca-3
cade, seeing ilitr animals '.directiog r e u -e-
1 J . I. r:-" - -r-r ,4 ' '-1 ... Y 1 - . J
IOQK out v a:etreton l .JJut wie DreaKing or ;
branches followed bv the ro ling of loosened.
s oue&; dow tti preiajwce, bad already given
warning of the. aHiml'-i n?ar approach. Mala
tur becauie iVaitly.p.'.e ; ha, hwever,Jie':d bis
carbine firmly, in the attitude of a-resolate liun-
A lar. ftt length appeared with foaming
wou-h an 1 glaring eyes, at times turn ng as if
he fain would struggle with his pursuers; but
when he saw the bridge, his only way , of esc q ei
occupied, he uttered a fearful growl, an i rais
ing himself on his leirs was rushing on our two
hunters, when a ball struck him in the forehead
and hii fell dead at their feet.
Malatour convulsively grasped his gun he
had become completely power'e-s. S ldden'y
new ci-ie, louder, and more p-essing. were heard.
" File ! lire ! he is liow.on you!" cried ihe
pareur, who appeared unexpectedly, pale a'id
agitated, his gun to his shoulder, but 'nfi aid o
fire, lest he should hit his master.
The 'alter, perceiving his agitation, lurnel
round; it was indeed time. On the other m le
of the bridge a bear, much larger than the fi s ,
was in the f-et of m iking the final rush Sp ir.g
ir.g b irk-Aard, hi seized the carbine of his petri
fied eompat.ioii, nd lodged its contents in the
animal' brea-t. ere he could reaih them, lie
tolled, in the deaih stiuggle, to where th -y
stood. All this was the work of an in-tant
The knees of the h ardy old paivur sdiook with
ein.;io:i at the escape of his toting ma-'ter; as
! 'r MahitoiiM his livid paleness, an I the coiivu
sive shuddering of his limbs, tes.itied the state
of his mind.-,
"Take your arms." said the young baion,
quickly replacing in his hands the carl. ire;
" lu re are our comrades they must lm't ee
ou unarmed; and, pareur, not a word of till
'"Look!" said he to his companions, .as they
gathered around, pointing to the Monstrous
leasis "one to each. Now, M nsieur de Mi
lat' tir, I wait youroiders, and atu ready lo give
the.sati-f iction you require."
The latier made no reply, but reached out his
hand, which V llein ton coidially shook.
That evening a b..nquet was given to cele
brate the . uble k-tory. Towards the en. I of
ihe repasts a toa-t to "the vanquishers" was pro
posed, mid immediately accepted.
Monsieur d'A'geiiire, glass in hand, rose to
pledge -it, when Milatour, also li-iug, held his
arm, exd liming: "To the sole vanquisher of
ihe da ! to our noble host ! It was he alone
who killed the two bears ; and if, through his
generosity, I have allowed the il us'on to last so
long, it was simply for this reason : The affront
which I give him was a public one, the iep.ir.i
tion ought to be public likewise. I now d -clare
that Monsieur de Villetreton is the bravest, of
the brave, and that I shall maintain it towards
all imd against a'l."
"Th s time, at least. I shall not lake up your
giiui h t. stiid Monsieur d'Argentre.
"Tnere's a brave young man P. cr'e l the pa
reur. wh,m Irs ma-t-r had admitted to his
tal.l-, and who endeavored to conceal a fugitive
tear. "Nothing could belter prove to me, sir,
that, wiih a little, experience, you will be as calm
in the presence of bears as you are," I am sure,
in the face of an -enemy."
HISTORY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTI
TUTE. One of the Dukes of North urnberl ind, iu the,
last century, had a son, who, taking his moth
er's name, was known as Mr. James Smithson. i
He was educated at Oxford, where he took the
degree of A. M. in lJ86. He was a man of
quiet, unassuming habits, with a taste fbr scien
tific pursuits. A small property he inherited
from bis mo;her, and an annuity settled .mmn
him by his father, enabled him to gratify hi
ta-te during his life. In 1"787 he was chosen a
mmber of ihe Royal Society, to whose '- Philo
oph:cal Tiansactioiis" he communicated seve
ral valuable pipers. He was the assxiate of
many of the prominent scientific men of Kng-
hn l, and attained some distinction as a chem
ist. Fiugal in his habit3, and prudent in his investment-,
his competence gradually increased
to fortune. He had no fixed residence and
formed no iainiiy ties. The latter part of his
life he. spent mo-tly on the Continent. He u v
er visited America, and ki ew it only from r-u-.-h
reports as Eng ish travellers at tha' time were
acvU-torai.-d to give of it. He drew up a will,
by which he Uqueathed his proierty to his
next of kin, a nephew, for life, and to his chil
dren, absolutely and forever.
But as there was a reuaote pos-ibi'ity tnat the
will might, be fru-trated by the death of the
legateis, a saving clause was inserted providing
tint in such ca-e the property should descend
tt to the United States of America, to found at
Wa-hingt-Jt und. r ihe name of the Smitlisoni
an Institution, an establishment for the incresise
an I diffusion of knowledge among men." It
contemplated a distant cojitingencj onlj, and
jrqbably was not inserted from any fix d plan, j h re lVF mother, brother, sister, had not diet! !"
or from any confident expectation of it- being i they mustlot out the record of those miracles
earriid out. which charm us, not only as the proof of His
It so hnppened, however, that the distant c n- mission, and guarantees of the truth of His doc
tingency occurred. Mr. Smithon died at G - tiine, hut as th-y illustrate the l nevoleme of
uoa in 1820, leaving property to the amount of! His chuaoteraini are tvisol the i-piritual cures
120,000 steiling. His nephew died -without j
isuef five vt six yevs after, at Pisti
.'The T' t sited t. lrTlli-n' 'jFb'f tViSftiife
them. Congress immediately passed a law au
thorizing '..tbPrrid4iitio appohit- aa agent to
apply to the I English Court of Chancery" for the
ie.-d.and i-ersonal estate of James Smithson, and
pjedg jtl " the faith of the government"' tor thu
application of the fund for the purpose sp c fi -.
Hon. Richard Rush, of Philadelphia, was accor
dingly appointed agent, went out to England,
whtained the property, and paid it iuto the
Treasury of the Uuited States, in September,
It was invested, bv order of Congress, in Aik in-
sas stocks which s-aonb gan to g . down down 1 with patience and with triumph ; they mnstb'ot
down, and shortly became worth about a- much : "Ut ihe yet sublimer words in which He declares
as Indiana bank bills are now. But Congress, i Himself "the re.-urrectu.ii and the life" words
ihinkiug it but right to repair the consequence-; ! w hich have led so many millions more to breathe
of its own error, assume 1 thestooks at par va!;:e, out their spirits with child-like trust, and to be'--and
reinvested the amount in the U. S. Sixis. iieve, as the gate of death closed behind them,
There was no family to take or claim' the that they would see II m who is invested with
hoii-eliuld effects, and what were not s id were the "'keys of the invisible woild,'' " who opens
-lit t Amen -a. Ine visitor at the Patent '
Oaice in Wa-hingt-vn will find one of tin- olass
cases devoted to the preservation of the ' per
sonal effects of the late Jnine- Smithson, Esq.''
Among these relics are his plate, walking sw-k,
ink-tand, chemical apparatus, & :
The orginal f ind was $515 169. an I the ao-
cumulated interest amounted, in 1 848, t 242,-
129. Considering this enough to begin with,
Congress, in August of that year, pa sed an-dli- I
er act to establish the institution. It provided
for the appointment of a b nrd of fifteen regents,
m uut'lv specifying the qua-ifieations reqm-r-
d, mid devotes the accruing intere-t to defray
ng the xpensi s of erecting a buihling, with
library, museum, laboratory, in Washing on.
I he rincipal is not to be trenched upon, but to
en a n a i-eriiianeti1'. loan. The present ed.iice
on the Mall was accordingly commence I.
The well known abi tty and scientific attain
ments f P.ofessor Joseph Henry, of Princetou.
hd to Lis being called to the office of Secretary,
audi the duties of superintending the instittit on.
Ti e present Board of Regents const-is of Chief
Ju tice Taney, Senators Pearce, of Mary'and:
Mason, of Virginia ; an 1 Douglass, of Illuois;
Messrs! English, Ind. ; Siuait, Mich. ; M.-acliHiii.
Vi rmont. of the II. use of Represent.it ves ; Mr.
Towers, the Mayor of AVashinjton : ., Mufus
C ioa e, of Massachusetts; Gideon Iliwley.
of New York; Judge .J3emer, of ' o gia ;
Richa.d Rush of Pennsylvania ; Professor P uH e, j
of the Co.it Survey; and Gen. Totten. The
aw forbids the Board to cout-dn two eitizen
of the same State.
Th . building is now nearly complet -d. Tlie
annual income is $30,000. How i his is t be
disp ..-ed of, we leave for the subject of another
LFrom Defence of "The Eclipse of Faith," by Rogers.
The br glitness of the brightest nam -s pales
and wanes lietore the radiance which shines fiom
die person of Christ. The sA-nes at thettomh
of Lazarus, at the gate of Nain, in the happy
family at Bethany, in the "upper room '' wheie
II ; institute ! the f ast which should for ever
consecrate His memory, and bequeathed to His
dis-cipl s the legacy 6f His love; the scene in the
garden of Gethscinane, on the summit of Calva
ry, and at the sepulchre ; the weet remem
brance of the patience with w hich IT; b re
wrong, the gentleness with which He reb:iked
it, and the love with which lie forgive it ; t' e
thou-and acts of benign condescension, by which
He well earned for Himself, from self-i tghteoits
pride and censoiiou3 hypocrisy, the name ot ihe
'fiend of publicans and sinners ;" th.se. and a
bun Ired things more, which crowd thos - concise
memorial of love and sorrow with such prodi
gality of beauty1 and of pathos, will stiil contin tie
to charm and attract the soul of huma iity. and
n these the h'ghest genius, as well as the hum
blest mediocrity, vviil love to dwell. Th s
things lisping infancy loves to hear on its m-oiler's
knees, and over them age, with its gr-y
I n ks, bends in devoutest reverence. N ; b f.u e
the iufi lei can prevent the influ -nee f thesc
coinjvositioiis, he must get rid of the Gosp ls
themselves or he mnst supplant them by fa-ticni
vet more wonderful ! $.h ! what hitler irony
has invo'untarily ej'ce 1 me! But if the I .st
b imp 'ssible, at least, the Gosp-ls must ceise t
exist b. f .rinfidel ty can sticce-d. Yes befor -
intidel- cau preyeu-feaivarinking as diey
have ev. r dne of ChrSis must b o' ouf
tile gent'e words with which", m the pie-ence . f
austere hypocrisy, the Saviour welcomed i It
tim d guilt that could only express its silent lov-s
in an agony of tears; they must blot out the
w rds addressed to the dying penitent, who,
softened bv the majestic patience of the m;g'ny
siiff-rer, detected at least the monarch und.-r ths
veil of sorrow, and cast an imploring ul nice lo
be " r "membere 1 by Him when He came into
His kin ' loin ;" they must blot out the scene in
wh ch ihe demoniacs sat listening at His feet.
and " in their right mind ilny mn-t blot out
the remembrance ot the tears wnicu Lie si.ea at
, . i ii i i
the crave of Lazarus not surely f .r him whom j
. . . -it
He as about to raise, but m pure symp .-ny
with the sorrows of humanity for the myriads
of deso'ate mourners, who could not.wltli Mary,
flj to bim, an4 Bay Lord, if thou hadt betn
His Go pel can yet perform ; they mutblbt out
the scenes of the sepulchrt; .y 1 '"re love and ven
eratioa lingered, and sa' was never seen
ot time tne tomb itsett irradiated nh angel c '
forms, and blight with the presence of IFn
"who brought life and immorlaliiy to light;"
they must bio out the scene where deep and
gia eful love wept so passionately, and found
Ilim unbidden at her side, type of ten thousand
tines ten thousand, who have "sought the grave
to weep there," and found joy and consolation
in Him " whom though unseen, they loved ;"'
Mit-v must blot out the discourses in which lie
took leave of His disciples, the majestic accents
of which have filled .o many d -parting sou's
and no man shuts, and shuts and no man opens.
leiting in through the portals which leads? to
immortality tlie radiance of the ski' s; they must
blot out, they must d stioy these and a thousand
other such things, b. fore they can prevent Ilim
having the pre-eminence who loved, bees use1: he
loved us, to call Him-elf the "Son f Man,"
though ang. Is call him the " Son of God."
It is in vain to tell men it is an illusion. If
it be an illusion, eviry varitty of crpcnmmt
proves it to be inrelcrate, and it will not be dis
sipated by a million of Straus-es and Newmans!
Piobitum est. At His f,ei gnihy humanity, of
diverse races and nations, for eighteen hundred
yeais, has come to pour fourth in faith and love
its sorrows, and finds there " the peace which
the woild can neither give n r take away;"
Myriads of aching heads and weary hearts have
found, and will find repose there, and have hi
ve ted Ilim with veneration, love, and g atitnde,
which will never, never be paid to any other
name than His.' -Defnice, pp. 141-144.
Pkobable Effects of tiie War on Agri
culture. A correspondent of the Richmond
Inquirer, writing front Liverpool, on fhe war,
t-avs, the spirit of the English is united in fivo.
of the w,-ir, and that men and money vvil
vol d for its contiiitiai.ee, bv Parliament.-
" Yet when drained of her men, when so ma
ny thousands How engaged in peaceful pursuits
are taken away, ai d the labor of the country
thus manifestly lessened, who, I pray, are to
furnish meat and bread for these vast armies,
and the population that yet rem- ins at home ?
There is not :r m mth less Jo feed, and man'
less left to produce the nece-sary f.-od for all. at
fhoine or abroad. Russi i will send nothing
from the B.iltic. and the great wheat growing
country on the'D.mube, and that which is wa
tered by the .many rivers entering the Black
Sea, is ravaged by desolating war : and all that
the jieople of that vast and rich-country has for
years sent abroad, and to England esj ecially,
will find for its diminished production consum
ers at home. Already are these considerations
pressing on the English wheat and flour mar-k-t,
and keep up the prices, even after a good
crop, which has In en secured in most admira
ble condition. Wheat sells now at rather high
er prieis than it did one year ago, and our own
couutry cau now but sufficiently supply either
England or France. But let our people make
less tobacco and less cotton the next year and
the year after, and, I toll you, your mil
lions of wealth will be drawn hence lo us, if for
these now staple articles, articles of wheat, corn
and provisions be t-ub-tituted. Clear up onr
lands, and put the utmost bread h of them in
everything necessary for the food of man ; and
every par.icle that is produced will find an ad
mirable maket the next year. True, our wheat
crop' is already in the ground, and its quantity
cannot now be increased. But our corn crop
may and that is an article which will pay
much. better .next year than either tobacco or
Statistics of thk past Yeae. The papeis
in various directions are filled with statistics of
past year, giving the remarkable yeuts, ac
cid uts, incidents, fires, &c, throughout the
j ""tiie mtire hss from fires in the Un'ted SiatfS
j f or the year is es imaged at about 125,000,000.
j There Were also 83 fire in which loss of life en
j su.-d, the number of victims-U ing 171
The number of railroad accidents was 193,
k lling 186 persons and wounding 589. In 1853
there were only 138 similar aecidenis, but at
teiide ! with ttto 1-jss of 234 lives, besides 496
The steamboat accidents of tlie year have
alarmingly ineres. d. the total number reaching
J 48 with the loss of 587 souls -and 225 wounded,
against 31 accidents, 319 tiled and lo8 wound-
ed in 1853.
C.ime. too, of every grade fio's up a fearful
.1..1 TU... octn l - i
i catalogue mere were uoi luuraers ana o
executions during the year.
m i', .f . r, f .
Tue li-t of mortality Utr th vear includes the
demise of no less than 18 tnn and 27 women
who haa attuned the age of 100 ears and up-
J wrd. On (a oolvrel woman) wa taid to be
146, and another (an Indian woman) was said
to be 142 years of age. The oldest white mau
was 107, and the oldest white woman. 121
years. Death has also, during the year, greatly
thinned the diminished ranks of the soldiers
of the revolution, no less than 86 having
closed their earthly existence in the last 12
-- Not Exactly the Thing, Th Courier dtt
dote : , " Felfeien David, the celebraled French
musician, is travelling in the Eist, during the
vacatjoti of the company to which he is attach- i
ed. The fara of his talent follows him every- '
where at v.airo he was asked if he would eon
sent to give music lessons to the wives of the
Pacha. Mehemet Ali. David, who saw the Ha
rem filled with Georg'ruis, Circassians, almost
llouries, opening before his eyes, accepted the
proposal with a warmth almost too thinly dis
guised. He was led into the inapproachable gy-
ileum, and there, in a porcelain saloou, under
the murmurs of a fragrant fountain, he was pre
sented to five abominable eunuchs ! These fel
lows were to take the lessons from the artist
and transmit theni to the wives of his High
ness. Felicien is running yet."
THE HOME MOTHER.
Some one writing for the Masonic Mirror
has drawn a charming, picture of a home-living,
" We must draw a line, aye, a broad lina
between her aud the frivolous butter-fly of'
fashion, who flits from ball to opera, and party,'
decked in rich robes, and followed by a train
as hollow and as heartless as herself shc who,
forgetful of the holy task assigned her, neglects
those who have been given her iu charge and
leaves them to the care of hirelings, while the
pursues her giddy round of amusements. Not
so with our home mother ! blessings be on her
head. The heart war-ns to see her in bet .
daily routine of pleasant duties. How pleasant
ly she sits, ky after day, shapening aud sow--ng
some little article for use and adornment
for her little flock ! And how proud aud pleas
ed is each littlj recipient of her kindness !
How the little faces dimple with pleasure and
the bright eyes grow still brighter, as in ituma
decks theni with her own hands, ia the new
dress she uas made 7 ""Hd w Tiiueu wanucr a uvl -more
comfortable they feel if mamma wraps
them up before they go to school ! No one
but her can warm the inits and overtshtv-s, or the
comforters around the necks !
There is a peculiar charm about all she docs,
the precious mother. They could not sleep,
nay, for that mutter the could not, if she failed
to visit their chamber, and with her dwu poft
hands arrange them comfortably before she
slept ! Her heart thrills with gratitude fo her
Creator as she looks on those sweet, blooming
faces, and when their prayers are done, imprints
a good night kiss Oil each rosy mouth. It may
be, too,-a tear will start for one little .nestling,
laid in its chill narrow bed, for whom her mater
nal care is no longer needed. It sleeps, though
the sleet and snow descend and the wild winter
howls around its h"ad ! It needs no longer her
tender care ! A mightier arm enfolds it ! It
is at rest! She feels and knows that it is
right, and bends meekly to the hand that sped
the shaft, and turns, witlua warmer love, if it
be possible, to those little ones who are left to
love. How tenderly she guards them from
danger, and with a strong, untiring love, she
watches by their bed side whin they arc ill !
Blessings be on the gentle, home-loving mother.
Angels wilf look with love upon ber acta. Her
children will rise up. and call her blessed, and
the memory of her kindly deeds will enfold ber
as a garment.
EASTERN HOUSES. s
Many of us, when we were children, have
Ihen much perplexed with s rrie of the circum
stances connected with the miracle reooried in
the 5th chapter of Luke. We were utterly un
able to understand how the jioor paralytic man
could be let down through the roof and tiling,
and la:d at the f et of Jesus, as he wa sitting
in the bouse, and how his friends could carry
him to the top of the hdu-ve wiibout passing
through the bouse. Knowing only the way in
which our own houses are built, we could not
understand the circumstances of the interesting
Houses in the East are not like ours, built
with several stories; they are generally of two
floois only in height ; though the young man
Eiitychus, who fell into a deep sleep during
Paul's long discouise, and from the intense heat ,
of the upper room, owing to the number 'of per
ons and the many lights burning there ia Kaid ,
to have fallen from a window in the. third loft.
Thev also occupy a great space cf ground. On :
n ering the door you usually come info a
square, round which are the different apart
ments runs a small gallery. The roof ot, the
house is flat, with a liuht balusti&de running
round if, to prevent persons from failing over.
Thi- balu-irade, or coping, is made of clay or
pottery, and is easily removed. Over tlie court,
in the middle of the house, a roofing of canvass
is strained, in hot and wet weather, to shelter
those in the bouse from the sun and rain. ,
The subcase, by wh ch you go up upon the
roof, is ou the outs.de cf the bouse ; so that any
person can . either get upon the roof, or come
down from it, without ever going into the house.
Aud this explains our Lord's . words, when,
warning his disc'p'es on the sight of certain
sigua which should happen befote the'destiuc
lion ii Jerusalem, to flee with all epecd, he said,
"Let not him that is on the' housetop come
down to take an) thing out of the house " that
is, let h'm come dowu at once from the roof, and.
uot go into the house, but flee for all bis life.
If we bear these particulars in remembrance
the court in the middle of the house,' the
staircase on the outside, the flat roof,-and the
canvass awning, '-which covered th 'entire cort- ;
we thall be prepared better fori . understanding . -this
biteay. r--? V