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WILLIAM IX COOXE,
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TWO DOLLARS PER ASKEM
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VOL. IV -X0. 8.
RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA, SATURMY, JANUARY 20, 1855.
WHOLE N0. 163
THE WRE1CHH.D FAMILY.
BY MHS. LVDI.V JA a K I'lEUON.
Wretched .ind ragged, clii iy and poor, .
"A 'm.ii Sne.-ks along I" the ruiii-.-e-ler'.s door,
' I'lcdcd :sm Iivii with red rheumy yes,
An object that all people shun and despise,
AljVct.y trembling, lie begs for a dram,
Which i lie nail sobered I inuloru denies nun aaauin,,
. . ... . ii ii t .1
i i.luiig Willi angm n ne turns to (ieiari,
Wild (Muse on iii- lips and despair on his heart.
Y'as'cd and weary, Imiv.'ry and poor,
A nn;;ii cj-eeps up to a grocery door: -,
' J-antMiid and pallid, her ey es dim wi'h tears, ;
Wretched mi i friendless, thc'fri'tnbh-r appears.
Now s'ie Hiiplore'.h 'U'i'.h voice sadly xweei,
'I'l ii-t !!' to something, my cluldren can eat!
s.;y lli groeer yn:i never will pay," .
A id tin- hcari-br.oken w oman turns sobbing away.
liagged and. f.nnisliM, barefooted and poor,
A iirllo boy flit's to a rieh neighbor' door;,'
Please maV.ni lie blastin g and faltering plead,
l.e' d my iuiif inot' er a halt' b if of bread.
l.i nd '. ei ies the.w oma n. Wn v don't :ou r-ay gi vc ?
:"'l'i :i pily such poor worthless wreiehes-:sJiouid
iive : -Tire
eliii ireti beg (.re id, and, the fa. her iegs ruin,
1'. is ini my duty. Away wi'di you home.
Home wcnr t ie hungry child, weepi'rg and slow,
in d'ri g ii yd'n idi-iiee orders ihin-s sev,
T ral lie, with hi, .little h-art gushing wii i Idve,
Wi; a-ked d;.i-y luea I Ids F.itli. r abo e,'.
. Alul lie a piior on' e.if, despised iirnl turlnrii
.1 dated and t lint - ii an i I rea'.-d v. i: h .ru ; -jle
lii'i hisMnal ii nd. a deflate " Mv
a at'ier in l.'e.T-vi n ! On l.-t t'ii;.i'!ev die."'
;1 loiue (amies tbe U'niiia rwidi falt-ring f'ee.t,
.rinl m it 1 1 tr i.lt to gi.e the poor b hies t i eat :'v
dvouu f In r thi-v cii g. with a wail f tle,-p:-Jr,
Aiid Nr.e in her darkne-s, tb d- i." place Crs prayer,
h aini'l.iisr Is her a-' t'd.e.l crv, I"''
' A U.K.- (flier: no b.'.l, r. in T v'.urlhier liran I,
. Spin rule- their old in luxniiai t cn-e.
i...l! me their children more pln-dous ti.airjkese ?
Home c-'irie-' tue ina'r, mad wit'i auer .- nd pain,
l'i.e Ii-r of liie nun f.-i er scorching hl.s Lraiu ;
Home naich tobi.s gu d y spirits is heal,
V U-re laini .e and orrow in liide.Mi- iit'sS dwell.
He glan d on his tremblers, u ith i igcr'-like eyes,
"'I'n irrgd -i'oiwer! I Jod d n ymi ! '" he cries,
s jMeri' cll rlie picture too pajllful to view,
.. i. -is dreadful atni dre.iilfailv line". ' -' A
1- lucre re. Iiepe tor this li-tiie ot (l. S; air .'
Noll. -lid biiid 'ill ihe he r s bleeiiin ''the.!'!
No one io lead tiie Ids', drill kard to le
Salv.-f-iniiV pine waters llbw p-lenteo'rs.and free.
No one 'o s.iy io iliat woiiian id" grief.
( ' I has uJL t'.ro.ten lie.seiaK you
X one 1. 1. say to those cliildr. il1-bn k; up,
A . i lia. k oat t'r. a:.ir w;ih r-a.i'iess and du pe.
TFAl HISTORY. OF-THE WAR BETWEEN. 1,ut l,y ilis own energy, raised Russia high
1VUS3IA AjiiD 1UEKEY. I "' s:'1'1 of nations by drilling armies,
. .. ' -i buiMing and training navies, building and filling
m in:. i-Aiun. - : eiiies, and founding schools. He was succeed-
' - " : II I i' I . I . . 1 . . . 1 . I ' I - -
l'o.hteeil. i ; e ' S abject
f thc'ea-K historv o
, . , i
1 1 ui -. i ng a (ies- i
instorv oi -I Hi ii ui kev 'ami .
l;u-:a. die- l.itler :s o:;- ,-i ih iju
. f tl
f .iniej'. and ha- a' ut Ji.c.tmo s.(u!,r.-"m h-, ;
and numbers .a 'out .'i0,i (.m'.iOi) .uh.U i::uys.
lb- sp.-.ke of 1 i ce. e a - ii . -I e..,Vi ii n she i. n-
. llV'ln'W p. i-ses-i d by Til kev ; -lid that' civi.i-
7.ali"ti' e tiiMiyin-od the;"'; f.oin ile iiee cam - all
our rel'iiii-nnJtils, b- .t h of , l.-inguage .and 'aits;
that -t 1m- (ii'eek language was sp -ken t .ck- in :
i - i.-nriiy ';. is in i s .. n f. . hi. .y more I
th in I .ilon,tM.I0 ' of illi.ab 't'ants ; a'.d 'i a' inn- i
ga age di:le -lio -inure fro'in t!i" m.e entM .re k
l drill i.nr tor gin- di!:ers fiom j en. el- ; ral d in
. liM.r.. th.- J .'mv 'of ihe arc ents w.is ,o:iri. d in :
by tli 'ii; d -C-: Vlairts, whi stiSi ( ar thdir fot- i
tiler 'i.i-' Hill.', and called themselves bv the I
. - - - s :
'iiaiiie . i the r liiuiiotr li .iiie. st,,r,. C-uist-uaine '
' ina.- 'C..:is':.fii-!i!(;.!f his capital, alrd ill- the'
' co.-. i sc. . f iwciitv tive erirs made it a siJendod I
-' ' ' - !
cii v. r - nia:tie i such fr a ion-4 tini". t.. i
" l'.'t.- .ei l s'tuitinopic was taken by the j
1 'i .i.s. Ami th - 1 oc!or gave a vapid :t count j
. - ,".v. . - V. i
in.- reign ot i i; niiau ha ; l;s sut-jnga-
t on bv r.iiner'.aiii. ; '. :iee..ss:r,u . f' f i ib.un.in .1
1 .,;'-.) the .li-r. 11 , ro d the s;i-,-, i 0f A tlillrtll, i
!e- t1 out. c dl :
. d -I in as es, i,v ml
iliiii-s, at iiti e.-.rl v ;ag -.
-ihefn " arm - ; ibis
co a'Vc.s w tli-i.'ti'ri-t-
1 I !. S Oi s.j' i, ;, -,;,;.
lem. '( 'oils raiuitiop
"tlia t in.-, n in- hi-.-.
' tl'-, elid.i.eii of Chris- j
c ICUIlie -i ,.jr - ;ti(. training !
Ho ,. -n- o !.-.; r,-.,i ; , j
iU I ties is ..,,. of the I
be ween ;,,,.; i(p .uS
has si.,. .,, ( ni; vh '. V-nce
i: was t i in., v i e, !
y 1 u it of
e l'uiks .-ii,.
ic-t'ov a d all
a ir -i- m -ti v- wooi
"II . . li l i-.rii i.s ; i ,.y
iv. L f in - e. i ii
W 1 11 one c(."ltlll! in
i ciii.-s an
Villages. fll'.l-h l-li:.v..r-
li- g r-b-u.-f t'.e w.-Vio im.., a 'w ildei.iiess.
k.'.o but iittU- f a-riciiiiur..: notiiiii" of
arts; ai.'i.k but littie of maiiunu
5 '! h ui icsf kii.ds. 1 iiey have no rail-
. s-i a oi (":,' -or stag's; tm telegraphs and
i'.;l-. .They .have , ma e bud; little
1 fate: I n; now, as a gr-iei-attrhing,
r i': 1 v. and .are tv im to ivecovei-
tr m t'.. ir !.,
'' s- rii -d the
it con fa t between
oth.r Eiito' i a., eoun,",,,.. ...... T....1.., . 1
i n - (him nil iv i , i c ' 'var i . . ---
f'l-'i '- -sat the h;,t)fheril',U:"a.t,,reJ,,,n?'an':it and En-
i w i mi d England haul y k
iiiown ; w hen
Mo 1 m marched his army ,.Ver Ge- many, and
in gl.t iiroe iiarch-d to Paris; w'mn Rtfssia
wa in b r nf ncy. ; nd part of h. r pus -fit ter
ritory o (- ied by th Turks, and goeris the
rease fr h ijis- of all" these na i-ns to th, ir
P es;ui pinion,1 and the decline of the Eastern
Power, that the former hadjkept up with the
, spirit of ihe age, while the fatter had kept close
to the letter of her traditions, and refused en
trance to the renovating spirit of civilization.
lie theu spoke of Greece, her history, people,
prospects and present condition. His ideas
! seemed I he opposite of those advanced by lion.
G- orge 1'. Marsh on Tuesday eveng. The
1 :ilject slavery fu which they had leeu iield 3br
i a long time had crushed their spirit in a meav'
ure) 1IU jnce tI)e revolution in 1826 they have
, been gradually rising. They have produced
in ioet, painter, architect, musician, lately.
. llow could they tiuder such circumstances ?
i Hut since the revolution they have' not lost their
former taste for the arts, or for literature. Al
1 leadv in the city of Athens sixteen newspapers
nr.' published ; they have schools, colleges, uni
: versi th s, and lately an observatory. The weal
thy Greeks residing in their own laud, and in
'! other places, contribute munificently to the
;-ndov. incut of these institutions. They still
: have much tate and laleut, and it -will come
out under the fostering care of a good govern
lie now would give the early history of Rus
sia ; but it had iii.le. It was. formed of nomadic
tiibes of Schhivonic o igin ; was origina ly a
number of small nations, but they merged
into one in the ninth century. One of its Czars
mat ried a member of the nyal f.tmi'y of Greece,
by. which means that religion was introduced
into' Russia, and at last became the established
f.iith of the countiy. Civilization was long in
traveling up from the Ulack Sea, and even now
they are but half civilized. They were warlike,
and, as tliev siren 'thened, tritd to take C li-tan-titiople;
an 1 could have done so at one time,
but were bought off; they attempted the
same thing again, but were defeated. Russia
owes everything to Greece, and they know' it
ami sav they will protect the Greek religion, in
gT.oiiude for what it has done for them. Coti-
tai.tiuople was long the Mecca of the Russian ;
ami no doubt one reason of the present War is,
that they may -obtain possession of this, their holy
. city. The present Czar told Joseph Sturges
that ho considered this a holy war for the de-
fence of their faith.
He traced the progress of Russia, from the
time of Vad.-mar ihe Great, down through the
times of Ev,.u ihe Tenable, whom the Russians
thought more cruel than Nero, and who turned .
: the Tartars out. of M scow, and Changed the
success of the Poles and Magyars; and through
the r -ign of his son, who followed-the policy
of hi-, father; and through the reign of the ctea-
i ture h m the Poles elevated to the throne;
; and" throagh the following interregnum: and
the icLu of the Czar elected to till the vacant
I'p'ae. tin- nihil of the present dynasty.
i Then came Peter the Great, who d.d lit'le
; t..w,tid increasing the extent of his dominions.
el o.y ins wne, a (irunKeu nussev wno oni some-
.thing for the country. Then came the Czar, of
three months old, w hom Elizabeth put in pris-,
nil, and reigned iii his stead. She was no bet-
0 r.thau she should be, and that was say ing but
1 ti e. Then came Catherine, who, though
b d, was very en-igetic, and did much to ex
tend ihe confines of Russia. Under her, thz
iii'amous partition of Poland was made; the
Crimea was taken, and the Khans nearly exter
m nated. She was ceded lo Russia by the wilT
of ti e d c-asi djking, and was duly made over
by his queen. In .the reign of Alexander, Fin
land was a hied, and the Court of Vienna gave
to Russia the last slice of Poland ', the Czar's
possessions then extended to the river Prutb.
The present Czar ascended the thi'..ue in 1825.
Tin- population of Russia is almut 70.0U0.000:
lM.Oi'U.UUO of whom are serfs, one ,and a quar
ter million nobles, and the rest of the middle
cii s.- There are no serfs in ancient Poland,
Fin ai d or Bessarabia. '
Tiie w ar and its origin was then discussed.
Fiance has long consideied herself the head of
"the Latin Church, and some time since, r.egot a-
ted with Turkey for the protection of Christians
( f that denomination. But those professing the
Gr.-ek fa th were without a protector. Soon
Russia assumed that, position, and also made
treaties with Turkey. At hist, a difficulty arose
r.-iie.-rimr the iMicil'.iaiicv of ihe sMereil shrim-s
L , ' , , ......
; the oirin-piace anu tue sepuictne or tiie rs;i-
vi itr and the Lat ns aud Greeks quarrelled,
ami sometimes fought so in these shrines, that
the. Turks had to interfere to seperate them.
Ttn n France sent a minister to Turkey, demand
big thai the Latins be allowed tiie exclusive use
ot those sacred places, and it was granted.
lat Russia then sent Prince Menschikoffto
m ike the same request for tiie, Greek Church
and he 'met with the same success. Then
I' latu-e miniated again for the same, and again
Prince M,nscb,kotf appeared with a large staff,
saying that Russia had been insulted 'bv this
va. idt.it, ng course, and demanded and obtained
, a pnva e interview with ,h, Saltan, on Friday,
th- Turkish Sabbath, which caused great ex
i citem. tit among the turks.. TTe nl a i . i
' a H, man ,el:t;wn several sacred relies -ITU
lll.nl rv,., t. 1." . i. 1
' ISIl nilir.siet-e urlviorf tl.n, T...1 i
I ...in, w s.,iul ins request, wnicii was done, and
; the matt.-r. thev thought. vr ettlr..i r...'
s!i( rtly after. Menschikoff made a uew demand
which so alarmed the Turkish Secretary of
State, that he sought the French and English
ambassadors, who advised him to refuse com
pliaLOe, which, he d d.
Upon the refusal, the Prinze went home, and
Nesselrede iutonned Turkey that tiiey shou d j
take possession of certain provinces, to secure
what they had asked, but that they should not
declare war. Turkey threw herself on the pro
tection of her advisers. England thought it was
not best to consider this act as a declaration of
war ; and then England and France tried to
settle the dilHcuhy - by diplomacy, and wisely
removed the site of negotiation to Vienna.
Here, at one time, matters were nearly arrang
ed. The "Vienna Note" was at first accepted
by Turkey, bin afterwards, at the instigation of
her advisers, she demanded the interpolation of !
a few words, which would change the face of-!
things materially, and which d-mand Russia
would not accede to. We see the consequences. 1
The Ixdor then related the history of the war, j
thus for, in a very graphic manner.
lie ihougnt that England and 1' ranee had
assumed great responsibilities, in bunging the j
matter to this condition, but accounted for it '
by the evident desire of France to be at the ',
head of the Latitl Church, and be considered its
prctector; and that England saw with enw the
rising power of Russia, and feare 1 that, in the
end, she rniglit dispute her power in-India.
American Or yon.
BETTER THAN DIAMONDS.
I was standi) g iti the broad crowded street of
a large city. It was a cold winter's day. There
had. been ra'n ; aud although tiie sun had been
shining brightly, yet the long icicles hung from
the oaves of the houses, and the wheels rum
bled loudly as they passed over the ground.
There was a clear bright look, and a cold, brac
ing feeling in the air, a keen, northwest wind,
which quickened every step. Just then a little
child came i mining :d ng a poor, ill-clad child:
her clothes were scan: and threadbare ; she had
no cloak and no shawl, and her lit: 1 - bare feet
look'-d ted and suffering. She could not have
been more than eight ve irs old. She carried a
bundle in her hand.' Poor lklle shivering child !
I pitied her. As she passed me lu-r foot slip-
ped, and she fell with a cry of pain ; but she j
held the bundle trghlly in her hand, and jump- j
ing up, although she limped sadly, endeavored
to run as before.
' Stop ! little girl, stop," sa:d a sweet voice ;
and a beautiful womnn, w raped in huge
shawl, and with furs around lier, came out of a
jeweler's store close by. " Poor little child,"
she s aid, "are you hurt I Sit down on this step
and tell me."'
llow I loved her, and how beautiful she
: " Oh I cannot,"' sai.f the little child, " I can
not wait 1 am in sujh a.hnrrv. I have been
to the shoemaker's, anil mother must finish this
work to-night, or she vyiil never get any more
shoes to bind."
" To-night,' said the
beautiful woman, " to-
Yes" said the child
f-for the stranger's kind
manner had made hpr li, 1 '- yes, f,.r ihe great
ball to-night; .and rfie.sj saliu slippers must be
spangled and " .
The beautiful woman took the bundle from
the child's hand and umoded-it. You do n-.t
know why her fac-.i flushed and then turned
pale; but I, yes 1, looked int-. the bundle, and
on the inside of a slipper 1 saw a name a la
dy's name written, bat I shall not tell it.
'And where does your mother live, little
girl?" ... .
So the child told her where, and then she
told her that her father was dead; and that her
little bio; her was sick, and that her mother
bound shoes that they might have bread ; but
that soiiii-iimes they were very cold, and that
her mother sometimes cried because she had no
money to buy milk lor her little brother. An
then I saw that the lady s eyes were full o
tears; 'and she r. .11. d up the bundle quickly
and gave it back to the little girl : but she gave
her nothing else no, not even a sixpence, and,
turning away, went back into the store from
which she had just come out. As she went
away I saw the .'Li ter of a iliamnn ,n
Presently she came ba-k, and stepping into a
"inndsome carriage, rolled off. The little girl
looked after her a moment, and with her little
bare feet, colder than they were before, ran
ouicklv a way.
1 went with the little girl, and I saw her to
a narrow damp street, and into a small dark
loom ; I saw her mother her sad laded moth-
r, but wirii a face so sweet, so patient hushi
ng and soothing a si-k baby. And the baby
s ept and the mother laid it on her lap ; and
the bundle wa unrolled, and a dim candle5
helped her with her work: for though it waslfvva"' t W-IS determined to send the paintings
not niglit, yel ln-r room was very daik. Then,
after awhile, she ki-sed her. little girl, and bade
her warm her poor frozen feet over the scanty
j fire in the gwe, and gave her a little piece of
j bread, for she had no more ; and then sift- heard
her sziy I er evening prayer, and folded her ten
j derly to her bosom, bles-ed her, and told her
j that the angels would take care of her. And
j t ie little child slept and dreamed oh ! such
j j leasant dreams of warm s ockings and new
j shoes ; but the mother sewed alone, and as the
! blight spangles glittered on the satin slippers,
came there no icpiuing into the heart ? When
j she thought of her child's bare, cold feet, aud
! l'tli mriKi' n. rlrp bread, that, hail nnt.
satisfied her hunger, came there visions of a
bright room ana gorgeous clothing, and a table
1 -a le'd wiih all that was good, a little portion
of which spared to her would give warmth and
comfort to her humb e dwelling.
If gioh thought! came, and others, of a pleat
ant cottar, and of one-, who had dearly loved
jier ancj wn0se strong arm had kept want and
trouble from her and her babes, but who could
never come back- if these thoughts "did come
repiuingly, there also came auotliei": and the
widows hands were clasped and her i d bow-
ed low, mt deep. contrition, as I hear htr say,
" Father forgive mo 'r thoti doo-'!I tfiirtgs
well, and I will trust to thee. . Just then the
door opened softly, and some one entered.
Was it an angel ? Her dress was spotless white,
and she moved with a Hoisaess step. She
Wcnt to the bed where the slewing child lay,
an, covered it with s ft warm llan'kets. Then
presently a fire sparkled and blied -tihere. such
as ti,e jtlie grate had never' kiowm before.
Then a huge loaf was placed upon the table,
an,i fresii rnjik for tue sick bate. jThen she
passed gently before the mother and drawing
tiie urin s.ed slipper from her hand, placed
there a purse of gold, and sid "in. a voice like
,misic : " Bh-ss thy God, who is die God of the
fatherless and the widow "and she was gone,
or,v as sj,e went out j near(j ju,r sw i;.tler
than diamonds better than diamonds ! " Who
could she mean? I looked at the mother.
; With clasped hands and streaming eyes, she
; 1-1 ese 1 her God, who had sent an angel tocom
: fort her. So I went too ; and I went, to a
! bright ro m, where there was music and danc
ing, and sweet flowers: and I saw young and
!'n'py faces, and beautifully dressed, and spark
ling with jewels ; but none that. I knew, until
! one passed me w hose dress was of simple w hite
I with only a rose bud on her bosom, and whosf
j voice was like the sweet sound of a silver lute,
j No spangled slipper was on her foot; but she
; ir.ovcd as one that tteadeth upon the air. and
the divine beauty of holiness had so glorified
! her face, that I felt, as I gazed upon her, that
I she was almost an angel of God..
I PRESC0TT, THE HISTORIAN.
I A Boston correspondent writes thus-in regar d
to Mr. Prescott : j
" The numerous readers of the charming h's-
tories of Mr. William II. Prescott may be glad
to hear a few words of the historian himself.
He appears daily in our streefs, and may be
often seen taking long walks for tiie preservation
of his health. He is now at his winter; residence
on Beacon street, where he spends about nine
months of the"yr. .tWorfieKti
has generally spent at Nahaht and Pepperell, atf
both cf w hich places he has country seats, most
congenial to the pursuits of an author,.
Mr. Prescott is as systematic inj his daily
studies as any Boston merchant, aud as givat a
mis-er of the minutes. As many have learned,
he was so unfortunate as to lose one his eves
while in Harvard College. By this loss, the
other eye became weakened through oiver-work,
so that, 'practically, he ha written bisiimmortal
histories as the blind write, or with an apparatus
such as they use. And yet he has scarcely the
appearance of any difficulty of sight, and recog
nizes his friends i.i the street with that single
fai hful eye. Indeed, the observer might regard
his eyes as line as one could desire. '
Mr. Prescott, when engaged in writing, w rites
rapidly, averaging about seven of Una printed
pages of his volumes daily. His secretary copies
his manuscript, in a good plain hand for the
printer. He is now diligently composing a his
tory of Philip II. His private library is a very
valuible one, particularly in the department of
that history that can. throw any light upon the
subjects of his past and present investigations.
His library contains near 6,000 volume. It is
a picture of a room that the proprietor jhad con
structed for his special use, sis he did lilis study,
some distance above it towards the heavens,
where his beautiful compositions are produced.
That Mr. Prescott, with his physical embar
issments has accomplished so much towards
forming an American standard literature, is
quite a maivel. Another wonder is, that though
he has been confined to his books and bis studv
for foity years, as close as the monk to his clois
ter, he has nothing of the scholastic manner,
but the ease and polish of a gentleman wholly
in society.'" '
Immense Destrccticn of Pictures. We
are sorry says the Shrewsbury Chronicle, Eng
land, to record the destruction, by an acc:dent,
of several valuable paintings by some of the
most celebrated masters, the property of John
Naylor, Eq., of Leightonhnll, Montgomeryshire.
In order to enhance the interest attaching to
the opening of St. George's Hall, Liverpool, Mr.
Naylor kindly lent several paintings, valued at
nearly 20,000?., for exhibition in that 'building.
To prevent the possibility of an accident by rail-
by a road van from Liverpool to Leigh ton, and
Mr. Grundy, of Liverpool, was entrusted with
their package. On Friday, the 24lt ult., they
were started off, and arrived safely the same
afternoon at the level crossing at Gobowen (Os
westry) Station on the Shrewsbury and Chester
Railway. The gates having been opening, con-
j trarJ' ,s SH'd, to the regulations, about the
t'me l"e 3.0 train from Chester was due, the
! van attempted to cross. Iu passing over, by
some means or other the wheels lecame entang
led in the gate, which caused some delay, and
while they were endeavoring to get the vehicle
off the line the train came up and dashed into
it, completely smashing the van, and tearing
the paintings into very tattera. ' The horses in
the van escaped unhurt, it having been torn a-
way from them. 1 be tram was delayed tor a
considerable time.' It is said the losfc to Mr.
Naylor by this unfoitunate accident is estimated
at from 12,000Z. to 14,0001 a loss, too, which
no mere cash remuneration caa ever remedy.
. From the American Farmer.
On the Culture and Manctrjement of Tobarco,
by V. W. W. Bowie, of Prince Gtorge Co.,
the tobacco is taken down the
cullers" take each plant and pull off the defec
tive, trashy, ground and worm eaten leaves that
are next to the big or butt end of the stalk, and
then throw the plant to the next person, who
strips off all the bright leaves (and if there be
any yellow leaves, he pulls them off, and lays
them aside, until he collects enough to make a
bundle) and throws the plant to the next, who
taties orl all the rest, being the "cZ,". and the
respective strippers as they get leaves enough in
hand, tie - up the bundles and throw .them in
seperate piles for convenience in bulking. The
cullers strip nothing but " seconds ;"' stri ftpm"
sh ould never be done in drying or harsh wj-ath-i
! er, unless the tobacco is bniked up almo.-U as o1 lts aIM,llt'at'"11 compared with soil not ma
i fast as it is stripped. The better plan is to take j mirecL li bas just Leen sta;eJ ll0w il is bosl to
j down no more than you can tie in. in a few I l)e al'l'llL'J' all(1 its effects are so striking that
! hours. If the planter chooses, he can take down i
; a large quantity and put it in bulk, stalks and
all, cover it w ith tobacco sticks, and it will keen
1 r. . '
! tor several days, so that no matter how the '
i weather may be, he can strip out of bulk. H..w-
j ever, this is a bad, wasteful wav. Tobacco
, should not be moist or "high"1 as it is termed,
I when put in the staik-bulk, for it will get warm.
j the leaves stick to the stalk, get a bad smell and
j change color, beside if lett too long it v. id rot.
j It requires judgment and neatness to bulk f-
' bacco. Two logs should be laid parallel to each
j other, about thirty inches apart, and the space
it. .i i'ii i i . , . ,
oetweeu mem nueu witn sticks tor tiie purpose
of keeping the tobacco .free from dampness of
the ground. The bundles are then taken one a
a time, spread out and smoothed down, which
i.s most conveniently done by putting it against
the breast, and stroking the leaves downward
smooth, and straight with the right hand. It is
then passed, two bundles at a time, to tiie man
bulking, lie takes them, lays them down and
presses them with his hands ; they are laid two
at a time in a straight line the broad part of
the bundles slightly predicting over iW unit
'toTaiu! two rows of bundles are put in a 'bulk,'"
both rows carried on together, the heads being
on the outside, and the tails just lapping one
over the other in regular succession. The bulk
when carried up to a convenient height, should
have a few sticks laid on the top to keep it in
place. It must often be examined, and if get
ting warm, it ought to be immediately changed
and laid down in another bulk of less height,
and not pressed :as it is laid down : this is called
" wind rowing ;" being loose and open it admits
the air betw een the rows of bundles, hence the
term. The next process is to condition it for
packing." The bright yellow and second to-
i bacco will "condition" generally best in such
j bulks as I have described, but the "dull" ought,
j to be hung up, by standing the bundles on
I sticks, before it is put in bulk, as soon, in fact,
j as it is stript. If the bright or seconds do not
dry thoroughly in the bulks, that also shoti d
be hung up to become completely dry. Properly
to hang up tobacco to condition, small siz-d
sticks should be procured and each one made
very smooth, and kept expressly for that pur
pose. After it has once been perfectly dry so
dry that the heads are easily knocked off, and
the shoulders of the bundles upon being pressed
crack like pipe-steams, it should be taken down,
or if in bulk, removed, the first soft spell of
weather, as soon as it is soft and yielding
enough, as it will become, to handle without
crumbling or breaking, and it must be put in
four, six or eight rowed bulks' of any convenient
length and height the higher the better, laid
down close, so that as little of t he leaf or shul-
j ders as possible shall be exposed on. the outside
of the bulks. When completed, put slicks
evenly over it, and then pile up logs of wood
on the sticks, so as to heavily weigh it dow n
Here it will keep sweet and in nice order for
packing at any time, no matter how the weather
may be, if it was conditioned properly, wili not
cha ge a particle while in the condi.in bulk.
Mild, soft pleasant weaiher is the best to pack
tobacco in. The best tobacco prize is one known
as "Page's Prize," much improved by F. Grief',
of Upper Marlbro', Prince George's Co., Md.
It is cheap, expeditious in its working', being
easilv taken down and put up, may with conve
nience be moved from house to house.
As to the size of the hogshead, the best size
ultimatum of the law of Md., fifty two
inches long and forty inches in the head. Al
most any wood will answer to saw into hogs
head stufl", the best of course, is that w hich is
strong, but weighs light, as gum or poplar. No
hogshead ought to weigh over 100 lbs., and
staves drawn from oak, make the best, though
they are too costly.
It ought to have been observed, that while
putting the tobacco in condition bulk, all bun
dles that were soft or had a bad smell, should
have been laid aside to be rendered afterwards
street and dry by a few hours exposure to the
ruii Tiiis precaution must be observed in pack
ing I" putting the tobacco in the hogshead
who nacks, takes off his shoes and gets m
l'sye tj,e hogshead, and has an assistant to hand
him the tobacco. He lays one oun-ue at
time, in a circle, heads outward, beginning in
the centre, and each circle is extended until the
outer circle touches the staves of the hogshead ;
a STOgle row of btffldfeB is ftien laid all around
the edge, on heads of the outer circle, then
i across the hogshead in parallel rows, the mid
dle being always raised a little higher than the
outer edge. This is called a "course," an. these
courses are continued until ihe hogshead be fid- '
ed. lue packer pressfs with his knees each
bundle as he lays it down, and often stands on
bis feet and presses hearily, cautiously all round,
and across, so as get in as much as possible.
One receiving hogshead, and two false hogs
heads, tive teet long, making fourteen feet four
inches of tobacco, will weigh from nine hundred
to one thousand pounds, if in good order, and
well hand-packed. This concludes the almost
ceaseless round of labor, necessary to prepare for '
market this important staple of our country.
7th. What kind of manure the best?
Ashes at the rate of 100 bushels per acre,
sown broad-cast jut when the land is harrowed
the second time, is unquestionably the best ma-
nure for Tobacco. Experience fubv proves this- ;
f 'C. '.
- Mde ot apply ing it and the consequences
tlieve is no coml'arison between 'the laud that is
ashes and the soil not dressed with ashes. New
land for two crops however, would have the crop
but slightly improved by ashes, if it was natu-
I rnllv fi'i'do ;md npivlv cl.eir,..! n.i
" '.' x s"'--
9ih and 10th. 1 different manures, such as
Guano, Bone-dust, jcc. compared w i th one ano
ther, with regard to Tobacco, and their influence
on the vegetation of the plants, and on the in
sects which attack it.
Guam) acts well on tobacco on most soils, but
is of no use on rich tobacco soils it is an use
less expense. On very poor, stiff or light sandy
soils, it is exceedingly valuable, and will well re
pay the outiay. When uskI in the seed bed, it
causes the plants to grow 'quickly, and in a wet
season would soon -force the plants beyond the
harm of the fly. It certainly, too, if mixed w ith
wood's earth, or rich dirt, and sown broad-cast
over the young plants, would aid by foiein" the
plants and by its odor and other qualities, in
keeping off to a great extent the fly. Bone
dust is too slow in its action to help the tobac
co crop much. " Potash is a most active and
powerful fertilizer for this croD. . 100. lbs. of
plaster of Paris, and 200 pounds of Potash well
intermixed, or ground together, aud applied. to
the acre just before the hills are stuck up, has
been found to materially benefit the tobacco
crop. The result of this application, has been
found lo surprise the most dubious and unbeliev
ing. It is an admirable dressing for .tobacco
Wooden charcoal applied thickly as a top
dressing to the plants in the bed, while moist
with dew, is valuable, because the black surface
would attract the rays of the sun, and cause by
the incieased heat, a greater growth of the
plants, and it has been found effective in arrest
ing the ravages of the ti v.
- 1 1 tit. Best, cheapest and most effectual way
either to 'destroy those insects, if they should
make their appearance, or to avoid their appear
ing altogether. The insects that molest the to-,
bacco plants, are the Turnip fly, the tobacco fly,
and the grub and tobacco worm. The tobacco
fly is much smaller than the turnip fly, and of a
lighter color. They both attack the plant in its
tender state, and often destroy millions of plants.
The only remedies that past experience has ever
found of any avail, have been such as have al
ready been pointed out. They do not trouble
beds that are covered up with brush, "but brush
can only be allowed a certain tim upon the
1 beds, and when it is ' removed, the plauS should
! receive very frecjuent dustings of very finely
pulverized manure, or even sand, especially
when the weather is cool, and dry wi;h harsh
winds. It is in such weather, the'tly delights
to do its work of destruction. The grub is a
small short. brown worm, found in all oid, rich
land, and cuts off the young plants in the hill,
just above ground below the bud, hence it is
called by planters the "cut-worm." Five bushels
of refuse salt, or ten would be better, sown broad
cast over each acre, when the land was laid off
for the hills, would effectually prevent their mo
lestations, beside it would be a great help to the
tobacco in its young state, giving it a quick and
strong start, though its effects would not last
through the season. The great pest is the to
bacco worm. This worm is hatched on the to
bacco leaf, grows very rapidly, and in a few
days arrives at its full age or maturity, when in
stinct prompts it to bury itseif some eight or
ten inches under ground. In this self-made
! graVe, it tinders a change and makes its ap-
pe'arance as a sort of butterfly, whieh planteis call
' Horn-blower." These horn-blowers appear
about the middle of May, and may be seen eyery
morning and eveniug, flying about among the
flowers and blossoming weeds, taking especial
delight in tiie flowers of the Jamestown weed.'
They deposit their eggs on the tobacco leaf
Turkeys aid greatly the planter in killing these
worms. They eat great quantities, and kill ma
ny they do not eat. It is a cherished amuse
ment with the turkey, to kill tobacco worms,
and they grow fond of the sport. Each year
there are two "gluts" of worms. The first at-
tacks the tobacco, when atout one-fourth grown,
j and the second when it is nearly ripe and ready
housing. The first can readily be subdued with
a good, supply of turkeys, and if then they are
effectually destroyed, the second glut can be
easily managed, for it is a well settled fact, that
a large portion of the first glut reappear the
same year, as horn-blowers, and breed myriads
WTien the second army of worms comes on, the'
tobacco is generally so large that turkeys are oif
little use. They must then be killed by hand.
Begin in time, start wRen they are being hatchr
ed keep up a strict watch, going orer the
whole field, plant by plant, kill all that are tt .
ba seen, and destroy the eggs, and by constant
attention, . each ; morning aud evening to, jtfiiji
business alone, with the whole force of the farm,
they may be prevented from doing much harm.
When they disappear the second time, there is
no more cause of trouble, for that year at any
rate. They might be in a few years wholly ex
terminated bv concert and united action on the
part of all tobacco planters, and in this manner.
About the firs't of December, after hard frosts
have set in, plough up every field-where tobac
co had been grown that were in the chrysalis
state, would be thus turned up and be destroy
ed by the frosts, snow and rain, and birds. -
Very eailv in March, go about the tobacco
houses and diy un the floors. scraDe under the
O I i -
sills, and plough deeply for some distance,
around the houses, and destroy every one that
could be seen. Make it also a point to reward
every negro, old and younor. liberally, for
; each horn-flower's head throughout the whole
j year. In 1818 one gentleman offered one cent
for every horn-blower that his negroes should
catch and bring to him. He allowed them one
! hour before sunset, to stop work as to catch
blowers. The first eveninrr thev brought him
in 1,1)50!!- Another paid to his people during
the season, fifteen or twenty dollars, at only one
fourth of a cent per head. Another farmei in
digging about his tobacco house for the manure
wheh Ifad accumulated there, says he destroy
ed over a bushel of worms in the chrysalis state!
The same year a planter gathered sixteen bush
els of worms from 40,000 plants, and did not
get over one half then. That year great atten
tion w as paid lo the destruction of ihe,b!ower
and worms, in the forest of P. George's County,
and for several years after there were compara
tivdv but few worms. If this system was regm
larly pursued by every planter, in a few years
this dreadful enemy of the plant, would be en
tirely exterminated, or at least rendered harm
less. .... i
13th. Best method by horse-hoes or any oth
er, to keep the field clean from weeds. Has
been fully discussed under Wiparsgrap'rrrBtii
and 6th. I
I 14th. The planting of Tobacco at different
j distances compared with one another.
j Three feet each way, under all ciicumstances
is most generally the best distance. It is wholly
against my experience, to plant tobacco in drills,
! and work it only one way. On very rich land
j it will grow very large, as close as two feet each
i way and two feet nine inches will produce
! !.-..- ."I ...K.. ,.,-.. 1 1.1 nil ll.nfn JnC. 1 .. . . . I . . A.
j itz luinuiuj uul fin tlicc tiucc rict(j u ll aro
I objectionable, because it becomes troublesome
j to work, is liable to be broken and torn, and
j the wonns cannot be properly go rid of, when
it is so close together ; for these reasons I much
j prefer three feet each way, or at anj' rate 3x2
feet 6 inches. The closer it is planted, the finer
j will be the texture and quality as to color.
j This is my experience and observation of the
I crops of others. , 1
15th. Different operations which it is subject
ed to before cutting. See them fully explained,
under headiugs 5th and 6th.
ICth, 17th and 18th. Taking in the crops
j the different operations to which it is subjected
! before being sent to market; and' the best
i mode of packing, have all been treated of, ui
i der 5th and 6th sections or paragraphs of this
j 19th. Preparations or substances used for the
j preservation of the leaf, before and after being
I !.. ' e 1.... XT ...1
leaoy lor uiaiKeL. - nu oiaier preparation J
herein before stated, and the hogshead is the
only substance required to preserve the leaf for
ages, if it was well conditioned when packed into
it, provided it be kept out of the we weather,
and free from water. ; S
20th. Effect of watering, or artificial Irriga:
tion, on the development and quality of the to
bacco plant requires frequent and light showers,
or cool nights and heavy dews. Too much wa
ter as effectually kills it, as too' much heat and
drought. Judicious watering of the seed-bed is
often very happy in its effects, and sometimes
positively necessary. The plants could always
be forced by this piocess, but the danger is that
if forced too much, they become ovei-growfa
"before there falls, sufficient rain to enable the
planter to set them in the hills. In a'dry seai
son what is termed watering is often udone, and
succeeds well. This is done, by watering a part
of the seed-bed, so that the plants may be drawn
easily without breaking the.rooto, or brusing the
leaves or buds. The hills being newly made,
about two hours before sun-set, the laborers go
into the field with the plants one or two pass
over the gronnd with stout clubs, striking one
end in the centre of each hill, about two inches
deep, and large enough to hold half a pint of
water, others follow with buckets and cans, or
gourds, and fill quickly the holes with water,
others follow and drop the plants, which ate dit
redly planted by the planters. The water should
have time to settle in the earth before the plants
are stuck. Some prefer to do this work early
in the morning before the sun is an hour, high;
To insure their living, it would be well to have
grass, such as clover, cut early in the morning
when moist with dew, and drop a handful ba
each plant, planted the evening before or the
same morning. This keeps the ground moist,
and shades the plant until it takes root, and
before any bad effect could be produced upoa