. TERMS, TWO DOLLARS FEB AKKCfl &cMcts to all Sn tmst0 of ije Souti), Citetatwe, true ation, "i$mtnttt ito0, tfjci Warltets, &c. NO. 52.; VOL IV RALEIGH, NORTH-CAROLINA, SATURDAY, NOVE)BER 24, 1855. WHOLE NO. 208 it - AN INDEPENDENT FAMILY NEW'SPAPE'R. mi T? n -PR Tl iflress 0f Hon.xnoiu- - OF M.AMANCE. 1 to me of making Ti.dutv.hasbeenassignei fellow citizens the to & is asemblape of our behalf of the Agricul-' ...! ,,ital address on M Society , of -forth Carolina. I heartily .'tent 'to instruct or eiin. :TV reluctantly, I have ,mnrtaken it, that i ifno other good shM be done show 4 ern in the welfare the agriculture of Carolina and its Kindred arte, and my .J fur their advancement and prosperity, un deranmtiden assurance, indeed, of the kind cnleratimi of North Carolinians lor the im K,fe, tions of one who, though long unused to Ufe speaking is sincerely desirous, in any 'ray be can, of niaTwAing to jforth Carolinians tteVt:hiefain?and office, and endeavoring to mike them satisfied with their situation here. In the'tirst place it is ht, that to all here hunk (or their attendance and a hearty wel mme should he tendered. The purposes of the .N,,Ktviuii the modes of effecting them, are gtiieralfr known; and we invite the eo-opera-'tifMiiall in the good w.6rk. Join in our asso mtki. Let every one add what he can to the wit-nl fund of agricultund.kiiowledge. Enter l-to ;he competition for improving tillage, per !r.rii and increasing the productions of the ;i:irr, the grasses, the . vegetables, and the I fhiiu f the. earth, our animals and our imple- i ment-fcf husbandry, and other manufactures ; i anil I'Xiunu ncre ai our runs sueu mings as i i -1 -i t i v . . . vi. ii ti .w. indeed, rnose wno in ingpiiiv tnem- T 1 11 1 1 1.1 - ! si'i'ves are very welcome ; lor, atter all, our iieinimi women, are our. nest productions, anu i i i can only raise a just pride to see them gath id together, to extend acquaintance, form f ;''i)'!-hi'S, gain ami impart knowledge, honor. ."icultni e, and therehy become the more con--! t ivith our lot being cast in North Carolina. N'ext, the Agricultural Society owes, and we idie agricultural community to join in mak z, acknowledgments to, the General Assembly r-the pecuniary aid extended to the Society. nsei illness depends clnetlv on its abihtv to wr ami .pay premiums to exhibitors to such amount as may stimulate eqmpetitjon and tyltiply exhibitioi s. A proper amount of pre lum was larger than covtld be coiitiuer-.tly -. unfed on at all times from the fPu tuatiner uncertain eontrjoutions ol annual subscri- rs aiHi visitors at. tne r airs ; and. since our fst annual meeting, the society presented to the L'espdature a memorial praying such assistance from the Public Treasury as that body rourht leetii requiMte to the advancement of agriculture ui iiiiomincmnouiiioiit u.-s 1 aill linuiff I. J till Mimee neve, that, in compliance with tha me- lunriiil, a permanent '.annual appropriation of I ?1"hu ft as made for the payment of premiums, iject .only to the reasonable' and politic pro- that within the preceding twelve months, the Sonctv -shall have raised the like sum for fW same uses. The amu oniiation. if n't. fnllv it s i v' ale iii ii' to the wants and claims of a oeonlp as i i i vxvjcuitnr'il as those of North Carolinn is vot ifirtrat benefit-in many respects, and chiefly i Ftn tnently establishing the Society and i r.,;,.,. j.w ; i ,i . ,i '" - mwuiui- ue Mi(Mseu mat trie 'imiersand mechanics and traders of the Slate hve hearts so dead to their duty and interest J-cto let them fail for want of contributions on 2?ir bat t to an emial amount The present is tr trt occasion, since the grant, on which the N'fiety has had the opportunity of aeknowledg iithis legislative bounty, and we take much fnfe aiid pleasure in doing'so. W, it may be asked : Is the agriculture of Soith Carolina w orthy of this public patronage, ltd of the : efforts of some of her citizens to pro e ami improve it? I answer, Yes yes. Wh Carolina is entitled to all, that every OUe of hpr liArilf can rln in rTrmrttt hr nrn. ferity and tlevate her character ; and her sons "'ill be Mikity lemunerated for their efforts for w advantage and their own. Our occupations essentially agricultural, and embrace all its ,lr'cty.,of pursuits planting, farming, breed ffi?of live stock, and the culture of,fruits. Un bWery recently they 'were almost exc.usive ag ''wltural, as there were natural obstacles to 'it fe- manufacturing establishments among lt botli these respects progress has been l'B(ie a"d is making ; and there is good ground of hone !,.' v. . n . . fltai i ii.ai oeiore ions neets oi our own mer- Titnien will saji from our shores, richly laden i4: our productions for side or exchange in I the 0l'ts of our sister States and ft tN w hile factories of various kinds, now es U'hi in different parts of the State, will be "Isil't'iheyond any present calculation that C4 ''e nude, not only for the fabrication of the useful implements of wood, iron, and oth-'u-'i, hut for our supply of those fabrics 1 the great Southern staple, cotton, w hich 1,T' tiu'diny indispensalfie. Manufactures are '"'"'. without doubt, material helps to agri tlllt'J'V di versifying eihploy-ments, increas ' '"' '."iisuinption at home of our crops and' t .nl supplying on the spot and without . ' i u"Hy articles needful to the planter and 'i tune thev will become a more dis- Si lT0,-uitne, and influential item in our i ! al ecr,,liini y. . bufc iiever( I think, as the In 0i onr agriculture, but as a faithful tiva'ti,"'1 SmaUt- As yet' however the cul Vij.' ' t',e eai'th is the great and productive th Caro,Jna-- It has niade us" , t0a thruing and happy ruj-al people. v a, hti" M ; Hml make us still more iiv6 M'ttl-"ues improved and more produc V0f 7 Jlould not the agriculture of North if 'l'a e 5'' hntproveaitle and improved, and tki use of any other parts of our country ? t!Tf ;n of height can be given in the nega- Etfr . but strive for improvement. y Wing Jj. , fatrxi. ir , i.. ii. 'rtani "'v "in luaive vue f,rvn Use the Proper means; and of that onen,. v ....... . ... , r a "c &ausueu u ne win ooserve wa what is around him. The profits and the comforts of agriculture de pend mainly on climate, soil, labor, and the fa cilities for disposing of surplus production. The two first, climate and soil, should be congenial to products requisite for the sustenance of the husbandman himself, and in demand for others who cannot produce for themselves. In both points North Carolina is highly blessed. ;in hyposition on the globe she occupies thattem- narichiaconducive to j . -Wit i . . i - , , ties and energies ot ments tending'more thau all others to tfie hos pitalities and charities of life and the other vir tues of the heart, and which constitutes a cli mate, that, in unison with her fertile soil, yields abundantly' to the diligent . tiller .nearly all the necessaries and many of the luxres required by man. AVe do not work barely to maintain life; but, beyond that, . to realize gains that may be employed in the addition of other things produc tive of the elevation and refinement of civilized man. Our winters, by their duration and rigor, do not confine us long within doors, nor cause us to consume the productions of our labor du ring the other parts of the year; but we are able to prosecute our field operations and com fortably pursue our productive employments throughout the four seasons Though not -i f such ex tent of latitude as thereby to create much variety of climate, ancFconsequently of produc tion ; yet the dimensions of North Carolina, east and west, ' supply that deficiency in a re markable degree. The proximity to tile ocean of her eastern coast, and the difference in ele vation between that and the mountains of the west, with the gradations in the intermediate regions, produce a diversity' of genial climate which gives to North Carolina, in herself, the advantages of many countries conjointly. By nature, t o, her soil was as diversified and as excellent as her climate. The rich alluvial of the east, the extended'and extremely fertile val leys of the many long streams the Roanoke, the Tar, the Neuse, the Cape Fear, the Yadkin and Pedec, the Catawba, and the other rivers, which appear upon onr map, besides those of smaller streams, almost numberless, all, at a moderate expense of care and labor, return large yields of nearly every grain and other produc tion fit for food. Rice, maize, wheat, rye, bar ley, oats, the pea, the potato of each kiud, be sides an endless variety of other sorts, vegeta bles, and fruits,' arc found abundantly therein; white higher up "-"the country, in addition, the grasses grow so readily and luxuriantly as to afford not little plots on the moist bottoms of brooks, but extensive pastures and -magnificent meadows to the mountain tops. Then, - there are the great articles of cottort and tobacco, so extensively used and in such great atid increas ing demand to one or the other of which the greater part of the State is eminently suited. Of fruits, melons of every kind and of the best qualities, apples, peaches, pears, cherries, nec tarines and apricots flourish almost everywhere, as do also the smaller, but most valuable kinds, as the strawberry, the raspberry, the gooseberry currants, and, above all, out native grapes, the sweet and prolific Scuppernong and the rich Catawba, which mature well, besides some of foreign origin. When to these are added the fish, with which our eastern waters, abound through the yG;iri but are alive in the spring our naval stores and lumber, our marls, our minerals, gold, silver, copper, and especially the extensive and rich deposits of iron ore, and the coals, one may confidently ask, is there any other country which contains or produces more or a greater diversity of things to sustain life or to bring money V And then let me enquire of yqu North Carolinians, what better country do YOU want than your own-?" 1 hold it is good enough too good, ! am tempted to say, for sinful man It requines only to be dressed and tilled to give nearly all we want on earth, and much for our fellow man less happily situated. There may at some time be a stint below our usual abund ance ; but we need never fear a famine here while we work. Indeed, that calamity can hardly befall a country where maize which w e call Indian corn grows to perfection. There is no record of a dearth, approaching famine, where the principal crop was maize, as it is here. Our climate and soil are so congenial to the other cereals, that failure of that crop from an unpropitious season is necessarily perceived in time to provide the -others, or some of them, as a substitute. Such is North Carolina! Here she is, and let any man say, who can, whether she be not in . every thing'as she has now been held up to him. Then, why should any leave her? I trust the period of her people's deserting her and seek ing what they never found a better place, is near its end, and that they will cleave to her and exalt her by uniting in an effort to render her, by increased fertility, yet more teeming in her productions, and to embellish her with du rable and tasteful habitations, gardens and lawns, with substantial farm houses, with orchards and every other thing that can make her beautiful in our eyes and fasten our affections on her. True, the soil is not what itonce was,and our task is not merely o preserve fertility, but in a great degree to restore that which has been more or less exhausted. re must not blame our ances tors too hastily )r too severely, for the system under .vhich the rieh vegetable loam they found here was so used up. The labors and hardships of settling a wild country kave but little oppor tunity for more than preparing for cultivation and cropping such parts of the land as abso lutely necessary for maintaining the colony Land was in plenty timber an incntnbrance, and labor scarce and costly ; so that, in '(reality it was cheaper, and the sounder economy in them to bring new fields with their exceeding su perficial fertility into culture, rather than ma nure those which they had reduced by imperfect tillage and scourgjng cropping. Throughout America the land suffered by the exhausting opererations of the settlers and their descend ants for several generations ; but that can only go on, to a certain extent, and then it must stop. When getting to be so reduced as not to pay for cultivation, necessity forbids a further reduc tion of the soil, and then the process of regen eration begins. At first it proceeds slowly ; but every degree of improvement furnishes means for still greater, and accordingly it in creases its pace, and by improved culture, ma nures, rotation of crops, and the like, it ends in a productiveness beyond its original capacity. If not to the lowest, certainly to a very low condition, much of the land in the State had been brought ; and the time came, when, if im provement was ever to be made, it would be jSteaU of has' come," because it is a joyful fact, that some persons in various parts of the State, many in some parts, have improved, and continue to improve their lands and increase their crops profitting much therefrom in their fortunes and setting the rest of us examples by which we ought also to profit We have all heard for some years past, that the era of im provement had begun in the great and wealthy county of Edgecombe ; and I learn from unques tionable sources, that the intelligent and enter prising planters of that county have been rewar ded by signal success. I do not propose to en ter into a detail of their system further than to say, that it consists chiefly in draining by ditches and embankments, making and ap plying composts, the use of guano and plaster of Paris, and the field-pea as an ameliorating crop, as well as food for stock. I advise every one, however, who has the opportunity, by minute enquiries to obtain from those who have put this system into use, detailed infor mation respecting it ; and I feel no hestitation in preferring a request to the planters of Edge combe, as public-spirited gentlemen, to com municate through our agricultural periodicals, the. history of their improvements, and their experiments as well as those in which they failed as those in which they succeeded, with all other matters which may be useful to their s brethren in other sections. In other parts of the country, with which I am more intimately acquainted, much improve ment has been made, to my own knowledge. Of the counties ranging along our northern border, from Warren to' Stokes, inclusive, I have had for about fifty years considerable knowledge. That Was the principal region of the tobacco culture. ' According to the course of that eultnre, wherever it prevailed in our earl- annals, the country-was cut down rapid ly, cropped mercile-sly with a view to quantity rather than quality, then put into corn,, and exhausted quickly and almost entirely. When I first knew it, and for a long time aftenvards, 1 there were abounding evidences of former fer tility, and existing and sorrowful sterility. Corn and tobacco and oats were almost the only crops. But little w:heat and no cultivated grasses were to be-seen in the country. War ren and Granville bought the little flour they used from Orange wagons. Large tracts "were disfigured by galls and frightful gullies, turned out as "old field," with broomstraw and old field pines for their only' vesture, instead of their stately primitive forests, or rich crops for the use of man. This is a sad picture.. But it is a true one ; and there was more fact than figure in the saying by many, whose work of destruction rendered that region so desolate, and wlio. then abandoned it, that it was "old and -worn out." Happily, some thought its condition not so hopeless, and, cherishing their attachment for the spots of their nativity, within- these few years since the time of river navigation and railroads began set about re pairing the ravages of fornier days. Do you suppose they were content with less crops, and therefore that they cultivated less land'than be fore, leaving a larger area to natural recovery ' by rest ? That was net their course. They did not give up the culture of tobacco, but greatly increased it, and corn also ; and they added to their rotation, wheat, when, so much more easily and cheaply carried to market. But they greatly increased the collection and application of manures from the stables, and the cattle yards, with considerable additions of the concentrated manures obtained from abroad, and protected the land from washing by judi cious hill side trenching and more thorough plowing. The result has been, that many old fields have been reclaimed and brought into cultivation, the lands generally much in creased in fertility, and of course in actual and market value in the like proportion, while the production has, probably, dou bled in quantity and value in all the range of counties mentioned. Such examples are hon orable to those who set them, and useful to others, who desire to improve. For that rea son I have thought- it proper thus to signalize them, as I would gladly do others, which may, and I hope do exist, were I as well aware of them : contenting myself with adding only, that I think I see the dawn of a better day in the county of my own residence and those contigu ous. For our present purpose, it is sufficient that we can hence learn that the effects of the most injudicious and destructive Cropping may be repaired by good husbandry, in the use of fertilizers saved on the farm, apd others, which are becoming better known and more attaina ble than formerly ; and thus all the outlay will be more than reimbursed at a short day by the 'increase of products, besides enhancing the value of real estate. Thus will our agriculture be rendered as pleasing and as profitable as that of the most favored portions of the earth. Then let ine say once more to you, men of North Carolina, stick to her, and make her what bhe can be and ought to be. For you and your sons she will yield a rich harvest : to some "thirty fold, some sixty fold, and some an hundred fold," according to the skifl and dili gence with which the tillage of the good ground is done. . - The nature of the labor employed in our ag riculture is the next subject for our considera tion. It is a most important element in the cost, 'amount and value oCproduction. I very frankly avow the opinion, that our mixed labor of free white men of European cfrigia and of slaves of the African race, is as well adapted to; the pub lic and private ends of our agriculture as any other could be making our cultivation not less thorough, cheap, and productive than it would be, if carried on by the whites alone, and far more so than the blacks by themselves would make it ; and, therefore, that it has a beneficial influence on the prosperity of the country, and j the physical and moral state of both races,, ! rendering both better and happier than either would be here without the other. Of course, I am not about entering into that controversy which has connected itsei toith the contentions of sectional factions, SXmlkmi-- . - .iithaUU. 'It is unnecessary that I should : for every one is aware, I believe, of the nature of the controversy and the motives of the parties to it. It is one of the conservative effects of slavery to impress on us a deep conviction of the inestimable value of the Union, and a pro found reverence for the Constitution which. Created it ; and hence we habitually cherish a good feeling, as of brethren, towards our fellow- citizens of every State, and any deed or word i tending to impair the perpetuity of the Union and the efficiency of the Constitution and the ! laws passed in accordance with it, or to alienate ' the affections of the people of the different j Sfcites from each other, is seen with impatience j and frowned on with indignation. Indeed, if j there were any thing in slavery or the interests connected with it incompatible with that fun damental law, I doubt not that our people would willingly abide by that sacred instru ment, though it should cut off a right hand or pluck out a right eye. But there will be no occasion for a display of our loyalty in that re spect, since the Constitution clearly recognizes our slavery, sustains the rights of ownerslip, and enforces the duty ef service ; and I am persuaded, that the obligation of those provi sions and their execution will be ultimately pronounced and carried out by those on whom the Constitution itself confers the authority. My purpose now, however, is merely to main tain that slavery here is favorable to the inter ests of agriculture jin point of economy and profit, and not unwholesome to the moral and social eoncliiliVP. of each race. In support of the first part o the proposition, a decTsive ar gument is furnished by the f u-t that the amount ami Value of the productions of slave labor in this country exceeds those of similar productions, nay, of all other agricultural pro ductions, of an equal number of men in any other country, as far as they can be ascertain ed. In some localities, indeed, and in respect o soma articles of great value, the prodtieiieui ould cease, or Treany ceii!n-4 with slavery ; since the blacks by the Constitution inherited from the African ancestors, can labor without detriment, under degrees of heat, moisture and exposure, which are found to be fatal to the whites, whose systems are better adapted to different conditions of the atmosphere. In truth, if the free men in those States in which shivery prevails be allowed credit for common sense and the capacity to understand their own wants and interests, the utility of the employ-, ment of slave labor and its productiveness are established beyond controversy, simply by the fact, that it is done. Men who are thoroughly versed in the practical operition of any institu tion, certainly will- not, to their own prejudice? uphold it from generation to generation, and cling the closer to it ashy its; natural extension it becomes more and more destructive. If it be said that the continuance of slavery does not prove its utility to the Coinnfpnwealth, because it was continued of necessity and would have been, however impolitic it might lie found, we must own some force in the suggestion, by it self, since at all time after its introduction it would have been difficult to get rid, of it, and that difficulty has been continually increasing. It was much easier for those w ho no w condemn so strenuously our toleration of slavery, to cap ture and enslave the helplesi Africans and bring them here, than for us, without crim.- yet more heinous, to renounce our flominion over them ,and turn them loose to their own discretion and self-destruction. Their fata would soon be that of our native savages or the enfranchised black.s of the West Indies, the miserable Victims of idleness, want, drunkenness, and other debau cheries. But the argument goes only to show that we would have done right even though enforced thereto by the necessity spoken of in still holding those people in bondage. It is far from showing that slavery would not have been and ought not to have been maintained, I though there had been ue-8uch hypothetical ' necessity for doing so. Furthermore, there are numerous facts to prove a cleap opinion to the contrary in every class of our population. When did any man, for example, leave North Carolina in order to get clear of his slaves or ofslaveryr? We have, indeed, a respectable and peaceful religious society less numerous than formerly who are forbidden by an arti cle in their creed from holding men in slavery. Even they never warred or contended against this institution here, nor sought to seduce or spirit away their neighbor's slaves.;, but like the quiet and Christian men they professed to be, they left us aud immigrated chiefly to the States of the North West, in which slavery did not exist. With that slight exception, the public sentiment is so generally satisfied with the ex istence of slavery and its propriety here, that it may properly be called universal. Some men have emancipated some or all of their slaves by sending them to other States. But I know not of an instance in which the former owner went with them, or left North Carolina because other owners would not follow their example. On the oontrary, when our slaveholders re move, they carry their slaves with them furth er south, where slavery is, if possible, more firmly fixed than here, because they expect the labor of the slaves to be more productive. Be sides, there are many inhabitants of this State who do not hold slaves, some from choice and some from inability to purchase them, and ne vertheless, they are content to abide among us and our slaves. And it is also true, that even when those men migrate, much the larger part of them likewise go to the south of us in the thick of slavery, because they hope to make a greater profit from their own exertions. These facts, which cannot be denied, vrpl bear reflec tion, and furnish evidence sufficient to satisfy - any fair mind tnatithere is an unanimous con viction of our C.peTi'ple, that slavey, as it exist here, is neitlier unpWfitable, nor impolitic, nor unwholesome. "For, .certainly, though slsvehol- ders, we may' C'nJto possess as clear under standings, Hn.wajitr consciences as general ly fall to $&o2 Miermcn. It wou-f ifc-' WHvotherwise, if it were truct as suppo-sfnl forth.bT some .thst-laverr t . i v.- - "3 " v. ..' ' . pay tpe wuowiDwr population are too proud or too lazy to werk, and become, especially slave owners, dissolute, and profligate in morals, as well as atrocious tyrants. But that is not true not all true ; and there never was a greater mistake than to sup- pose it true. It cannot but excite a smile in us, j who know the contrary so -well, when we are . told that white men do not work here, and that i they- do not because it is considered disgrace ; f d. Why, there is not a country on earth in j which honest labor and diligence in business in all classes and conditions, is considered more ; respectable, or is more respected. We, like every other people, have the idle and vicious j amongst us. But they are chiefly those who I have the least connexion with slaves, and par ! ticularly those employed in agriculture, and are to be found, without means, lounging about ci ties and villages. Many most independent far mers, who own slaves, but not enough to make their superintendence full employment, work they and their sons, with their slaves; and it is sure, that no one here, ever treated them or thought of them as disgraced by it. Indeed, every one, who by intelligence', integi ity,' and industry, provides for himself and his house hold either in the field or at the forge, or any' other mechanical pursuit, is as highly respected here, as in every other well-ordered community; . and many of them arc of great and useful influ ence in society. It is a-mistake, too, equally notable, that slaveholders are above or exempt from the cares and the business of life ; and it is a gross calum ny to represent them as the ruthless and relent less tyrants, of whom some persons delight to u','Sn' ov -charged and exaggerated carricatures Although the labor of afgi1?- ot manuel, yet it is not the less engrossing and on erous ; and the feelings between masters and their slaves in the great bulk of our population is kindly on the part of the former, and affec tionately faithful on the part of the latter. STav ji ; idecd, is nc$ a pureand unmixed good. a Nn rs-anT-tKfn ttiat3''1rtttMin-- T4r are in stances of cruel and devilish masters, and of turbulent and refractory slaves, who cannot be controlled and brought into subjection but by extraordinary severity. But these are excep tions, and rare exceptions. Cireat severity in masters is as much opposed to the usages of our people as to the sentiment of the age, and, indeed, to the interest of the master. Modera tion in the punishment of dependents is found ed in nature ; and unjust, excessive and barba rous cruelty is not to be presumed, but quite the contrary. The meek man who led the Isra elites through the -wilderness, and legislated for them by inspiration, undo stood this better than those who point lis so frigl.ffully, without know ing much about us. In Tea ting of the differ ent degrees of homicide, he had regard to the known motives of the hunan heart, and there on founded the pre imp Ion, that the slaying of r, isby misadventure, " be a slave by the mad cause he is his mc Key, unless it should be re. buked bv such exfess in the degree or duration of the iniliction a hand," and thus pretence, and the to make him " die under his ince that discipline was a Uing of designed malignity or wanton brut-ilia 1 appeal to every one, if our experience is :ot in accordance with the divine statute. T same m rl nt of :he same motive induces the master to be obse healtl i and nior- als of his slaves ; Y care for them, and to pro. vide for them ; to strain them from banefu excesses, aud em fry then in moderate, though steady labor. Tl this i-;the course the es- tablishcd habit d the sl,ieholding portion of nly t( be deduced from an bers (iffour slave population the country, is p increase in the ntk beyond the ratio Ifnatuvii increase in the pop. ulation of any of natioif; which could only arise from the a dant 4pply of the necessa ries and comfortM f life, and a contented state ol 11)111(1 ... But the interffcof the owner is not the only security to thplave for humane treatment ; there is a strong' tie between . themv Often born on the samiplatitation, and bred together, they have a mr.-t. knowledge of each other, and a mutual flronient. Protection and pro vision are theftiifj of the master, and in re turn the slater devoted obedience and fidelity of serfiif; so that they seldom part but from necessity The comfort, cheerfulness, and happine.is of .t slave should be, and generally is, the strjdyjfj the master ; and ' every Chris tian matofc 'jiices Over the soul of his slave saved, asiifurotherand allows of his attend ance on tpeiinistiy of God's word, and sacra ments, inf mt church of bis choice in his vicin ity. Tl nlition.of a tlave denies to him in deed, oppcinities of education sufficient for searching v Scripture for himself, and work ing theijeo' lis own conversion ; but God for bid thai'ghld be necessary to salvation! It i.. not;ifo , the poor and the unlettered the Christian -:ces are promised and given in an especial -.iiner, because, they have less pride of intelle.inore simplicity of faitn, and more singlehes,f heart ; and among the slaves of this cj&U' there are many exemplary Chris-tiansf- -V-ed, slavery in America has noonly done moor the civilization and enjoyments of the Afiiii race thau all other cau es, but it haslirit more of them into the Christian folr.th all the missions to that benighted cotttinttt'rf ui the Advent to this day have, or, prabaV.tho.se for centuries to come would, exep-ronly the recent Colonies of blacks on tlu H'ti-u coast of Africa, by which one may hope believe that under divine direction the ligbt)' civilization and the knowledge of the trie y, may be reflected back on that whole land jiich are some of the beneficial effects n$tfce their connexion with us. Upon .it r . t .1 it j i ? - .i" i- iffyfii.jjuer uie impressions are not lessuis- tinctly durable, nor less beneficial. lie is habit ually a man of employment. As in military life he must train his froc to their duties, lay out their work, 'arid superintend its execution ; and by a mild and jat,hough firm discipline, re ward and puDiKi.'frcording to their deserts ; and he must nejHnT iu sympathy with them in resard o Wlfn enjoyments at proper met T 3u?jam sickness and in health. tt. . .... " T rVIers.-Tet M-X&m tnemseives ave exceedingly gtent etiect m improving the slave and uniting him to his owner. I know a gentleman, one of the most successful planters, who produced a marked change for the better among his slaves, by the small boon of a cheap looking glass for each of their quarters. Anoth er bound his people to him by a devoted affec tion, by joining with solemnity in their process ions at the burial of their dead, in a grave-yard which he had protected by a plain post and plank enclosure. It is a great error in those who do not know our slavery, to confound authority in the private relations, though it be that ,ot a slave owner, with the absolute power of a prince on a throne. A political despot is separated from his subjects. He knows -them not, nor loves them. He sym pathizes with cone ot them, hut their positions and feelings are in constant hostility. But au thority in domestic life, though not necessarily, is natuially considerate 'mild, easy to be entreai ed, aud tends to an elevation in sentiment in the superior which generates a human tenderness for those in his power, and renders him regardful alike of the duty and the dignity of his position. It is only w hen the authority is disputed and re sisted, that a conflict occurs ; and the slaves, if kept to themselves, unprompted from without, will seldom give occasion in that way for rigor. Why should this propitious state of things I e changed ? Why should any o e wished it changed? Especially, why should 'persons who have no concern in it, who are n t of us, and know not what they do. officiously interfere hi a relation so entirely ilomeslic ml delicate ' V e know tiiat our slaves are generally, uitnMe. ' I.e dient, quiet, and a contei.ied and cheeriu! r.u-v d laborers. Scattered over die plantations m rnrai Dations, they are never riotous i.r daiio-crou-. "?S as the sauK" iber of nneducat- d n r'-iiiii men have often been other parts of ,v- - our c .uouv. - , -r.i'e. wn ii no pontic"! oiaves are no pari ol inc. .MuK-ukfji, power, and seek no violent or sudden (' amre"5n'. the law or policy ojhhec-.o;)jnLl aiid...vfe oia.r.j, r.vuus i.iuor ami c.i' iiat never come in conflict, because they are ii ihcsime haim's, and operate m narnmny. It is not, Then, a blot upon our laws, nor a siain on our morals, nor a bright upoii our land. A signal instance of its benefi . cial political influence just occurs to me, lo which I cannot refrain from asking your attention. The sad (li e of she Indian tribes in the territories, now forming the United States, is familiar, to every one. With the exception of a few smad remnants, seated among- the whites, as a deirra ded caste, in one or two of' the northern Stales, all belonging to that region are extinct. They had no separate property, and therefore tliey never engaged in the pursuits of civil hie, and could not be civilized. They were killed up in wars with the whites, or. at the r instigation, with each other, deprived of their and, and con sequently, with reduced supplies o: tbod by the diminution of game, and brutalized by intemper ance, they wasted away while they were yet' savages. The same fate befell most of those at the Sou tli, and fiom the same causes. But there are exceptions worthy of grave consideration There were five large tribes on this side of the Mississippi the Cherokees, the Creeks, the Chickasaws, Choetaws. and the Seminoles. The two former were nearer to us, and. in. eed, part of their territory was within i.ur binders. There fire we are more familiar with them; and I w ill speak only of them, though 1 relieve the same is true of all of them. The Cherokees and Creeks suffered losses of html ami pen; h- like the other tribes ; but they differed !'r ni them in one circumstance, and only one, from which, however, most important consequences resulted.' It so happened, that, while yet. respectable in strength, they got, in some w y by capture or purchase-some negro slaves: Immediately there was a changetn their w hole polity, which preserved their existence, and incr -ascd their -numbers and their wealth. The acquisition of slaves gave them the idea of property in indi viduals, and in order to make the labor of th " slaves beneficial, a qualified property in the lands occupied by each Indian, and worked hy his slaves, was recognized by the nation, and the pursuits and arts of civilized life were established among- them ; farms were extended, dwellings erected, traffic practised, clothes worn -'atter the fashion of the whites, schools and churches opened, and thfed man became as, the white man in his occupations, property, education, and religion. And now those tiioes form intelligent and thriving people beyond the Mississippi, with ' enlarged knowledge, property arid power; with J a printed statute book, with a legislative body, j and regular tribunals of jus-ice. Such works j hath American Slavery wrought iqion those tribes! Is that a reproach to it ? And is it not marvellous that, still, it should he pursued by persons having no knowledge of its practical" operation, under a phrensy against slavery in the abstract, fatally bent on its rest ric ion and des truction; though they thereby should desolate our fields, desecrate our altars, and cause the blood of both races of our people to flow in riv Such philanthropy is both fanciful and ferocious, and must gall and irritate, and may, to a certain extent, alarm some. But I believe we need not apprehend much daager to our per sonal rights or political institutions. Occasion ally demagogues may sway popular or legislative majorities against us. But it can only be for a season, and a short season. For, in every part of our beloved counti y there are men, and, 1 trust, many men, of sound heads and sound hearts, who are as able as we to understand and explain the constitution, and calculate the value of the Union as justly. Such men most have great influence in society, however it may be constituted, and willassunftdly instruct, persuade, and lead back the masses to a due iegard for the Constitutional rights of their fellow-citizens not less their fellow-citizens because living" far apart for multitudes, proverbially prone to change, never do so more readdy, than when under the guidance of wise and good men, they ' can retreat fr6m an extreme wrong, and escape from the denomination of those who dishonestly led them into it. The very excess of the error . ensures its speedy (perception, and a more perfect reaction. I believe we shall be one peoplS again in good feeling; and therefore I cherish "the spi rit, of brotherhood even towards those who may now seem to hold it in the least respect; and in that I only sympathise, I am sure, with the great j bulk of my fellow-citizens at home. j On the remaining point, on which the interests of agriculture, . and, indeed, of all other employ ments depend namely, "the facility of transpor tation, I have to offer to all North Carolinians heartfelt congratulations. The carriage of bulky and cheap articles long distances in wagons over bad roads, was a great draw-back on the profits of capital and labor for a long time here. Some relief in particular parts of the State was deriv ed from even the imperfect improvement made in the navigation for boats on a few of our rivers. But itivas far below the wants and demands of the people; and afterwards resort was had to Railroads. The wonders worked by steam, and railways are indeed astonishing throughout the world. In no part of it can they be more re quisite or beneficial than in this State, the ex tent of which and the want of navigable waters at only a short distance from the sea, rendered (hem indispensible. Every one, therefore, ought to commend the legislative, policy in providing them, and in extending them, from time to'time, as the funds of the State may be found adequaie. It will not, I trust, be g"ing out of the way, while on this subject, to say a word in honor of the memory of a great and good man, who first presented the utility and construction of Rail roads to the notice and patronage of this State ; I allude to the Rev. Dr. Joseph Caldwell, the late eminent and zealous president of the Uni- , v. rsiiy. Upwards of thirty years ago he visited Europe on the business of the College, and there saw such roads in use and soon alter his re t rn, I remember, he published a series of essays under the signature of "Carlton," in a newspa - per printel iu this city, explaining the practica bility of their construction and earnestly urging a central one from Buncombe toBeaufsrt. The un'vf lty of the RuhM?ar!dbJre.ad .of the ex-- Zf. ' i Wt .r.,M o tit" druu in .?. as vou naas bv. 4 ' '' i liense. onerafinir n..ftiT tfm.rf ....F.oio'i&.VifvsJi.itiS.--. ' c. I 7 f".'".fc'l nis suggestion from being then adopted. But it is honorable to his sagacity, that at the late ses sion of the legislature charters were granted for completing a line of Railroad on the very route recommended by him, -when probably it was un-' known or had been forgotten by the acting gen eration ofjegislators, that he had ever advocated the measure. I shall be pardoned for desiring to rescue from oblivion for a brief space longer his early service in a cause now so generally and justly advocated, and of such surpassing im portant. I have thus endeavored to lay before you the resources and advantages enjoyed by North Car olina, and her capacity to supply (he wants of man, and satisfy his reasonable desires for ac cumulation and the higher enjoyments of both laboring and educated and more refined men. It has been done without setting up any claim for her, which I do not believe to be well founded, or any statement in which 1 do not expect your concurrence. In truth I new, have said nothing and I have not sought so much to impart information as to excite reflection on what you already know. For we take no note of things that we see every day, and it is a more common fault not to make a proper use of knowledge, than it is not to pos sess it ; to fail in duty, net because we are ig norant of it, but because we are indifferent to it? .My purpose has been to present to you, with much plainness of speech, things that none can deny and are fully known among us. You know that all these things are true. If they he, let them make their impress on our minds and hearts, that we may be duly sensible of, and thankful for, the goodly bounties of health, competence and wealth, which may be derived from the agriculture and other occupations of North Carolina. I am quite sensible that I have performed most defectively the task set for myself After the lapse of more than thirty years nce engaged in public discussion, I ought not to have undertak en it, and regret that I did so, especially as this address has been hastily prepared under many ' ..disadvantages. I beseech your forgiveness, and will make the best reparation now in my power, by promising hot to offend in tbe same way again ; and, as I have ve ry nearly arrived at the scriptural limit of van's life, I think I may, in -conclusion, safely Tnake the promise. I cannot close, however, without asking you once more to cleave to North Carolina. Stay in her, fer tilize her, till herjfeeherish her rising manufac tures, extend her railways, encourage and en dow iier schools and; colleges,' sustain her insti tutions, develop he- resources, promote knowl- -edge, virtue, and religion throagheQt her bor ders, stimulate State pride, and exalt her to re nown : And may the blessing of Almighty God. be upon each on"? of you, and onali North Caro-r. Iin.i. and make her gwd' name'and fair fame enJless! f' - The British Wheat CkopA Recent eti-:"' "7 ',v, ma e of the British wheat crop, published by r Air. John Caird, in the London papers, ha at- ' . , inicted attention on thother sidefrom the fact that it reduces the deficit as compared with y ' . 154. to one-tenth, and the growth of last year ' ' being unusually heavy; the writer assumes that - V' 2,812,505 quarters, or-22,500,000 bushels will Y J ' supply the deficiency in the annual consumption of the United Kingdom, which, he says, u jg lit- -.," . tie more than one-half the average annual im portation of the last five years. His figures .' for the crop of 1855 re 15,187300, quarters ; the wants of the Kingdom, 18000 quartern, - " - Winter has set innd let each neighbor re- , member that fuel jljn essential item for the , poor and needy. . i r 1 t lit : W.

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