North Carolina Newspapers

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- WILLIAM V.. COOKE, j
I ID E P E I D El T E A MIL Y NEWSPAPER.
: TERMS, "
TWO DOLLARS PES ANNUM '
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Bcfcotctr to all fijc 3n Unst& of Sj)e Souti), Citetaturc, atwn, Agriculture, 3elys, tf)c iWarfects, fcc.
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VOL. IY NO. 13.
RALEIGH, XORTH CAROLINA, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1855.
WHOLE-NO.1 168
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SELECT: POETRY.
A WORD OF THINE.
A word of ihine how haih it dwelt,
Like music in uiy heart;
And woashipp'd it, apart ; , ' .
Mv 'spirit like a ruirror setms, ;
Th.tbtill,: where'er I be,
, In h 'PIy thouglitH, oe luippior dreams,
Reflects but only thee,
My love,
Refle'-ts but only thee;
I marvel what my life had been
If tliee I ne'er hud known !
Tliy form, ihy beauty, never s-een ?
Nor beard thy lips' dear tone ;
' It seems as if my heart were born
Tliy slirine alone to be ;
For every pulse from eve to morn
S. ill beats for only thee.
My love,'
Still beats for only thee !
s
SELECTED STORY.
THE CONVENT OF ST. LUCIA.
FROM THE CEKMAN OF ELISK POLKO,
It was on the fea't t( t ie Acenion of our.
Lor -in -the ' year 1704, tii.it the bell of the
beauiiful fonveut of St. "Lucia, near Koine, ran
t!ic hour of evening prayer. Crowds of pious
worshippers throne.j to the gates. It was in-tvre-tiu
to" w.i eii the various groups as tliey
passed bv, the picturesque costumes of the fo
reigiiers, the white- veils, the beautiful women
adorned with flowers, and the tall proud men,
v. kh sprigs of frrt aut oran;fe-blossotns iu their
bosoms." In every eye was the glance of full
life of -pleasure, of joy in the common spring.
The-flowing sun seemed to imprint a warm
par-ting kiss on ail these brown, richly-colored
"'cheeks,'. to "embrace- wiik his setting rays these
strong, manly forms, and then gradually fdiroud
ed his own glories iu the rosy veil of evening twi
light.. : The windows of the little church giowed:
with the reflected ligbt. Within, clouds of in
cense we're risiug, and the pale light of the can
dies on the "altar couldsaarcely pieree the float
ing vapors. . A dim twilight prevailed ; the
irnage of St. Lucia ..was almost covered with
colly wreaths an 1 flowers, and looked likea
May queen ; the priest extended his arm in
ble-'sing, the multitude -of the faithful sank dp-,
on their kuees : then from the high concealed
choir, resounded the "Kyrie -eleisou," of the
nuns.. How softly those gentle voices floated
- on the air. llow glorious and elevating was
tlw niusrc of ralestrina. - Sub ime and pure the
expressive air ros; amid those combined voicis.
wliicli often strove t overpower, to submerge it,
but still conquered by its triumphant notes;
, modestly yielding, .they at' length united har-niouioii-ly
in tiie soft accompaniment and the
- glorious' .finale. The trembling souls of tbie
hearers now .rose j ibilaiit. to heaven, 'as if up
borne on mighty, wing-; uow's iuk weeping back
: to earltl, as .if held, there by tender, invisible
chaiusl It seemed as if the parti ug light, of
day had converted itself in.o sound; every
heart opened to its mild raysf and to every eye
the little chuich seemed tided with wondrous
light. ' .
Then, suddenly in the "Gloria," a sopiano
voice w is heaj'd, ..wli -e -urprisiyrg notes roused
.the. multitude from their sweet delirium. The
voice was of penetrating clearness, almost pierc-
T ing in its purity, overpo.veriug in its fulness.
Its tone had nothing in comin g with that of
the other si tigers tlier.sjund did not m ngle with
other sounds ; a'oue, free from any melting
weakness, full and high, it floated up and down
. the vaulted arches of -the church. The "Cre
do" the wondrous voice was silent ; another
ruilder soprano took its place. At the close,
however, in the heart-moving "Agnus Dei,"
and '-Iona nobis pacein," again, like a glitter
ing, poJislied,.ail conquering .-pear, it pierced the
heavy clouds of incen-e. There was no excite
ment in it. .There was no mere youthful fre.-h-iessiii
th'jse notes, it was a voice characterized
W n.ifhr are nor sex a voice that gave the
. -. impression it had always been so, and must al-
'..ys be so. ,
The pef.p;e were powe'r ully affected. " Iloly
'.ry," . murmur, d an old "woman, " that was
i E,Jt the s ng of a lis i.ug woman ! ' And cross.-"
lll,r herself vehemently, she uttered a low pray-er-
Iler startled dark-haired neighbor nodded
a"tit, aud whispered the excj.imuion to a
"tuan kneeling beside her, - whose searching
Sl mees tried in vain to penetrate the grate of
'he cl.oir. : .
The mass. vv;is over. The women, greatly ex-
cHcd, left the church, the, men shook their
heals-: every one- spoke of the marvelous sing-
er? Tlie tapers were extiugui-hed, and the
lev ly twilight of an Italian evening put an end
to a thousand-'questions, doubts and expecta-
1 tiunsv -.'
- .
The next day, when the morning, the snail--
1Xi'Z, radiant morning of Italy, looked with lov
eyes into the windows of the little church,
:au expectant multitude was already assembled
there. Every faee was turned with an expres
sion of "eager exectation towards the choir from
hiehfivatiiis.were to be sung. And again the
?''Ce was heard, sgain every, heart trembled
ith mingled,fear and joy, and again the hear
rs were filled'with wonder. . Suddenly, abloom-
uiotiori, cried, oat, "Holy Mary! I see the
wonder! It is a child singing!" And, in
truth, there was to be seen behind the grate the
slender figure of a girl about ten years old,
-from whose open lips the enchanting sounds
flowed forth. The features of the child's face
were severely regular, but devoid of all excite
ment, and her young cheeks 'were pIe and
transparent. From the moment of this discov
ery, the excitement of the people increased from
one hour to another. Early and late, crowds
hastened to the convent to hear the wonderful
little singer, whose voice could be distinguish
ed iu the loudest chorus ; and the report of
such great powers enshrined in a child's form
spread through the whole neighborhood, extend
in even to Home, and the rush to hear mass at
the convent of St. Lucia became everyday
greater and more violent. ,
But the number of the faithful who received
the miracle for so it was considered -in thank-fulne-s,
was small compared with the multitude
who, in the restles-ness of a new excitement,
filled their hearts and heads with suppositions
and doubts 'concerning the person of the song
stress. " It is one of the b arding scholars -'of the
convent who sings, so they say there," was the
-report of some. " But, at all events, she is
grown up, at least eighteen r nineteen years
old, and, owing to some natural defect, has the
appearance, of a child. No child on earth can
si rig so."
"No, n," exclaimed others; '-they have
been imposing upon you with their silly tales.
It is one ofi he young nuns sister Barbara
we' know aifi. about it ; and that young child was
only listening." 1
""Not at all," replied some of the women;
"a miracle has been wrought. St. Lucia has
sent the pious Abbess" Theresa an ancel from:
heaven."
"What childish non-cuse are you talking
there?" exclaimed a poweiful-lookmg man,
with a sensible, strongly marked face. " The
whole thing is a piece of shameful deception.
We are taken in,- imposed upon, to get the sil-
ver coins out ot our pockets." Toe people
crowded round him, and the orator continued.
"iYes, listen to me, and the truth of what I say
will be clear as daylight. A few words will ex
plain the whole mauer. The convent is poor;
St. Lucia wants a new velvet dress and golden
hangings, and, to do all this, they must get
large alms ; so they thought of a plan for at
tracting credulous p ople here. They have had
a machine constructed in liome, a piece of
clock-work in human form . that tings, a w;ix
doll with flute stops. I teil you it is no child
or man either that trills away there so loud and
clear ; it is a horrid puppit.''
The excited crowd listened, shuddered, cross
ed themselves,-'argued, contended, and at. list
be!ie' ed.
"Li very truth, Matte is in the right of it !''
thundered a Hercules, as he clenched his fi-t
with a savage gesture. "The Mug-ong is a
piece of priests' trickery, and nothing more!
Who ever heard such a child's in"i!io- a child
mlh a voice strong, enough for a giant ? Suf
fer yourselves to be' imposed upon no longer !
lhe miraculous songstress is uoi-hin" but a
wooden doil witl a wax face. The thinr is
wound up like a click, and sings just as they
set it. 1 have seen such figures m ore than once
at a famous old professor's iu Koine."
"es; an i it is uo wonder we felt a "cold
shudder when those clear, pare, flute-like notes
struck our ears; it was a foreboding of this
deveiish trickery," -added another, wklr kind
ling eyes."
"This abo-tiiuable imposition is a scandal to
the church of St. Lucas ; we must not suffer it ;
we must expose it, put an end to it, and ad the
saints will help us iu sujh a gjd work," chim
ed' in a third.
There was a perfect tumult among the excited
multitude. The women, with expressive ges
tures, described the riid wax face of the pup
pet and its dead glass eyes, and said they could
not distinguish a word of the sacred anthems she
had sung. Alany had distinctly heard a strange
rattling uoise at. the end of the " Gloria." "The
clock-word had ruu down then,' they whisper
ed to one another. The men grew more and
more excited by their own violent words, and
the most gentle of the women began to kindle
at the angry looks of their husbands, and lovers,
and brothers. A universal pilgrimage to the
convent was re-o.ved upou, to demand the sur
render of the maciiiue, the deceptive singing doll.
As the evening red began to fade a.vay trom
the sky, and the orange-blossoms gave out their
sweet oders, aud the 'fluttering nignt-moths flew
around luxuriating in the fragrant air, and the
stars shoiie forth like soft lamps in the dark
dome of heaven amid all these peaceful influ
ences, a numerous crowd of men, turbulent and
excited, took their way to tiie quiet convent,
thundered at its ivy-wreathed gate, aud urgently
demanded admisdou. The' alarmed prioress
directed it should be opened, and stepped for
ward to meet the agressors. With a cry of
terror, the nuns tad taken refuge iu their cells.
The venerable face of this pious woman, her
tall figure, and the crucifix she held on 'hirh
before her, produced an effect upon the multi
tude ; their confused cries subsided, the women
fell upon their knees, the men retreated, and
only one spokesman reverentially approached
the prioress and announced to her the wishes,
suspicions, and demands of his companions. .
Astonishment and distrust were pictured on
the features of the earnest woman.
- "My children," she exclaimed, M is it possi
ble that you accuse your mother Theresa of such
deception ? Is it possible you have degraded
yourselves so loy, and wounded me so deeply?
Go hence ! repent and bewail your transgres
sion ! for that voice which has led you into this
deplorable error, that voice which has stirred
and excited j-pao, p owerfulJyt cune' from the
breast of a chi!J blessed of Heaven. Ji floated
down from the innocent lips of a . maiden of
Sinigaglia, but ten years old, who receives her
education at our convent.'
" We want to see the child," exclaimed some
rough voices. " Yes, yes, we must see the en
chantress, hear her speak, touch her face and
her hands, and feel her warm breath !" And
the cries grew louder, and the gestures more
threatening. The exhortations of the abbess
were unheard, and the usually quiet court of
the convent was filled with noisy voices.
Mother Theresa disappeared. She returned,
urging forward towards the excited ciowd a
pale, tender, trembling girl. Her regular fea
tures aud colorless complexion shone like yel
low wax beneath her smooth dark hair, and her
large-dark eyes gazt-d with terror on the strange
expressive faces before her.
" Angelica," said the prioress gently, " be not
afraid. e c unageous ; help thy mother The
resa and'and these duluded "people. Lift up thy
voice and greet the queen of heaven."
Angelica opened her lips, and began an an
cient, simple " Salve. Regina;" but with a power,
purity, and sublimity, with a precision and
calmness, that involuntarily bowed the knees
of the silent multitude. The deep peace, the
unspotted innocence to which th'ese tones gave
utterance could only come fiom a breast uticon--ci"iis
of the sweet sorrow s aud bitter pleasures
of life, its roses and its thorns. The clear pure
notes resounded far in the beautiful n:gbt of
that blooming land. Glorious aud soft, the
starlight fell on the heads of the crowd, on the
youthful brow' of the singer, and the earnest
face of the deeply moved abbess.
When Angelica euded, the prostrate figures
arose, and, with that overpowering, irrepressible
enthusiasm which is the peculiar characteristic
of the south, pressed round the child. Sobbing,
they kissed the little hands of the smiling girl,
the hero- of hf-r gariBi, her glwv4$kik:,
her feet, caressed with tears of rapture, blessed
her, and a unanimous, .triumphant shout rent
the air" Long live Angelica Catalina." ,
Mother Theresa soon after procured the re
moval of the wonderfully gifted child from the
convent; she could not endure the crowds that
disturbed her still asylum. But, in after days,
she bilteily repented it, for the little Angelica
in a si o't time grew, as the w hole world knows,
into the great Catalina. Europe was at her
feet ; and what a dowry of splended robes, neck
laces, and glittering crowns would St. Lucia
have from this adoration !
MISCELLANEOUS.
SKETCHES OF THE GENERALS
Fiom an article in the Philadelphia Ledger we
couilense tue following sketches of the master spirits
of the'piesent Eastern war.
"Nicholas was born m the year 1796.
He is the third son of the Emperor Paul, whose
tragical death by strangulation is a matter of
history. In the period of his life, the prospect
of his ascending the throne' was extremely re
moteindeed highly improbable Alexander
his elder brother, occupied the sovereignty, aud
Constautine was the nxt in the natural order
of succession. As in th'i case of most of the
vounger branches of sovereign houses in Eu
rope, a considerable portion of the early- period
of Nicholas life was spent in traveling from
court, to court, in varied attention to the beau
ties of military command, iu which he distin
guished himself by the improvements he effec
ted in the efficiency of the Russian army.
In 1825. Alexander died, not without suspi
cions circumstances attendant on his death
which were probably strengthened by the fact
that the succession devolved not upon Constan
tine, but Nicholas. It was not without diffi
culty that he obtained possession of some
power.
" The Sultan of Turkey was born in Con- 1
stantinople, in 1824, and ascended the tarone
at the age of sixteen. He was a mild and gen
tle youth and inherited the reforming tenden
cies of his father, andt.tfye softness of his
Christian mother. He is tall and slender
with black eyebrows, pale fac and thick lips.
At first his career was timid and resolute; but
of late years he has manifested considerable
energy. His reign promises to prove the most
important in the modern history of his country.
" Lord Kaglan, Commander-in-chief ot the
British forces in the East, eighth son of fifth
Duke of Beaugord, was born in 176S. He en
tered the army at the age of sixteen, as a Cor
net in the Fourth Dragoons, and he accom
panied the Duke of Wellington to Denmark,
in 1S08. He subsequently accompanied him
to the Peninsula, and enjoyed a greater amount
of the commanders confidence than any other
officer in the army He distinguished himself
in the engagements at Fuentes d' Onor in 1811,
and in the storming of Badajoz in 1812. It
was to Lord Fitzroy Somerest (now Raglan)
that the governor of the citadel surrendered.
In the memorable battle Vittoria and through
out the brilliunt campaign, Lord Fitzroy Somer
set distinguished himself by his activity and dar
ing. In 1814 he married Emily Harriet, se
cond daughter of the last, and sister of the pre
sent Earl of Mornington consequently niece
of the great Duke. At Waterloo he lost an
arm, and that decisive victory terminated the
first act of bis military career. In 1807 he was
made a Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath,
and on the death of the L)uke of Wellington,
to whom he had been long military secretary,
he was raised to the Peerage by the title of
Lord Raglan Made privy Counsellor, aud ap
pointed Master General of the Ordinance.
. Prince Menchikoff was born in 1783, and
is the great-grandson of Peter the Great'a i-
vorite. In stature he is abov the middle height;
his gait haughty, though s. Jy afiected with
a limp, occasioned it is aii ! J a wound which
be received it 1828, when t . agc-d "against the
Turks at Varna. It is fif i that one eve
ning,' having; given instaT ' - ich be ; was
desirous of seeing implici- , be traversed
the whole t!ntflp, and cs 't. return--'
ir.-Oro'ttiAiiilMfc-eJina i' s:VlMf With,
bis legs, stretched wide apart, wuue ue too ,
prach of EnuhT At thai moment the loud roar
of artillery was heard," and the Prince fell to
the ground. Great was the consternation in
the camp. On - being taken up it was found
that a cannon ball ' had passed between the
Prince's legs, and wonnded him severely in the
thigh. The Annual Register states that he
was so severely wounded that he was compelled
to relinquish the command of the army. Prince
Menchicoff is one of the most extensive land
ed proprietors in the empire, and counts serfs
by thousands ; but bis avarice is unbound,
though-in St. Petersburg, his establishment
is on the most lavish-- footing. His hatred to
foreigners is intense. .Not one, even an ambas
sador, has been permitted to enter his palace.
" Francis Canrobert, the successor of the
Count St. Aruaud and the Commander-in-chief
of the French forces was born in the Depart
ment of Lot. In 1 835 he embarked for Africa,
where he distinguished himself, and won the
applause of his superior officers. He returned
to France in 1S39, with the-decoration of the
Legion of Honor, and in 1840 he was on duty
at the camp of St. Omer. In 1841 he returned
to Africa, and again signalized himself. In
1S48, while the cholera ws raging in the garri
son of Aumale, Colonel Canrobert distinguished
himself by his courage and bis labors. He
returned to Paris in 1850, and took the com
mand of a brigade of infantry, and was also at
tached to the Prince President of the Republic
as aid-de camp. On the 14th of January,
1S53, he was appointed a Geueral of Division;
and more he was placed at the head of the First
Division of the army of the East. At the bat
tle of the Alma he received a wound and before
his departure be was known to be occupied in
profound studios, having for their object a
knowledge of the theatre of war, as if he had a
presentiment of his future destiny. This is the
officer to whom has been confided the duty of
sustaining the high honor of France, iu what is
likely to prove the terrible siege of Sevastopol."
. . . . ....
BEAUTIFUL OLD AGE
Mrs. Sigournev, in her book " Past Me
vidian," just publu-hed gives the following
charming picture of contented and virtuous old
-"'7 -rr --turner: -4 -
I or.ce knew an aged couple, who for more
than sixty years had dwelt in one home, and
with one heart. Wealth was not theirs, nor the
appliances of luxury, yet the plain house in
which they had so long lived was their own.
Humble in every.' appointment, that they might
keep fiee from ' defjt, they we.-e respected by
people iu the highest 'positions, for jt was felt
that they set a right example in all things.
Every little gift or token ot r membance from
Iriends and all wiio knew them were friends
awakened the fresh warmth of gratitude.
Though there poi tioa of this World's goods was
small, beuevoknee, b'eittg inherent in their na
tures tound frequent iexpie-si..u. Always they
had by them some book of slight expense, but
of int rinsic value, to be given as a guide to the
young, the ignorant, or the tempted. C-r;.ia's
aiso, and simple medicines for debility, or inci
pient disease, they distributed to the poor for
they were .-kilfui iu extracting the spirit of h -A h
from herbs, and a part of the garden; cultivated
by their own hands, was a di-pen -ary. Kind,
loving words had they for all the fullness of
their heart's content brimming over in bright
drops, to refr, sii those around.
That venerable old man, and vigorous, his
temples slighriy silvered, when moiethan four
score years hadvi.rited them, how freely flowed
forth the melody of his leading voice, amid the
s acred strains ot public worship ! His favorable
tunes ot Mear and Old Hundred, wedded to
these simply sublime words,
' While shepherds watched their flock by night,"
and
" Praise God, from whom all blessings flow,"
seem even now to fall sweetly, as they did upon
my childish ear. These, and similar . anient
harmonies, mingled with the devout prayers that
morning and evening hallowed his home and
its comforts ; she, the loved partner of his days,
being often sole auditor. Thus, in one censor,
rose the praise, which 'every day seemed to
deepen. God's goodness palled not on their
spirits, because it had been long continued.
Tbv rejoiced that it was "new? every morning,
and fresh every evening." .
By the clear wood-fire in winter, sat the aged
wile, with serene brow, skilfully busy inMprepara
tion or repairs of garments,,, as perfect neatness
and economy dictated ; while, by the evening
lamp, her bright knitting-needles moved with
quickened zeal,, as she remembered the poor
child, or x wasted invalid, in some cold apart
ment, for which they were to furnish a sub
stantial covering. -
In the later years of life, their childless abode
was cheered by the presence- of a young orphan
relative. She grew nnder their shadow with
great delight, conforming her pliant heart to
their wishes, and to the patera of their godly
simplicity. When they were seated together,
she read to them such books as they chose, and
treasured their Christian counsel. Her voice in
the morning was to them as the carol of the
lark, and they seemed to live again a new life in
her young life. She was to them "like the rose
of Sharon and the lily of the valley." ; : i
Love for the sweet helplessness of unfolding
years, seemed to iucrease with their own ad
vancing age. Little children, who know by
instinct where love is, would draw near them,
and stand lamp-like at their side. , Thus they
passed on, until more than ninety years had
been numbered to them. They were not weary
of thumselves, or of each other, or of this
beautiful world. Neither was time weary
of bringing them, letter by litter, the full alpha
bet of a serene happiness, and when extreme
age added the Omega, they were well-educated
to begin the bliss of eternity. . '
RANDOLPH AS A SATIRIST
Randolph was unequalled in one thing in
blending his sarcasm with his argument, so that
he did not have to wander from the text to;say
bitter things. He rtunded of the argument by
some allusion or comparison, which waa goodas
an illustration, and biting as a sarcasm- Ran
dolph looked the embodiment of satire. Tall,
emaciated,' bloodless, the flashing eyes, blazing
over the. livid cheek, the skeleton finger, the
finger, the proud and classic features,- cold and
unsympathizing," or flush with' indignant scorn,
the haughty air, the ; sheering lips, the sharp,
bony face, aud the keen, shrill, pipping voice,
slow.'disehDerate in its varied and most
cfyr;;Jwn".' op a.itraaiMier" which
well answering' 16 these organs of communica
tion. There was nothing theatrical liT all thiSy
though Randolph was the most eccentric of
men. His eccentricities, unlike most men's so
far from proceeding from va iity, come from a
self-dependence and self-will, consulting his own
taste and reelings, and almost wholly regardless
of the taste and opinions of the world, if not
actually scorning them. Probably no other
man of his time could express scorn with such
withering effsct. He felt more scorn than he
uttered, even' when his utterance was most ex
travagant His pride was morbid Luctfer-like.
His dislike transformed the object into a thing
ot utt. r meanness und boundless contempt. It
is galling enough for a man to feel that another
man looks upon him with contempt ; but to he
under the basilisk eve of one w ho, in a tone of
measureless superiority, looking the lord and j
master, yeiy condescends to treat the gentle- vessei beneaU). The enclosur which wiH conr
man with the contemptuous recognition ot a I . , , , ,
trembling culprit, and to administer to biin tai" sral hundred tons, is failed with guano
judicial chastisement for his crimes, or impale j b? tlie Indian laborers, and a small line that en
him for his follies to mark him out by hi wit j closes the mouth of the pipe being slacked, the
for the general derision, and cooly dismiss him : whole mass is poured into the ship at a rate
to contempt, as an object worthy of no further j wjlich verv 80un completes her car(r0- F
notice this is a burden which few men have . - , . .
the philosobhy to bear with composure. J3a- !
dieus Party Leaders.
FARMER'S5-DEPARTMENT.
VISIT TO A GUANO ISLAND
Amongst all the new-fangled manures introdu
ced by 'experimentalizing agriculturists, during
the last twentv vears, not one has been so ra
pidly and universally adopted as guano. Its
astonishing fertilizing qualities, and easy mode
of application have rendered it a general favor
ite with the farmers, though the immense dis
tance of the places from which it is chiefly ob
tained, and its consequent high price, must lim
it its use, even if the supplies were inexhausti
ble. The Island of Ichaboe, on the west coast of
Africa, from whence guano was first obtained
iflarge quantities, is perhaps the most remar
kable instance of a desolate rock becoming sud
denly the port of destination for hundreds of
ships, and the source of immense wealth to nu
merous individuals. But Ichaboe was soon ex
hausted, and the dusty treasure that had for
many centuries been accumulating on its rocky
bosom, was literally swept away. The once bu
sy island has now returned to ifc former loneli
ness, and the fleet of ships that gathered round
it, seek on still more distant coasts, the fertili
zing powder that shall fatten the impoverished
fields of distant countries.
More than half the guano imported during
the last ten years, has been obtained from a
small group of Islands called the Chincas, that
lie off the port of Pisco, on the Peruvian coast.
Of these Islands, the largest, Sangalian, has ve
ry little guano upon it, the principle deposits
beinar found on three smaller ones, the most
northern of the group. These are distinguished
as the North, Middle and South Islan is. The
North Island has been constantly worked ever
since the introduction of guano. The middle
one has also been occasionally invaded ; but the
South Island, on which we believe tha accumu
lation to be greatest, remains untouched.
Every ship bound to the Chincas is compell
ed to anchor at Pisco, in order to pass the ne
cessary custom-house formalities, before proceed
ing to her loading ground. A couple of hours
are then sufficient to carry her across the few
miles of water that intervene, and she soon again
drops her anchor amongst the numerous fleet
that is ever laying off the Island waiting their
turn to load. The odorous scent of the guano
is distinctly perceptible at several miles distan'ce,
and is far from unplea-ant, when thus mingled
with the "pure sea air.
The first duty of the crew after the ship's ar
rival, is to discharge the extra ballast, and as the
captains have no dread of port officers, or har
bor masters, the sand or stone is quietly tossed
over the side, until there is barely sufficient left
in the hold to keep the vessel on an even keel.
In the meantime the long boat is hoisted out of
her berth amidships, and a part of the crew are
busily employed in bringing off boat loads of
guano fiom the Island, to replace the discharg
ed ballast. The peculiar odor pervades the
whole ship the carefully tarrtd rigging be
comes a dirty brown, while the snow white
decks and closely furled sails assumes the same
dark hue.
On the side next the mainland, the Islands
rise precipitately from the sea to a considerable
height, presenting only a bare, dark wall of
rock. From the npper edge of the precipice,
the huo-e mound of guano slopes rapidly up
wards for a short distance, and then spreads in
to a level surface that gradually descends on ev
ery other side to within a few yards of the wa
ter. Here and there, huge craggy points thrust
their white heads through the brown crust of
guano, which as completely filled up the deep
hollows that have originally existed in the Is
land, and would soon ,had it not been disturbed,
have covered even the crests of what were once
tall pinnacles. The only safe landing place is on
a narrow strip of beach, the remainder of the
Island being surrounded by low rocks, and small
detached reefs; but the irregular formation has
greatly facilitated the loading of ships, enabling
the crews to accomplish that in a few days,
which, under other circumstances, must have
cost them studious weeks of labor. Close to
the face of the rock the water is deep enough
to float the largest merchantman ; and the stea
dy constancy of the trdewiud, which rarely in
creases here beyond i pleasant breeze, 'enables .
the ship'to'lie in petfet safety in close contact
with her two rrinst dangerous enemie rocky"
isiancr, ana a dead lee stiot'TTz--'--'
Having taken aboard hy her boats sufficient
guano to fcallast her, the ship is hauled in close
to the steep reef, to which she is securely bound
w ith warps and chains, two anchors being drop
ped to seaward, to enable he to haul off again
when loaded..
Down to the very edge of the precipice, on
its summit, comes the point of a triangular en
closure, open at its base, and made of strong
stakes driven into the solid guano, and closely
knit together with iron chains. At the, point
resting upon the edge of the cliff, there is a small
opening, to which there is firmly attached a
wide canvass pipe, which hangs down the face
of the precipice, and passes into the hold of the
Te11 Jrts.ot ,ha I,!Pe ow-lmes lead to the
mast-heads of the vessel, and from thon rn
deck, where they are tended by the crew, who
alternately haul upon and slack thorn, so as to
! keep the long pipe in motion and prevent its
choking. But however well they may succeed
I in this effort, the men have considerable difficul
j ty in avoiding some such catastrophe in their
own persons'; tor the guano, after failing from
so grejit an elevation, rises through the hatch
ways in one immense cloud, that completely en
velopes the ship and lenders the inhaling jof any
thinglsabut dust almost a matter of impossi
bility. The men wear patent repiratiors, in
shape of bunches of tarry oakum, tied across
their mouths and nostrils ; but the guano mocks
at such weak defences, and a brisk continued
fusilade of sneezes celebrates the opening of the
pipe, and accompanies, in repeated volleys, and
unwilling teaw, the unremitting shower of pun
gent dust. Iu the meantime, a gang of Indians
are at work in the hold, trimming aDd levelling
the guano as it pours from above. How they
contrive io exist at all in such an atmosphere is
a matter of astonishment ; but even they are
unable to remain below longer than twentv min
utes at any one time. They are then relieved
by another party, and then return on deck per
fectly naked, streaming with perspiration and
with their brown skins thickly coated with gu
ano. The two parties thus alternately relievinc
each other, a ship of seven or eight hundred
tons is loaded in two or three days the-Indians
working during the night, and filling up the en-
I closure, readv f r shipment the following day.
j - o .
- .:iuiu.i ..lulu Ul lit... Vj''J WIG UUrtlS
of the ves-el anchored off the Island.
The guano is dug out with a pick and shov
el down to the level of the rock, and on the
North Island, the cutting thus formed, is in some
places from 60 to 80 feet in depth in others it
is only a few inches ; but these shallow spots are
comparatively rare, and usually border on some
deep valley, firmly packed with the precious
substance. From the pressure of the superin
cumbent mass, the lower strata have become al
most as hard and compact as the rock itself, and
the color deepens from a light brown or some
times white, at the surface, to nearly black at
the bottom of the cutting.
The guano of the Chinca" Islands is said to
surpass all other deposits in its strength and
fertilizing qualities, and this is chiefly attributed ',
to the fact that rain never falls on the Islands.
Owing to this extreme aridity of the climate, the
saliue particleof the manure are never held in
solution, and are therefore less liable to be lost
by evaporation, than where the surface of the
mass is frequently washed by heavy rains. Large
lumps of very strong and pure ammonia are fre
quently turned up by the diggers. The thick
fogs that in certain seasons are of nightly occur
rence ou the coast, convert the outer layer into
into a greasy paste, which is immediately baked
by the suu into a hard crust, that prevents even
the fogs from penetrating into the interior.
The crust is completely undermined by the birds
that still frequent the Island in large numbers,
These are miaos, garnets, penguins, pelicans, di
vers, sheer beaks, and many other sea fowle, but
the most common is the guano bird, a very
handsome creature, beautifully variegated and
decorated with two endaut ear-drops. Natu
ralists, delighting iu hard words, call him, I be
lieve, suliela variegata. These web-footed col
onists form regular towns beneath the crust of
the guano and various settlements, communica
ting with each other by galleries, running in ail
directions, so that it is deemed almost impossi
ble to set foot upon the untouched surface of
the island, without sinking to the knee in some
feathered lady's nursery, and either smashing
her eggs, or mutilating her hal.-fledged proge
ny. The egg-shells, and the remains of the fish '
brought to feed the young birds, or to be de-'
voured at leisure by the old ones, must form a
considerable item in the deposits.
Thickly tenanted as are the Islands, and the
air above, the waters beneath are uo less full of .
life. Shoals of small fish are continually pass
ing through the channels. "Whales ateirequent
ly seen, rolling their huge bodies in the offing ;
and the numerous caves that perforate the i-' .
lands on every 6ide,-are Jinhabited iy colonies
of seals and sea lions, that wage an unceasing
predatory war upon the sparkling shoals that :
pass, unconscious of all danger, their gloomy
surf-bound territories. . -? ' ' ' ' V.' ;:
Not a blade of grassnor even a particle of moss
exists upon thernu, The present only one brown
'zri tt-VJcg ' food f;r
the tiniest nibbler thai ?LgM4:'';ru .
corn ; and yet they possess sufficient fertilizing
power to transform a barren desert into a fruit
ful garden ; and they annually furnish food in
other lands, for thousands of hungry mortals, I
who never even f heard of its existence! jThey
are also completely destitute of water the In- ;
dians who live upon them, being supplied, with
this necessary of life by' the shipping, in turns.
Every article of food is brought from Pisco, to
which port the guano diggers occasionally re-;
sort to spend in extravagance and dissipation
their hard earned wages. The Commandant re
sides on the North Island in a miserable cot
tage; four poles stuck in the guano, with grass
mats or a few reeds stretched between them,
and covered in with a flat roof, of the same ma
terial, form specimens of a high order of the '
Chinca architecture. Furniture is of course un
known, and clothing as near so as possible ; but
the high wages given to the laborers appear ta
balance the disagremens of their position ; br
several Englishmen are amongst their number. i.
Some of these are employed in mooring the
'ships alongside of the rock.
Guano has been used for agricultural purposes
in Peru, ever since the invasion of the Span
iards, and there are good grounds for believing
that its use was known to the Indians long an
terior to that period. It is now chiefly applied
there in the cultivation of maize and potatoes,
and large quantities of it are consumed in the
haciendas that skirt the banks of the rivers
which flow from the mountains through the de
sert, raising in their passage through the arid
ocean,, long green Islands, of extraordinary fer- -tility.
The mode of applying the manure dif-
fers considerably from that adopted with us.
It is never used with the seed ; but when the
plants are a few inches above the surface, a long
shallow trench is made close to the roots, and
in this a small quantity of the guano is placed,
the white being always preferred. The trench
being laid completely under wafer by dams and
sluices, erected for the purpose, or, where no
such system of irrigation exists, other means are
adopted for thoroughly saturating the soil. The
potatoes produced by this mode of culture, are'
perhaps the finest, both for size and quality, in
in the world, and the extraordinary rapidity of
the growth, after the application of the manure,
is most astonishing.
THE IAMPAS.
A correspondent of the New York Spirit of
the Times enquires as to burning for the Lamp
as, and whether that is the only cure for it.
With the hope that we may perhaps save one
horse from the unnecessary and terrible torture
of the burning iron, we undertake tq reply.
Burning for the Lampas is as good and as
humane a remedy, as is suffocation between
two feather beds for the hydrophobia ; both
have been practised by the ignorant, and both .
are effectual. The horse, to be sure, survives
the infliction, while the feather-bed patient is
bound to die? But both of these barbarous
remedies (?) have long been discarded by civiliz
ed and intelligent men.
We have occasionally had cases of this com
plaint in our stable ; and have always attributed '"
it to over-feeding. But in no single case, how
ever bad, within our knowledge and experience , -as
an. amateur V. S., has it resisted a course of
bran mashes, continued for a day or two ; with '- -,
the addition, in one or two instances, of a purg
ative of saltsor aloes. The first thought of our
farm hands always was, to take the animal to
the blacksmith's to be burned.
Youatt says, "The bars occasionally swell,
and rise to a level with, and even beyond the
edge of, the teeth. ; They are very sore," and the
horse feeds badly on account of the pain he'
suffers, from the pressure of the food on "them.
This is called the Lampas. It may arise from
inflammation of the gums, propagated to the'
bars, when the horse is shedding his teeth
and young horses are more subject to it than "
others or from some slight febrile tendency in -the
constitution generally; as when a young
horse has lately been taken upfrora gTass ; and
has been over-fed or not sufficiently exercised.
At times, it appears in aged horses; for the
progress of growth' in the teeth of the ' horse is
continued during the whole life of the animaL ! -
In a majority of cases, the swelling will icon
subside without medical treatment, or a few
mashes and gentle alteratives will relieve the
animal. A few slight. incisions across the bars
with a lancet, of. penknife, will relieve the in
flammation and cause the swelling to subside ;
indeed this sacrification of the bars in Lampas
will seldom do harm, although it is far from be- ' . ,f
ing so necessary as is supposed The brutal .
custom of the iarrier, who scars anLburns down s ibh
the bars with a red-hot iron, isino8tobjectiQna!-jlv.yt "it
ble, It is torturing the horse to no. purpose, .. r
and rendering that part callousOD, the delicato'-iw; -m
sensibility of which all the pleasure and safety 4 -or
riding and driving depend 5It may.be pm'iva .'"
dent, in case of Lampas, to examine the grinders
and, more particularly, the tushes, iu order to ! r. i
ascertain, whether either of them is making its
way through the gum. If it is so, two incisions
across each other should be made on the tooth,
S
: f
    

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