WILLIAM C. DO tJB,
- tDiroa iitrioruiivi. -
y mui strictly la advaaee, tw dollar par ea
ses; tw debar ad fifty mU, if paid withia
ki ; mmi tare doUars at lb sad of U
year. '- '
A D TERTISKM SSTS aot xeJiBg ititao
Bs still NiwM4 a tia for a dollar, aad
.-toiv-ivs naU far oael abeaaBt lartioa.
Tbss f fruur laogtb will ba charged proper
lidaaily- Coartlirtlersacd Jdiee.fc.rTjliss:Bt-
atll s eaorrea par ee Burner toaa in bov i
rstss. A nHat! deduction will b made ta ,
Bank end Job Printig doa witk aaata aa
Jsspsteh, aad mm aceoamodatiag term.
4mssss a r awwgwwaa
va. Dallat Haywood, Intendant ot Police.
Eoiterm Ward. FJdridge Smith,
MidJU Ward.K. L. Harding,
" "Mf Procter.
- E. Cantwell,
Wetterm Ward. A. M. Gorman,
" H. 1). Turner.
3., J. Christophers, City Clerk,
A. SI. liorman, City Trea.
City Guard. Jamea M. Crawley,
M Jackson Overby.
City Constable. Edward Harris.
" William Andrews.
A. Adams, Weigh maater.
15. llnrria, Clerk of tii Market
EALEGH, NQSTH CAEOLUfA, WEDNESDAY MORNING. JANUABT ;9. 1856.
Filiate ciiitnt of tin Senate ttd
Hem of Hrpracntaiieet ;
The constitution of the United State provides
that Congress shall assemble annually on tb
first Monday of December, and it haa bean asual
lor the President to make no eommuniratiun
of a public character to the Sennt and lloao
of Representatives until advised of their read-
men to receive it. I have deferred to this
wage until the clow of the tint month of
the esirn, but my eunvidtiou of duty will
ot permit me longer to postpone the discharge
of the obligation enjoined by the constitution up
oa the President " to give to the Congress infor
mation of the State of the Union, and recommend
to their eonidertil.n such measures aa he shall
judge necessary and rxpedien.."
It is a matter of congratulation that the Re
public is tranquilly advancing in a career of pros
perity and peace.
Marios nwsi cxntxai. AMiaira.
The Supreme Court ot North Carolina i
Whilst relations of amity continue to exist
iitcou tue . iinrn niairs ana ail loreign powers,
with aunts of them grave questions are depeeod
ing which may require the consideration of Con
gress. Of such questions, the most important is that
which has arisen out of the negotiations with
Ureal Britain in reference to Central America.
By the convention concluded between the two
governments on the l'.lth of April Inou, both par
ties eonvenanted that " neither will aver" "oc
cupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume or oxer-
S. this aits semi-annuallv. on the second oidsv ei any doniininn over, Nicarntru. Costa Hit a.
i wv ..KjmiMikw ur any pari ui lenirai Auier-
i tea. "
It was the undoubted, understanding of the
United States, in making this treaty, that all the
present Stub's of the former republic of Central
Anieriea, an I the entire territory of each, would
thenoefnrth enjoy complete independence; and
that both eontrauting parties engaged tquallv.
mm'i in me saiur rxient, ior rne prexent and lor
tliefoture;thatifeitherthenbadnny claim of riht
in Central Ainiirira, such claim.nndnll occupation
ed by the stipulati.ms'of the convention; anil
that no dominion was thereafter to be exercised
or assumed in any part of Central America, by
tireat llritaic or the United States.
This government consented to restrictions in
regard to a region of country, whnrein we had
specitic and peculiar interpt,only upon the con
viotion that the like res'rietions weie in the same
tense obligatory on Oreat Hritain. Hut for this
uiidoisUiidin;.f the force and effect ofthe Con
vention, it would never have been concluded, by
in June, and tl'.a &hh day of Itoeemlier
Judge. lion. Frederick nasli, thiol Justice,
n. in. earuon, Associate uage,
W. 11. Bailie, "
Edmund B. freeman. Clerk; Ham. C. Jones,
Reporter J. J. Litchford, Sr., Marshall.
The United Vuns L irrutf Court for the Dis
trict of North Carolina is held semi-annually in
this city, on the 1st Monday in June and the last
Monday In November.
Judge.-lion. J. si. Wayne, ofUeorgia; II
Henry Potter, of Fayetteville; I)istrict'Attorn
Kolwrt I'. iic; tier, w m. it. linvwood.
Marslwll, Wesley Jones.
The Superior Court for this County, is held on
he Drat Monday after the fourth .Monday iu
March and September.
John V. Moore, tiers.
Jos. B. Bachelor, Atkirnev General and Solic
itor of the fourth Judicial District.
The Court of 11ea$ and Quarter Senium is
held on th third Monday in February, May,
'. of the Mosouito Indiana, the extended jurisdiction
ana limit of toe ttalue, and the colony of the
Bay Islands, and thereupon proceeds by implica
tion to infer, that if the stipulations of th treaty
be merely future in effect, Uraat Britain may
still ountinu to hold the rontested portiona f
Central America. The 1 nited Slates cannot
admit either the inference or the premises. We
steadily deny, tliat, at the date of th treaty. Great
Britain bad any HMsMions there, other than th
limited and peculiar establishment at the Bulite,
and maintain that,. if h hod any, they were sur
rendered by the convention.
This government, reoognixing the obligation
of (be treaty, has of course donited to) see it exe
cuted in good faith by both parties, and in the
discussion, therefore, has nut hoked to rights,
which we might assert, independently of the
treaty, in coai leration of our ireoirranHical ni-
tion and of itther eirmmstannes, a-oich erea'efor
uvrelations to tle Central American Stit, dif-!
ferent from those of any government of Euriq a.
The brtiish governiuent.iii its lastoonimuiiica
tinn, although well knowing the views of the
toiled Stami.srill deolarei thai it noes no reason
why a conciliatory spiri. may nut eimble the two
governments to oveivone ail obstacles to a satU-
tacrory adjustment of thesuhject.
Assured of the correctness of the constructicq
of tlte treaty constantly adhered to by this gov
ernment, and renolve l toiusi-tbn th rights of
the tniied States, yet actuated also br tlie same
destra, whleh is avowed by tin1 Krii'sh aovevn.
ment, to remove an cau.c ui'erimis misiiiiuVr
staading between tbe two nation associati by
o many ties id' iuterest and kindred, it has
appeared tome proper not to consider au amicable
solution of the controversy hopeless.
There is, howevor, ruason to apprehend, that,
with Great Britain in the actual iccupation of
the disputed territories, and the treaty therefore
practically null, so fir as rejrards our rights, tlii
internatiinal tlifictdty ounnnt long remain un
determined, without involving in secious danger
the friendly relations, v hich u is the interest as
well aa the duty of I Kith countries to cherish and
preserve. It will afford me s.no-rs gratification,
if future efforts shall resuliio thosa mess anticipa
ted heretofore with in oro contidoiKte than the as
pect of th case permits in now to entertain.
State not being discontinued, and th disclosure J nch measure as may appear to h required in
of th fact that they were fmneruteJ npon a sva- assert and secure the rigbm of the CnV
tematie plan devised bf nflwal authority ;frlhat ! ted Stales, so far as they are affected by Uip re
recruiting rendexvoos had been opened in mir tensions of Denmark,
principal cities, and depot for th reception of j ' rBAViB.
recruits established on our frontier : an I tl. v snnollIie, with much mtincatiiw. that since
whole business eonducte.1 under th suoerv,si., I lU j.mment of th last t ongr. th ques
and by the rsrular ,-erati..n of British officers, . ,io(l ,ien lM(e ,,; government and
rivil and military, some in "oNnf'j! A"W';?n i that of France, respecting the French consul at
nrovtnces. and some in the 1. in lea Males, 1 h : u:.. .. ...,:.r......:i o,..i
complicity .nf those officer in an undertaking, KnA tim rtl(! f ,10 vr
which enuld only lie aceoniplshed by delving
our laws, throwing suspicion oanr mir attitude of
neutrality. and disregarding our territorial riuhts.
is conclusively proves! Iy the etideuc rtM-iteiion
c-intiiiti to be of the most friendly nature,
A question, also, which has lieen pending for
the trial of such of their nients as have Wen a-' severnl years between the Cniied Males and tlte
prehended and convicted. Srfniiif theonK-ers thus Kiiigdoui of lireece, gfowing nut ofthe sequcs
implicated are of high official position, and msov ! trainn by pulilic autiiorities of that Country, id"
nf thetn beyond onr jurivlicim, so thai Icjrtl prei-iy In -lunging to tho present American eon-
proeeivtinjes eiMtld not reach the so r.-e iH me ui ai .i;iei,, .m i no-n nao neon ine unjr.-i
n verv e.ifnest tiisctiseion ticrefoTnrc. nas reecnv
ly been settled t,, tho satisf:vetinn of the -party
ititerwetcl and of b tth govmineots. '
With Spain, peaceful relations are still main
tained, and some progress has lo-cn made in se
curing the redress ot wrongs cioni'Uiued ot by
this iiotrrnineut. Sisiin has not only disavowed
and disapproved th cofiduct of lb officers, who
: n i .. 4 a-,-. 1 .l.- . mM,.i,
.,, , . , , . i... niv4 lira u.Tw.oiTTii iiv ricnmn ...v
ill lie communicated to von in do tone. t,v ., ;... 11. 1 .. k.. ;j il..
I'tley, l lerk
August and November. Jeff.
LAairmaa of the County Court,
County SotirltorK. P. Marriott.
fikeriffof Wake CoMjr-William II. High.
Coroner Willis Scott.
Hr jitter. II. llutson.
80 clear was this understanding on the part of
the United Stntes, tint, in corrp nidonra cod
L niponuieous with the rntificutlon of thconven-.
I lion, it was d siinc ly exp'-ewed, that the mutual
! covenants of n n-s-.-uoation were not intended to
I apply to the Itr.ti.h establishment at the Balixc.
BANKS. ! Ihi" qualitiiati.in is to I ns-rilted to the fact
flnnlr of the Slate of North Carolina, incorpn- I "'at, in virtiio id successive treaties with previous
ratwi ir.hi. ttianer expires in itMsi. t annul 1 "i ine couotry, ure 11 Hritain bad ol
1,.VK),IKI, divided into l.i,(XXI slmros-of n hi. I
the Literary Board hold o.H'JT apd the Univer
Principal Bank nt Raleigh.
(ieorge W. Mordecai, l'rmidciit.
Charles llewev. Cashier.
J. 11. Bryan, Jr.. Teller and N. t iry IV!, He.
W. E. Andersou, Discount I'ivik una Notarv
Jordan Wout'de. Jr.. V Icrk.
Ttiis B iuk lis lo-ancMcs at Xcwii-rn, T.irbor,,
laineu a coiicessrin or the right to cut mahogany
or dye-woods at toe llalize, but with positive ex
clusion of nil dnmiiUion or sovereignty ; ami thus
it confirms the naiur.il cunstruction and under
stood import of tiie trt-itv ns tonll the rest of the
region to which the sti; ulati.ms applied.
1, o 'e ctit, ucc
One ntber subject ufdiscussion betwoen the
t'nitcd States andtireat Britain has gmwn out
of the attempt, wVit-h the exigencies of the war
in which she is engaged wiih liussia, induced
Iter to make, to draw recruit from the I nited
It is the traditional and settled policy ol the
t'nitcd State o maiiituin impartial neutrality
during the wsrs, w hich frhm time to time oocur
auioog the great powers ofthe world. Perhiruiiog
all tlie duties of neulruliiy lotvardsthe respecttivc
belligerent states, we may rcasi,nahlvexpc.t then:
not to interfere with our lawful eojovnieut of its
benefits. Notwithstanding the existence of such
hostilities, our citisens retain the individual right
to continue nil their urct,tuei pursuits, by
land or by sea, at home or abroad, subject oulv b
such restrictions in this relation, as tlie lass of
war, the us.te of nations, or speital treaties, may
impose; and it is our ivere gn right thai our
territory and jurisdiction -hall not be invaded by
cilher of the l-elli-cvren? parties, fur the transit of
their armies the op-mil ,11 of their lleeta, the
levy of troops for their seriics, the Uttiuc out'f
I crosier by or g liita i 1 her.utj iuy fier act or iuci-
Tliose considerations, and th fai't, that the
cause of complaint was not a mere casual (s
corrence, but a deliberate design, entered mum
with full kto-wlcde of our laws slid national pol
icy, and e 'inlncte-l l.y resfsmsihle pntdio fumv
tionaries, iui'ielled tiff to present the case to the
British government, inorderto secure, not only
a cessation ofthe wrtn-' but its ro-iration. The
ubieet is still .umier dtscasseio, the result of
I repeat the reco-nmenifaiion submitted to the
last Congress, that pr 1viss)'l,; Ior tf
ni-iu or ...io..; ..i -iii-r, in connexion with
lire it Britain, to snrvey and establish th Isuin
d.i y lino, which divides the Territory of Wash
ington from the contiguous British possession.
By reason of the extent and iuitwo'taiiCe of, tho
country in dispute, there has beea imminent dan
ger nf collision iHitween the "subject of tlrcat
Britain and the citizens of the I nited State, in
cluding their respe'tivo authorities in that quar
ter. I lie prosii'ct id a speedy arrangement has
contribute 1 hitherto to induce on btl: sides for
bearance to asers by force what each claim as
a right. C uitimi.i-i, e id' dniay tin the part of the
two governments to-act in the matter will in
oreasi) the dangers nnd difficulties i f the ountro
versv. Misunderstanding exists as to the client, char
acter, and Value of the possessury rights of the
Hudson' Bay Company, and the property of the
Puget's Sound Agnciiltoril t. tenant, reserved
111 our treaty with ijrcat Britain relative to the I
Territory of () -e ron. I have reason to lslior I
that a cession of the rights of both coaipanie to
the I. rule, 1 sines, wmuh wool I lie the readiest
means of terminating all questions, can be olc
laine-1 on reasonable terms t.an-l with a view to
this end, 1 present the sulcet i tlie attention of
Th e d ny nf Newfoundland, hirvirij eritietcd
thp laws required bv the treaty of th 5th nf June
164, is now placed on thesauie footing, id. res
sped to commercial intercourse with the t'nitcd
St Has, a tlie other British North American prov
inces. Th commission which that treaty eiuvem-
plated, for determining the rights of fishery in
rivers and mouth of rive.'s on the coasts of the
coasts of tho I'oitr 1 r'entes and the British Prov
ince, ha been org mixed, an I h is commenced
its Inh rs ; to complete which there is needed
further apprupri iliotis for the service of a'no'lfer
.' !- - . - .. I
th pane of th settlement In tb Territories rsf
llregon mmi "9'asliingtoa is disturbed by hostili-'
itiea oa th part of tb Indiana, with Indication
of xtniy combination of a hostil character
among the tribes in that quarter, the vnr so
rioa in tbeir possille efTert ly reason of th
determined fc.reiga interest existing hi thoss)
Terriloriss. In hich yonr sttrrtK n ha sbeady
been especially invited. IfFcient sneasure hsv
been taken, which, U I believed, will restor
quiet, and afford ptotertinn to jotir eitixer.
Ia th Territory of Kansas, ther 1 hav besm
acta prejudicial to good order, tut a yet Bon
have occurred under rirrunittsncrs to justify th
interposition of the federal Executive. That
eouldonlyte in case of 'i nstruction to federal
law, or of nrganixed res'wtsnc to territorial law,
assuming the character of insurrection, wku a if
it should occur, it would be my duty rnouiptly a
overcome and suppress. I cherish the bin, . how
ever, tliat th orcurreurof any uh untcwarw
event will be prevented by the sound sens of th
people ofthe Territory, who, by it organic law,"
possessing the riht to detertuin their own do
mestic institutions, are entitled, while deporting
themselves peacefully, to th free exercise of that
right, and must be protected In the enjoyment of
it, without interference on the part of th eifixn
ot any 01 the States.
Th southern boundary lire of thi Territory
wloi'h that deiiemls. j nos never neen surveveti scj estnmu-nea. tna
The priucrple that all-money not required f-r ! rapumexteiiding setllcniei ts In tbnt"igion, and
reader it scarcely possible for any ooneidcrabl
fraud on the part of those aeents, or neglect
involving haiard of serious nublic loss, to escape
detection. 1 renew, however, th recommenda
tion, heretofore made by me, of th enactment
of a law declaring it felony on the part of public
officer to insert false entries in their book of
record or account, or to make falsa retains, end
also requiring them-on'The termination i f their
service to deliver to their successor all books,
recorda, and other object bf a public nature in
Deriveil a- ourpublie revenue is, in chief part,
from duties on imports, its magnitude afford
gratifying; evidence of the pmsperity, not only of
onr commerce, hut of th other grcoT interest
Fsvetletille, V ilnmiii.
totte, M It. in, M rtuto
II , T-
rorNu i.i ia.
I In pursuance of the authority snnfcres-l bv l
atter eoleiii.e c ,,n il. ,i;H..l,.-.. r... - ueni in sr. nn'i uirw uinu-uiaoie ricms 01 ,-. , , . . r , . . . t
t en, ,' lir , B -i15, . P "I neutrality, iu-lividual and national, the I nited rd..t.i,..fth S.atef the I ,.,l. . S.uies !
Z I Zir I', s , . rr " a I""' "i'tv b U,"U' " ci-nistances.urrnlor. I -' , J'T'1 F-U 1
1 ,11 tbst l,rV,(T,l Z . ""'""'y " put.usnce of thi. p dicv. the law. of the I 1 k' "n,!" U'i"1' !'."' 'j"1 ''." ;
; c le t c' , , 11I I ' 'V" ' "V S.:.t". do not f r.;..l .heir ci.i.e:,, ,b sell "... g -vcrnmvn. J(. aya -If f the Mipirci-
, line 1 i,i 1 ...(u.i,, , . a... no I cve..n- tl.e n.. ,,, . . . ...... .. tion ..f the .ti!i..tn ' c mvc; ,,11 ,.t fro. .......
.11 o-l l h.c.l ; that she rcgi'dl-d II
h'-r a. dilute -I m i 11, and w .n cj-aduallv
in;; it- !:mits at l,e exj,ei.sc..f tlie Sta-'
lor i- : I th it .l,e h id f.r.n.iHv cci
i,s dei -ible 11 -ui .r gnu. p l.uown us tlie Bay
l-l hi b. ii-c I. c.tig ii. . t riiit, :u ili.it S-o e.
.Ml ll.e-i- !ti- or 1 rcti-n.io- s of (ilent ll.ils n.
1- t- u.1,1.,. if ... k .. !'r-g
mvt-.siiiiei ii 1, nvrt trr rt:p Tna iilcsi icimr oilier T P ,. , 1 .. .. .
l. ....... 1 , . . 1. ., , ,, , , ,JWsy. o:d-K.miioai!iJ- oinl .amis-mail .Imma,
e-ipuiu'.on vrrti Tfic I te'TXates. as under- i ., r, . e.i
. 1 1.. .1.;. ... .1 . . .. regardless ol the de;iniioii of thos aruelcs.
. .. . .,j ..... h ",,ij, ,, u..n oi-cii ii.auv mr
Mihjcci of begun ition ihiouch the American
M 'luster in L nd.-n. 1 traunud herewith the in
nti octioiis to 1 i tit 0.1 he subji-et, and the corres
p ndence beta ecu Iniiiaud the British Secreinry
f r Foreign Alfi;r-. l.y which y-u will perceive
that tba two goiernuiciils differ widely and irre
rcu.cile it.U as 1.1 th" construction of the c inven
tion, and iisetfcci on their itspe.-lite rlations to
. tireat Britain so construes the conventi.11, as
to i.iainlaiu.uiicl snged all her previous preten
siomorer the M .u.o.to cwt, sud in d.Tcreut
partsof t'clril .Vuicri.-a. The preleusioii,as
to tlie Mosspii'o e. a-t.!af f-.ui.dejon tiieusauiui
lioo of tHihttral lulalion l-twren (ireit Britain
and th remnant of a tribe of Indians ou the
cuist.eiitrrrd iotu at a nine when the whole Coun
try mi a rutin a. p. ion of Spain. Il can
not 1st suerewfully controverted, that, by "the
public law of Kuro and America, no H.il,lo
act of uch Indians or their pn-decessors could
corner on ureal Hritain any pdilical rights.
tireat B.iisin l.-es n..l allege th assent of
Mimin as the oriin ofdier claims on the Mos-iuilo
euasi. Sb hi., -n th e.aaran, by repeated and
acoessnveue.l.es.isii. uneed and relui.Uihsd all
prs-musioiis 01 arrow n, and reeogulieil lb lull
and sovoie gu right of Sin in lb most u:ie
quinsral terms. Yl tin pretensions, . with
it solid foundation in tint beginning, and thus
r!eateaiy aijure.J.s at sreisnlriJ.ret.vr J
by tireat llni.ia against th Central American
Sales, th legiiimai sureesaurs to ait lb ancient
jurisdirti.sa of Sstia ia that region. They were
art appiM-a umy to a aennetl jsirt of tb uaat
of Nica. 'uo. afterwards to th whole of iu At-
lanli a.id lastly to a part of th roast of
Carta K.oa ; aod ilwy ai bow reasserted ta tbia
xtent, nolwilhstaieJior agagemeul W tb
I' nited rkatea.
Oa Hi eastern roast of Niearairu and Cota
Rica, th interfereiii- isf tireat Brilaia, ttwacli
exerted at at time ia tb form of Military orou-
palioa of lh pt ul Saa Juaa dsl S-nm, laoa la
Ihs peaceful .se ei of In api-ropriet author
ities of th t'eatral Amrii-n Mate., now erw-
ssslml by her a lb figbifut rssrss-sof a prut-Ms-ship
over th Moeqa.t. trib d Indiana. 1
But tb a.taUi.huiei.1 si IU Bali, now reach
ing far beyswiid iu treaty basil into (i Stat U
lloi.dor.s, and that uf i Bay isUnd., apper
taining of riftil le thesasn Slat, ar as disUactly
eohsjil.l gxTsrusse.its a thos tsf Jamaiea or
t'sesds. and thTfur. contrary to In very latter,
aa wll eatL apiril uf th eostrnliua ilk II 4
t ti ited Stsns, a ii as at tb I ius uf rautratioa,
aad auw K aaderstoVri) ' y this s?ernaM.
Ta intarpretalnja sLhIi Ihs Biilwa stsrs
ssssst tba tn as.snioa and act, persist ia
aaasribing tu lb eontme, entirely dsaagM iu
sharocier. Mbit it bolls as iu all usr sU'rv
tbsaa, k la a great ssor rslvassj. Ii sssl Biiiaia
friMa tie's., wh.cb esitstiiBtrd lb soeetdsirauosi
f Ibis pe.svtia.ent f. sitrniig o.l tlx e"vet
li'i. II I iapsMilJ, in asy ju'lirmssil, tna
I aitssl Stales sn arqsnes. in socs a ssssstructsisi
4 Its rvsissetir rsUli. li uf tl Iwofoswasaeai
s t ssitral Asssclca.
Ta a raaad e.ll by thi r in went np
Craat Bfits.n, to ak d by, aad carry into 8t.
th stipvlsll.of lb csiavMitksl a'suidiiig W Ms
bvbm maport, by anhdraa.i g fr as lb
. esd ssiaatisHa tsf HsriSHa of lis t eniral
Assetaess Histe sf II .ador, hHrarasaa, and
l'.sta Iter, lb llnissb C'sevusseel ! si htogtb
repbsst, aslriin( thai tins pvaika f ibalrsssty
Is pcii""li ly, and dvd a ot reqnira Ureat
Brtiaia so s I1 s. 'sV.si sstlrsst any pi.si'H
bM by bar ia t ssiiral Aartrwa at tb data f it
Tin reply wibsiiiia a fani.1 lassta, ta its
piss af I gissHal s- psaul by Us I a.'4
Naissx. Ta U 11 msi gnmsssai suss was- tb
nas a sf lb tljl.u uf (irsssi iW.la.a, real
j 1 . ks I'ssiiral Aoaxbss, aed ai an thai
mi m bad t a ngkt at tax asM 4 last trwsly, aad
Ileal taSBf nhi ssprL4d tb o...tsbl
On '.lie 1 .1 1
If Treasurer, 1
On the part .1 the .t -c.'.
Win. Peace, J. II B-j in.
freJ Jones and B, F. M- in.
tlfferiuit and KctH--.. ai d
Diwoiiot d iv li'e.1 .e. I., .'.
"""DomVstie Bdi.'aiil WMfi:Z
ltusiuess hours from 10 till 2
: l. W. C
I) B. Btuu
I ler : Wm. lb.
.1. B. Ii. U 'oitoi
tratiauo oiw.ii.orio lite ni.icitu.iis otuoir.,,-
1 sol Iters iiji b r.i'd ihcir private I.m. fur . .
i tuii 'ii ; and sl.ii nigh, iu 1.0 d i 1, the iiidiv .ii.al
le:licu eX)..l.es hi. pio;,erty or person to some
' ui tii" luiia d of war, hi.u. ImI. not iuvol.eaui
! hri-ucii 1 f u.itioir.1 netiiriliiv, lior.ar thei.iselv. s
! iiiitiliuite tiie c;oci-i.u.ci.t. I hu-, .lu.'iiig the
;r-s of the pre.-ei.t war lit kar.ipe. our viu-
riAiTJe TT-,' o;l:t
Italrtjh lira if It 0 the Hank of tli
iliiain 11. Jooes, 1 ashler.
K. P. Finch, Teller an I Notary Pul lie
Uisri'toas. Ileo. W. li.ivw.-oil, I. II. St-lby,
Seth J ones, t ieofe Little, ib. lies.. 'I.-;,-,
and C. W. D. Iluubius.
Uicriag 1 ly Mmdiy, Discount day Tuestloy
Haifiqh and tlaston iittittad i wmysisy.
f.. A. t'rudup. President, j
W. W. Vasa, Treasurer, ,
J. M. Pisd, Assistant Treasurer.
C. B. Alien, iep.it Agent,
Mail train leaves 10 unuutes after 7 A.M.,
amies at tl I. M.
VW Curulimm liailromd Cesssiajr.
Cha. F. Fisl.er, lreideut.
C. V. Meudeuhalt, Treasurer.
J. T. Wssa, Freight and Tn kei Agent.
Mail tra a arrive 4 o'chn k. A. M., In.m the
tmi Bud departs llm. after iu'vhs s, A. M.
Mail from th Wst arrive at 3'i minutes af
1st 4 a'eluck, P. M, Departs at 0 minu'cs be-
lot 6 o clock, I'. M,
Williara Whit, Sr.. Poat Master.
Otaoaauura, aa week day. Iruta Sun-rise k 9
TIIAVELLER S GUIDE.
(ssaivtL ab nirstrta or nsiu ar 1 ilsiob
NORTH F.KX MAIL (By RutaosB.)
Tkroaith Mail Um daily at I) a. u
Way Mail " at t p.
Arrive daily at 6 p. m
Th Car Uav th detsut at 6 a. ni
801TIIF.UN MAIL Br To-B..a. IIms,
Ta Has sbbvm at Tip
W KSTtRX MAIL (Br Rmaoaa,)
Cloe daily at f . m
Attlta doily at dlj p.
Th Tra.a Uva at i p. 1
OOLDSBOKO'M AIL Br Rsiibosb.)
0.a daily, at 9 p. I
Arriva daily at 5 a. I
Ta Cart bsava daily at lOnt altar t a. 1
TAKBORU' M AIL T-uas II a.
CVsssMsaday.Tissi. aad Tho, a 0 p- 1
Arriv Tasaatav, Itsra. aad Sal., at 7 p
llarkssavsssM Si as. Hed and I ri , at I a.
riTTMBORO)' MAIL Br Tasi-asa lltra
Cbssaaisa Tasi lay aad Aatanlay, at 9 p. at
Arnvsaaa Maaday and Thursday, a 7 .
IJatk bsavs a tsoa. and 4. atonst 7 - a. as
HpUndid Stotk ofOOwtta!
7 1 r mm rssatrlat lbs tsrssm sw ml
1 I smsI fWy aba f
at J p. m
at 6 p. n
Our uiereliaiituicii have been, and stilt continue
to tie, lurcly rioployed by liroat Britain and by j
V ranee, 111 traunp .ruiig troops, pruviMoua, and
111111. in- in ol war to the principal seal of military
.titration, and in bringing houie tbuirsiek and
Bounded soldieis ; but such use of our men-anlile
mar iie is not in s: dieted cither by the interna
tional, or by our municipal law, and ilurvfot
docs not c iinprouiil our i.cutraj relations wi.h
But our municipal Uw, in arc danc with the
las of ualions, peremptorily f .rbids notonW for
e goers, but ..urown eiiisons, u fit out, within
the hunt of th I' nited States, a vessel to com
mit hostilities agiiost any State with which th
I nited States are at peace, or to increase the
fore of any f.reigu armed vessel iuts.idcd for
such h.anlitie against a friendly Slute.
Whatever con. ern u.ty have been felt by either
ofth bellierant powers lest prii a' armed cruis
ers, AY other vessels. In Mi it.cof oar, aught
be Sited out In th port id this otssntry to dce
red it on the property of theu'.l.ers.all such fears
ba prot.l to be utierlv groundless. Our citi
xeus list beeu wilhiisld from any such act or
purpos by food fasti, sul by respect for to
Whil th law of th tn sn are thus peremp
torily in their pr diilnt on of th eifuipincnt of
armament of Lelligrretit cruisers iu oar port,
they provide not less absolutely that no rson
shall, within th territory w jurisslirtiva uf th
tailed States, aoliM or eu!r bim'lf, or retain
BtMslbar person to Hlit ar nter himself, or to
go beyond III lias. Is or jurtsdicl on of th tni
Isd htat with iotenl to u enlisted or mtered.
la tba asrvie of any rorviga Mala, citber a a
dtr, ar a a atarina or seauaa oa Usard of
I aaiiius ial esse hs sseisass la
si-a, aasl Wf soiss Ut axjlH easvtwl.y tbsy
s " ol s IBs mmm s ler.1 Wl H.
xxira, tlT.aia aali.Bllui .a.
-rW ks, Umtrf W
t . I
-;, I f tesjiss
La 1I asr ssk ssvm. UW Cots 'Us, la.
I'll litlsWIsw losiytSet
. L. It As
tW 1 1 nM si I
amsst mmwmm (rsss
vhlc'i, :i!tll. u'l. It doc 1
PiiTfeiT 'S'tafcs Tr 'mi bioTt'
co'irii'fA, an 1 nail nation l.e'w-f.ii that Ii
j ..-in and theCnitc.J St.-ites, veh.O'.-l.y cither t-ai-l
iiiioi, imei iii tv io, ii i.,ioi-.'c io.j caoii' ui
1 the expiration of .hum cat- from the date of notice
, fir that purpose. T
j I'Jie co-is. deration which h-d me to cull tly
I attenti .u ol I' iirc-s 1 1 that coinen i'.n. mi l 10-
dm c. the Sen. lie to a-1 tot the resolution reicirej
to, slid rontiioir in foil I', r.e. Ti e couvcutlou
c .nhi'its an art id
crrTyengi'ge v,i- x
thi inipo-iiion nf tdl. 011 tlie ie-eU aji l e ir- es
of American parsing int . or l.-otn the Kiltie -0.1
during the en. linu incj of tho trc.itv, yet may.
by possibility, la. c.nsituel a iiuplyiiis such
suhmissioii. The exaction nf ihoe bdlr n d bo
in jnstifi 'd bv any prim- ph. of in crii.iti,.i.r.l
l-ia-, i; became the right and the duy of the
I r.itel States to ulieve tl.e:ii-eli e. fr .in tlia iui
plic.it tin id' eoff:i-inant on tiie Mil.ieet, so as to
be iife-tiy f;cc to net in the preii.i-.es in such
way as the public interests and 1 .n. r shall de-inauJ.
boimed s t-aAM,,hv.f.,r tlie I. wis thereby inflict-
e.1 mi c. luuns id ihu L nited ctaio.
In conse uence ol a destructive hurricane which
visited Ctilm in IKH, th supreme authority of
that island issued a decree, rniitiiig the iui
purtn'.ion, lor the periml of six months, of certain
building materials and provision, free of duly,
but revoked it when about balfth period only
hail elapsed, tothehnjury ofcittxeiis ofthe t'nited
States, who had proceeded to act on the faith of
that deere. The Spanish government refused
indemnification to the parties aggrieved until
recently, when it was assented to, payment being
pnuniseil to be iimdc so soon as theauiuuut due
can bo nscert lined.
Satif.uMion idaiiucsl fir the arrest and search
nf the steamer KI Dorado has not yet been accor
ded, but there is reason to believe that it will be,
and that case, with others, continues to be urged
on the attention of the Spanish government. I
do nnt nhuudon the lion of concluding with
Spain some general arraniremciit, which, if it do
not wil dly prevent the recurrence nf difficulties
in Cuba, will nendcr Cham less frequent, nnd
whenever they shall occur facilitate their more
Th interposition of this government has been
invoked by many of it citizens, on account of
injurie done to their persons and proiexty. for
wtitch t'ie Mexican republic is i-eipunstl.te. the
unhappy situation ot that country, for some lime
past, ha imt allowed its government to give due
consideration to claims of private reparation, and
lias appeared to call for and justify some forlspar
anee insiichmaticrsonthepartofiiiisg vertiment.
Bot, if the lerolutionary movements, which have
lately occurred in that republic, end in the or-
gantznfiun of stable rot eminent, urgent appeal
to its justice will then be made, and, it may be
hoped, with success, fur the rudres of all coin
plaints of our etiiien.
I'EVTUtl. SSI SU A.
InreVaidto lbs American republic which.
from tie-ir proximity and other considerations,
ba.e 1.1 eiiii.tr relation to this government, whil-
it ha been uiv constant aim strictly t observe
a'ltho obligation of p.dili. aHriei.d-hip and of
M"od 1-eiei.b -rli.s.il, obsiai Ius to tin hnve arisen
i;i s. me , I't'.eiii, fiseo door own losoffi.-iet-t wer
to c'.e- k la'vles. irrtii-tii.ns, n hi- Ii iu ctl'.-ct ti.r..as
iin.,1 1, is s.l ;. I it inoe..-v., . n.o-
ftie euriem expends of the government should
remain f .r active employment in th hands of the
peiq le. end the er.nspicuous fai't that the annual
revenue from all sources exceeds, by many mil
lions of dollars, tbenmouut needed for n pru 'ent
and economic:. I administration of publio nf.' i..s,
cannot full hi suggest the propriety of ah early
revision and 1 eduction of the tnriif- of duties on
iinnnrts. It is now. an generally conceded that
the purpose of revenue alone enn justify the im
position of du'ies on imports, that, in re adjusting
the impost table and schedule which unques
tionably rest ui re essential modifications, depart
ure from the principle of the present tariff is
The army durintr th nast year haa been act
ively engaged, in defending the Indian frontier,
the stat of the servic permitting but few and
small garrisons in our permanent fortification.
Ths avdiiioonl regiment authorised at th last
session of Congress have been recruited and or-
ganiien, ana a large portion of th troops hav
already been sent to th field. All the dutios
which devolve on the military establishment have
issen sail-luotoriiv partormed. and th dancers
ana privations inciuent 10 in oliaraoter of tno
service re 1 111 red of our tnwps have furnished ad-
illiional evidence of their eournee, xeal nnd ca
pacity tn mett any requisition which their coun
try may make upon them. For the details nf th
military operations, the distribution ofth troops
anil additional provisions require. I tor the milita
ry service. 1 reler to the report uf th Secretary
of War nnd the accompany tog document.
Experience, gathered from venU which hav
trnuspiied since my last annoal mefsave, has but
served to confirm the opinion then expressed of
the propriety of making provision, by a retired
list, tor uisal.lei! nnicers, and tor increased Com
pensation to th officers retained on th list for
active duty. All the reasons which existed, when
these nioasures were rewjinmended on former
occasion, continue without modification, except
so far as rircuu.slnnce hav given to some of
them additional force.
1'ii recommendations, heretofore mail fur a
partial reorganiiatioa ol th army, ar also re
newed. Tli thorough elementary education
given to these officers, who commence their ser
vice with the grade of cadet, qualities tlxm, to a
considerable extent, to perform th duties of ova
ry arm of th service ; but to gtv tb highest
efficiency to artillery require tli practice and
special study of many year j and it i nut there
fore, Isslieved to b advisable to maintain, in
time nf peace, a larger foroe nf that arm that an
b usually en.ph.ved in th duliea appertaining'
to the servic of field and siege artillery.' 1 be
duties of tli staff 10 all it variou branches
belong to th movements ol troops, aod th effi
ciency of an army in tli field would materially
depend U on th ability with which tba duties
arc di charged. Ii is not a in th oas of tb
ar illery, a spe iality, bat ruuire also, an
intisaxaa kMwldr of ill du'ie of an officer of
. into 1. ,,,,., 1 ciuimoii of tee e, anu 11 la not itout.teil mat, to cmplel
.Stole of Nie.1r.1gua has made it incumbent on me th education of an officer for either th tin or
t-. appeal in tin g . I laithof our eiti'en. tual.slain j general sta If, it is desirable that h ahall
from 11. 1 1 iv. ful iiitertciitii.u in its nlf iirs. and to i h'te served in bol l With this view, it was ree-
1 -o.t prc.eiuive measures .to the same end. i "inniniUd im a former occasion that th duties of
which on a m nil. 11 .cci-imi, bad th be.: result. ' an should be mainly perfotmed by details
in re-a.,0 ii.-i the ie-i.-c of ihe Mexicmi Stales of! ff"1" lh lino; and with conviction of tb advaa-
I remain of tba opinion thai the tnili-d Suite
might not to sul. mi' to tli psiment of th sound
due, not so much because uf their amount.
which is a secondary malls.', but becuu-e it is in
cfle 1, the rcogniii.in of the rihi of lienwark to
tiaol one of lh great maritime highway of na
tions as a cb.se, ssa, and the navigation of il a
a pririlcge for which tribute M ay be inissM;d
apon thus who ba oceasio.i louse it.
Thi government, a a former urease a d ne
lik lb present, signalise) it determination b.
maintain tiie freedom ut lie? set, and the great
natural channels of naiigatiou-. I'll Barbery
Slates bad for bmg time, enen e-1 lb paitueut
uf trilat fnua ll nauon., whoishi;isfre.tueiit-
lln Medit raiwun. To the Is-t ih-ruand of
sji h payment by lhc.11, th I nile I States, al
though suffering le by their depredations than
amy ct! r nstunis, retnrnrd Ui explicit aiwwor
tliat w prefer, ed wur to trll.ute, and I has opened
tb way I . tli relief of lh e mi mere of the
w- rld ri.ra an ignmainiiai tax, su hssg suImb it
ted to by to m oat p .wrful dsIkhis i4 Kun,.
It lb bib 11 ear uf iiavwenl of th S..nd dues
differ from that of tii triha (rmerly csssnejeil
.. the Karbary Sis'o-, still tlieir esacuon by
a un l I. .a er Culiforuia
ist it us.
Since the l.i.t scsi.ll ufConfressa treaty of
.amity, o.. 11. mere and navigation, and fr th
I sun siuler ot liigitive eriiiiiusU, with the kiugiban
of the Two Siciiie , a treaty of fricinlsl. if, coni
juicrcand navigation with Ni.tnragua; nnd a
eo:ivi ntioii i.f couiiuercinl lecipna-itv with the
i Hawaiian killed . m, have been In goliatrd. The
i l itter k.l.jfd ui and tiie Slate of Nicaragua lil
I also accedinl to a deolaratna., recognising as
. intcruatHHial rights th principle contained in
i the com eutii.n la-ta-is-n the I ni.ed State, and
llu.ia of the 'Sli i Juh, lrt'i-1. The- treaties
and out eiitiuu will be laid befoi th St nal ior
any vsl-. wsr, tetiar ( sssr-ju, ur prtvaieer. 1 ,.mark ha le. b.-1'er Cundaii-aa in right-
Ana mess w.awiwn mrw mwm in mrsi-s ssbiiotsN' I
ily with lhlw of not. ass, whioh devlar; that
osi stals has tn right to rai tri.ips tor land or
se servio in sauliMSV stats without iu cnaseal,
ad that wbsibsr forbiddea by th amai. il
law or aot, tb vary attempt to do h. wilh,.l
sack auassnt, I ta attack oa th aational auvar-
Husk being tb pal.lis right tnd tb munici
pal Isa of lb I uilrj States, no s..lh ilu.U . tb
subjert wss catrtained by thi government,
a hen a year sine, tb BriiUh Parliament taassad
aa act la pn.vid I lb nltsissent of furKiir
ia th aiilitsry sstrtUauf tireat Britain .Sy la
in oa tb isc f lb act.or ia it puUi bi.iory.
indicatssl that Ut Bnush Ibtemsaant prpswsd
to allenst tss-iullsavl.t In lb l nilaj Sum; Bur
did it tta gir ibliasalsoB of u.-h isilanliua ta
this nrwasent, Il ws ssaiuv af aarisrsse,
ibsrvlor. w Lad, rul-equei.tlt, thai th augag
Bsent of perstss wilhia Um I sued Si ale t. pro
ceed in llslif.t, ia th Hritish PriHiiiieoisf ua
-utia. and tUr enlist la ta rvi uf tireat
Bmaiu, wo going ua ileo.ivlr, with lull ur
a disgaiaa, tMd.ua 7 legal step war iasas-
Ka.-li was, ia its or uis, mrfhine Isat a tai oa a
e-ai n natural nglit, nlorled by th. who
wet at tliat livn aide to i.Uirutt lbs frr and
secure si joymtntuf it, but lib no I a.gr ft
seas that p.wsr. t
Itenmatk, while rWstinf imr aweetiua of list
fraeduta th" Baltic SoU'.d aod Urlti. bos in
JicanJ a reosliiM to msks iur new atrang
asent oa th suttjet, and bos iuiiied lb ti v
tnavent mteiasis-1 invluding lb I nitd States,
to bv r; ntd iu a eon .ii-i to 'assembbi
f.srtli puriejBSof rs.'eiiing as.d aonsi-leriag a
propisiiior., which si '.i.tesds tusalonit, f -r th
sp U.ita iua saf lb f.uud du., and lbs) Ji.ire
bull. Ol ui tb Mas to ba lst, a MHsna'ati'
aasiHii tn govomwent., autsirdingtu lit rasucse
11 s proportiusvs uf their naarttim .eatssss a to
sod Iroa th lUlrla. I bars aeelinai ia Ubsll
.4 th failed Su la to ataais! ibia ns italic lor
tb ssost wal ris. Ontsitha IswBsark
due not uder to sainail a to rtii ! tb
qu4Mtiia uf br rlrbt to bny lb K-soad dies. A
sswund U, thai if th eiilt.sn ar albiwed
. lak anguiaaaca ssf tost awtewlv aae-tosa.
sllll it would not bawpsiat to dsul auk lbs
diatelv takea In arrvst and nubuh r-snisw sans. . i. : t ..... i .... j. 1 .ill .-
twrasr.), and o pal a 4 tw acts lufiinxiag lb (wU lu4 ! MUv .a-c. ,sf aaaigau. and
ssualcil law and devogat-sry to owr suaereigwir. j Ba,rti lisel ass. as wli a. that sd mm a.
ekil haM rsiuti. r. ... tb .ui, , IM uitw. At. cis ell. by ta . MM .4
Jeet wv addrenrj 1. lb Betl.k . oeraateaL j acuusilbsa Us 11 aeaspl.ted mat th
Tkear. It bsVam kaowa. by lle adwi-ssoa .Ursai. .4 lb Mad doss shall a nssu 'd
f lb Km: Is IsesrssMsi itself, ll.st th atesst with, a4 atdssibirlia. In, a atatuse aa-d'y
W draw reevB.i. fr.ow tui airy ovigve!s ,Urlm tb UI.sk. U i sso,.M. g.
anh it.' at las't b I Its (u.ovaJ aad sseet.os.. I tt ,4 i;,,,..,
Tli stnten.rnt nnd, in my 11 aunual mes
sage, respecting the suticip.lsl ret-vipt and
eipcn.litu.-s. of ilex Treasury, ba beeu saUsloa
tially icrit.o I. j
It appears. fr.an the repirt uf tb Secret ry ,4
ot th 1 reasuri , that the receipts dating t'w last
fi.cal year ending duo ill, KU, f.-om all oun-,
wer .xty -Ki uii'li-.n fhn tn oissiid nine hun
dred sud thirty dollars; and that the public
Xieudilure for ihs stme isrl.sl, exclw.ua iT
payment on see oiut of thenuhli debt ainoutitnl
to Mliv six minion three hundrsd and sixty-fit
thousand three buud.s-l slid uiiivtv-lhree dollar.
Dur.ug th sa.u period, th payments mail ia
rclcu. pitoii of tb public .h M, luclud. nr. interest
and premium, aoonutt'ed bi ai million ighl
hand red and tony Wmr thotsssuJ lit buiidn-d
and tuenly eiiit dollars. .
The balance ia lb Treasury at lh Istginnlng
of th prtMnt fiscal year. July I, lj.1, was
eighteen m.lli"B l.ioe hundred and thirty on
Ihonsand ulna hundred and seventy six dollars ;
tb taceitHB f.r th first quarter,end lis est im sled
receipt f ,r tb remaining- ito-s qusrla.ts,ausut
t g'-tl.er, lo sitty seven million n.U' hundred ami
etg'.tren llsas.ud seven buudred and thirty Umt
dollars; tbn affording, in all.aa tb atailsbl
feMiurce. id ties carreal i.el vesr, tb l..u of
riglity six million right handrr l and fitly six
th.Htsand astea bundrej aud ten dollars.
11, th aoaual eteu.nure isf lb fi r-t quar
ter of tb ramsl fiscal 1r, 1st a..el lb prob
abl xpiidilurws far tb iavint..g thre iuar
lev, a. eeliinaled by tbS riry ul tb Trwssury,
th sum Mat will lei ee.en'v ia. bs.IIumi two
hundred sod Iwetitv-s. x ll.oBssi.d rigbi bandied
and f.olv-sii d-dtars. lb- -l.t bstiing an e-l.iua-
ted balanee ia ties tleost, 5 tot July I. I fin, of
lfia albsa ail ayad-ed and iwmaty-lki
IMsaaaad -gbt bui.d'ird aad i'y-tbn) sb-llar
Bd bsrtyina ssh.Is.
I ties abo-a e.iat4 expewditarasi ml lb
piessml i-t-.i yaor ar wsduitrd tbrest null
dollars losses I llel iaast 1 aimer ed tba tea
snilisais praiidasl for in tb but tresis aiib
NetHsi, and ta asillsoa saiaq haa4r4 aad
fifty Ibses-aiol d-dlare ase.sr ed sen aerawnt
sf tb doisj .Iu t Tstoe, wbwb taw bbsbs sswk
sa sxirs-jf.i sa.M.. ,4 ten mtlboa eeseu bua-dn-d
and fifty tloitMasd d-.ili and rl.er ib
exns. -li.atas, a.-tw U er vl sssted. f ovbesry
OH-. ls .4 1 Its tear, te lb as of sstly w.,1
blues which would result from such a chsnes. it
tx again presented for Ui ooosidersUou uf toe
grass. ,. syr.
The rept.rt ofth Secretary f the Navy, here
with S'lbmitted, exhil.in in full Ihe naval opera
tions m in fst-t year, togctiier wnn tn prent
condition t tlie serynst, and it makes stiggea
timis uf further legidatiun, to which your alien-
lion I. invilfsi.
Th eon.trurtHm ofth six iteun frigates, fur
allien appropriation were made by the lost
Cisigress, iias peiveeded in the snut satisfactory
manner, and with saeh esfiedition, as to warraut
llilelief tliat Ihey will be ready for servic ear
ly in lb cj ming spring, lu.ponaiit as thi ad
iliti..n t . sur mils, fm.v is, it still remains ilia.l
eqiiji tilth ciMitingent.rxiget 1 ies of th pro
e.ti.m fifth exirnsive se eiust sud aa) con-BH-reial
interests of the Coiled State. In view of
bis f ict. and of tl e ack. uwledged wisiliau of ti e
policy uf a gradual and vs-ssnslic inetva isf II.
Bavy; an s p-i.pr si a Is ne.n men led f r th
Consirurtsa. utsti steam sb -pa of war.
In regard to lb .ei taken in exe.-qtb-a o?
tb et is C on ere- to pronvt the elh-ieney id"
tli navy, it is anneeesaary for oie to s.y i.i.s
than to exprvss irir ot i.currence in the olrr-vat-ons
im that subject presented by lb Secreta
ry in hi report.
rv t on n t. '
' It will b (ssrissiiril, by th rirt of lb Pnst
Master t'eresral, that lh grists xprtidilun of
the Urparluor.it f.sr th 11 fi-cal year was i.in
fcillbss ain hundred and sixty eight th o. sand
thre hundred and f'"ty two d- liars, and tb
gTisv rsiits .tn tuilli-sx thre bundrsd and
bsrty Ism thotiaaud on haadrrd and thirty six
dollar., sBakingaa csmi uf xpsaiilitufsM ever
rcei .t ol two aiillioa six hundred aad twenty
six thousand lw bnndred nd six d .liars ; and
Ibat lit f ns !". tutbwi during that
year a a sit bi.ndred and seirnty four Ih.Niaand
aiae hundred and fifty twod dlar greater than
lb previous tear. Much of th heavy expendi
ture.. In a hi. a iIk Treasury is tho suhisa ted, is
te l-s B-x'nti! to tl. htrjr. qaantity of ptioled
matter csatiejej by IM Mails, (liber frsi.kr-l. ar
lioide !! aa -t;s by Uw, Iu very low rates
ufpola,' .Hu'sars I with that chare 1 .01 tetters;
and bi lit gretl .! isf mail srrvie mm raili.ols
aad saaa f smers. Tb so 5-tioos of lb Po.1-aiastw-1
terra! on tie) subject dasarv lb c so
ssdsratiou uf Cuagfas,
11 aa loa,
T reenrt ofth Sscretary tsf th Interl. r will
.gag y r alteutMn, as Wrll a f asel.il ug
gessmns tl sssntaina, f.sftl.s inlet est sod iop r
laiere id ties ub,K'l to whk h they refer,
Tba Si'sTrsi assoool pul.lbf I n I s-.ld
the fact that the main rout between Indepen
dent e, in th Stnt tof Missouri, and New liexi
en, i contiguous to this line, suggest th proba-
biliiy tliat embarrassing question ol Jurisdiction
may consequently arise. For thee and other
con.ideratintis, I eomiucnd the subject to yonr
COKSTITl'TIOMAL TIIKORV Or TUI OOVIRXXINt.
I have thus passed in review the general tat"
of th tninn, ioelnding such particulur"eoncerns
of the federal government, whether of doniestw
or foreign relation, ss it appeared to me desirable
and useful to bring to the special notice of Con
gress, tnlike the treat state nf Furore and
Asia, and many of thos of America, the Uni
ted State are wasting their strength neither in
foreign vrtir nor "loinestie strife. Whatever of
discontent or publio dissatisfaction exists, i ats
trihutahli) to tiie imperfections of human nature, -or
is incident to all govi'rnmrnts,liowver.prrfeet,
which human- wisdom etn devise. Such subject
of political agitation, as occupy th public mind,
consist, to a great extent, of exaggeration of inev
itable evils, or over teal In social improvement,
or mere imagination nf grievance, having but re
mjtc eonnexioneB'ith any nf the constitutional
function or duties of th federal governments
To whatever extent these questions exhibit a ten- i
dency menacing to the stability of the constitu
tion, or the integrity of the tuton.and no farther, '
they demand the consideration of the Executive,
and require to be presented by him to Congress.
Before tb TJiirteen Colonies became a confed
eration of independent States, they wer associa
ted only by community of trans-atlantic origin, by
geographical position, and by the mutual ti of
common dependence on tireat Britiun. When
'hat tie was sundered, they severally aasuoted lb
?owere and right uf absolute ell-government,
'he municipal aad social institution of each, it
law of property and of personal relation, evsu
it political oreaniiatiun. were such only aa et 'h
one chM to establish, wholly without interfer
ence fr.uu any other. In the language of tb De- '
claration of Independetice, each Statu bad " fall
power to levy war, oonclad peace, onntraci alli
ances, establish commerce, and to do all other
acta and things which independent State may
o right do." Th several colonies differed ia
climate, in mil, in natural productions, in relig
ion, in systems of education, in legislation, and
in th form of political administration; aod tliey
continued to differ In the respect when they
voluntarily allied themselves together a SUM
to carry ou the war of th revolution.
Ihs ol.jeot or tliat war was to disenthral lh
Unit d Colonies from foreign rule, which had
proved to be oppressive, and to tfeparat them
permanently from tii mother country; th polit
ical result was tb foundation of a federal Re
public of tli free a hit men uf th euluniet, con
stituted a tbey were, in distinct, and reciprocal
ly independent State gov em menu. A fur the .
subject race, whether Indian or African, th
wis and brat slate, men of iliat day, btit.g en
gaged in no extravagant scheme of social ebang,
lett them as they wsrs, and thus presorted
themselves and tlialr puttrrity front the anarchy,
and th cvtr-recurtlng rivil wars, which Lai
prevailed in other retoluliouiicd Kumteaa clo
nics of America,
When the confederated State found it c 't.ve- - -r.ient
to (bislify tbt . ounditiuti uf lheir assocov
itiwnby giving to the gcaeral gutcrunictit diroul
access, m om respects, to tb paojil ul tn
States, instead of eon tilling it to action on Ilia
State as such, tbey proceeded to fram th ex
isting constitution, adhering steadily to on gui
ding thought, which was, lu delrgate only such
dun( ties fi.sl ysir. bwa'tl with military
, t.Vs 1 si a- ar r-aa I
bat il ae. appeared Ibat lb pal.iwj s reels m
(srl ia H bod "ssrtKssrat tnsieaeibsk" ass! w
Iwbua lis Bsunieipal law tsf tb tailed Slates.
It is d'Atal) tw uBders'a.-J ht It skotiU bar
Vt hiks, Bsrwsvarr, ijstiat 1 1, is prpa I 'not. and
InsMstm ea lb riif.il uf ftea traii.tl b.m and
Irssa llev Mali I baas niensl to lisatnark a
Willingnasst, mb ties ps't . f bel I aitd Isai, I.
ba app.Md thai tnvp ass Id aa raiavd acre ' share bbseally wila ibtr (b.e. ta ys-mi snas
by Ureal Britain, w 11 boast tadatssa sf lb avtv tiaf her f-r s.y adiantsgsa whssa imia-is
bmII law. Tb aauawUkabl at.as) M ia satill be. r dent iroa isl iss sss-U by
Uw aw la amrsst ! aissb s. t, abiuk Bf m. b tor lbs ha ,ievrassit on) safety tsf U- Bs.t-
t- fisti arast b iil.v la ttetwhsa af tb taw,
sw us sladiad vaseea tsf la 1 aad, ia sstbev alts, j
aaiiva, tn set as wuaid be sl.ks Ujamass la
tb si enaty T H I ones) rbalsa.
la lb sse..Mea. tb ssstssv arqaired ad.lt. b
aj m.ptspsiss, by lb rws. aiUasauj ia list ls4W4
nr laal a arrant.
aa4le ll his -mpls'ilsbr Sita iaiaeuiy-
b' sM.ltHat I I t.Be-iiel and fifty-ssvven Ihs
sand bsir bua-lral and Me si-rs ; of hob lb
ps)iioiasld ifteaii mills seaaat kntrd
and los.itt-t.iM lh wsil-d fit. in kdr I aod twsvs
f Mr acre-, yia'di.-t m riSs .1. si.bs of li'i
bi lie- heir baa lre-1 aad fb't tlsoaaand
L.r kuBiiad ul-maii. ii ihoasand abdlara. r.ee basetred exd ssjtty d-iUr. . Ikesasss pe
lbs. ui it .4 lb polo (del, at tb. ews.jn.4tf I nasi. 1-lU sailbesi ...est banarsj sv.d
aeM.eesoewt .af b swil k-eai s. was f I laewty rl rsss tb awsset e l. l i-tied and fiby
auli4i fit bai'dial aw-t nt.ifibepa tkwwaad , f mr acres hm los-s .an. ted t Uit, ia .iasidr
.11 ban Ire I ...d U.inv. . .b.lisr., ..d Jedse-IM-a j sii-n . I .f ,el-1 a ily sal jess) tosatty,
s.. a, ss.-f sale-vtiseal pavBsewi. ti b"t s l-liU sal nasal- ba bssra b-Mtjatt if U mmt
otdlisi.a tsf tba 'r Isral awerasiaisl resstaai.g k.
at Ibistisn ta bra tbaa f ty anllua d-tbtea, j Th f-ssatisr ret.ls-a ef tl- see-arsd eiera
T a reusMsHl tsf rev.!, .rfber gsrsnneul I mumt t tb n.irM i4 C Iambi readers H aa
shwkaetas tesiusg a. I. bt ad ed aset f any litre ! or taswsssiid y.-uf . ly H sa'r.L
tii.asBil sVdtase. lefenvd as b. a. tas aewx abt mm m bsiere. awa iii.r'e
u .ss.sda,i. U ts,s lass Misl. 1 Best ., sal' I I tl r-rs I t. lre atn
le U la ssl as ul M slil' "" ases wrwm. -
1 I sa M.( M-SH.M tMI ss a a .! B
1 ' - . .. . 1 . . ua . L.Mtai.1 ,r sts.ej. - - -----
gt. of ib Ns.i.4 -r Wel.s. s''SfMsiMfai ss., .r. f a. lu.l. l.y asa ta 11. r- . - t - mmLm. Isntsd lhr oa od g' -
1 lay bafor berrt ib. .oavlry d-w.asee.ls , m-mi l-a-s- s4 1 1- raw-w ae a-adaW 1 Bwd.ly tb It -4 H I rTLa.a . Wft la t-a a.
eat H.;Mi..t. e. ...Hi.; .....1. a.-, 14- ed. N.s.. ..,d.e- It.. tre.aw.ts f rr- bsJU- ...1 J lies-im. I. ".t CT,.
I It di wt-ewi. its-il l e saii-raeaty strana- t 1 -Ii sg-ai-. f.se.si a 1. II iwea w. e "t . . r- - - i .sisianrt . rrnl r " 1
seal U s. 1 ssk.iK I al ra Ball j la b-uess-l Ihil it bsa-k. swd laassss abl, . ibe ac e " "at . , , , , ,.( , , p U t-s t.MJ 1
aUBnUoB W tie ale)at, aisii l aissid.uv. tsf irfuisl m tl rs-, il.atas.t J sMtS.' ra arAs, 1 ii s.s - .j...l. Ut iv.n-, !
power a was necessary and pror to th stecu
tioa of specific purpesior, In other words, ta
retain as much as pcsible,eonsisl(iity witu iuia
purjaiMs, of tb independent power uf th indi
vidual Sute. For objects ot roainioa defence
and security, tbey intrusted lo tb general gov- 1
eminent certain carrfully-dfiud function, leav
ing all other as tin undelegated tight ofth
tcpatate iiidejudnt oyiigntic.
Such i tbceonstilutional theory nf our (ovem
nient, th practical obryne of which lis ear
rid us, and us alon, among modern republic,
through nearly line generations of time without
the cost of one drop of blood shed in civil war.
Vi ith freed um and cob cert uf action. It has ena
ble. I a lo contend successfully on the battle fi tl,
against foreign tare, ha cbnated th frehl o!
ni Into powerful Stales, and ba raised our in
do'tnal production, and our ctxnmsrv wl.b h
trai'sporte-ll.rm, loth leislof tbsri. best snd il
greatest nation af Fun-p. Aad tha s.in.irsl.l
a.laiaaiiun of our political in.tuutiotis to their
obtecls, combining h.-al telf got enia.eut l h
I sgitreg it strength has established tb prss-li-
eabilny of a gi.vemmenl bt ours to eovr a eon
ttiosnt with confederate "tales,
Th 'in.gr of th tailed Stales la. In eff.-.tt,
that Con greas sf .crvteigntiea, w b h h j i.s, aten
ia lli hd world hav sought iur. Vol - sl.l nv
tr aliaia, and wbich imparts to Amsriiw an n
rmi.ti. from tb wars, th aiolual im.-k.i.s
and yagu aspiratiims after th Isslan of p. B.vt
wfas-b ronvale fnoa liui tn liiaa tli gotert.
sneutt uf turop. ttur eu-upw alii act ioa ttsl
ia Hi conditions of peraisnrnt emnfsxlersl n pre
srriliad by tli ..B.titutiun, Our bal.ninf
..wsr is In tb rHirai resevifs rixhi.ol l!i
Suites, and their qaal tepiewntai ioa iti II . te
at. That indeyeodcnl sotsreijuty in s-y
ol th Stale, w lib its resenrd t.gbU of local
self gov cratuetit assured lo aacb by lli -ir -quel
power ia tb rsruair, was lb uiadsaseaiul
indite, tsf tb CO1..UIH1.00. H I'li'SIt II t!i
I ue. a wmild never bat vnsled. However ue
ir.ejs lb targ Sisles aiiibt b to re . i.'...s
tb go ert.met. I su as log. to tbeir I'li-uuti'-n
it. propurt.uttai we gl.t iuth eosune u e .ti-sl-.
llo-y knew II waa mq-soiiLls, unlns it ey e a
dedw. ib smaller oies sutlmri y so stri i-s at
hsael begaliv iofiorsie ea all lb sowste) f
th guysnii. a .1, ah tbey kgib.tii orrtsnitii,
thnaigh tbeir stual rrptescbthtHia in ibv f n-.-v.
ladred, lb btrgrr tsotie tiersaMlt is-uld re. I
h fsstrd la psirwiy. that tb aanre f .set w is
equally lessestry la tie-at, U trruri j 1
ttietruan a.-mestu-ia'str.1 sx "'I lb '-"'"
bsrr isf Ib general r-MrtiBt. laod. I
original ftlaua a rot lulu lbs f-eva.aiertit lesu
ua ib screed pretnies., isf tserimg tltsif
bkss sirwitb f M dsJsstew tef I wlw , an J
uf all its pane; bat of aiterty xludoig all rsp
bdi.y f reprssJ sry-" Kk ulrtM"l7
Iratod M.SMI JI lb wll.s., aetlbs ! Bn or .
Uks, B'r isrrm't. any snrr.- t,ot,t apon, or in
ter soedd ling ana, aa.sil.ar' rts-risd nsiMs.
tkkaeaks waa tbsraeM lesd-1 . 1 s leussr
r-gtai tsftbssraaai w J tpaly gut a-nwd
by ib asstitaujai bl. all b.ing bs.utst,
tbfs lixbu wat last.led ly H liwitsisa.f
tb aawar graatsd, ai d bt isr-eriii.as
f li power But greul. Iaibea aipa.'tuf nosa.
Tba. tb tteal awwer of taat-a was litaifa-d ta
parauat . f aiBBua dsfeite aad csaexal e'lara.
asladiag iet.earl pstrtaiii'( N in t.al lg.s.
bvioa td t assaral ttiao-, a .d .a -sb ps"!""
tsf gsaeral wallasa sad dese- wt at
i..ra. sb-asred Of sisesils ..". '
Msg at.ltsw teily of s.tssslefs1 IB ft . as