TU 1 . 1 - ! ,.!.- , 4 1 t A' it' If lit r "k .i.-v U .'He iiliiiti '".'l. T :.L ..i...!.. tlill nr'V( f!lt tJ (i feriwflw Believing, in the jp;iiTutlsu, altlsijiittortlio ? PtesHent, awl aware artioaoOavcrlimcnt.he vnll ftel itJifc xluty. p itMdo ci-cWafiuy which has been so freejy fikh schist tlie AluuftitratiOii, and via- iilrkfeiHtii eiltit3 JifetinaHe rieasurw. ' lie tjiiteU;Stcs JMoJ wi!bcJ checks and cridtScatjons asxpenence may nave, Mumu iu IA fitbr 5fwms thoiexcise of the power IjM&eriwi Iinjfrotsments by the general U T&rieS tit fro lugucst degree inexpedient: lipJieve ihat Ahed wtributioii : of large sums of ilJ' -pro- QiMiihiWca: distrus&d disaflectiorii a and will ifeyiitllfi aaA union to- sa V nothiuff of the rrifiptip'de)icy ofueh lrris!at:on. Against fatelifrhleh hag for its objft, the fostenog of 'tii jntfrepiOfohesectnia of our country at the xHlQnothfcr, the est Energies of jUiis papef ibe;4. V :" . . ; -;-I j$thf wiy'proprfcd doctrine of jNullificaj' W& wS siecry to say,tUatlu aIi;iU phases wr mobt settled .t4fi4IV.il'p!iwy,attl w such will lb coui-at fTiip. OiaorltNA Watgiima.v, Is puWiiheu ivelf ktlTtiric-lMltar per year, jki advance Li&UtiitiiaLi&iBen lire Counties ihore than kiMirivlitniiUistaat lnm Salisbury, and in oi .uwrptn will rje talen for lessjthan one rk IfAilectistng will $e,done a the usual rates. io'fiaQrijption Iwill be withdrawn, until arreara rfajrej paijl, ua!ess the JlZlUor cltooses.y : ' sutri6ci:'siyifi' the whole stitni in ad 4eanhave the VU thman at -$'20t lor onej 4iliaaUadvkrtced regularly; will he continu-j J;flicj4lrie a&s afterwards. ! t 4imicjfai to te Edifbr must te Post paid or jriwiiinotibe attendeti tot: ; - 4 a I -Pefsciiis Sddidinng-lHe. Editor on the basiacss 6vK Ofl: will address lain as Editor of ihd Aplimi If 4nwi---Those that write on Gtn- lK$meps can direct to ll. u. Jones j rllVL! till the subscHDtfeiis i taken before tliO eorrirrtrrielnent M this rJaDer, it will be retuem-f ried hecanic on the publication of the first 7j SIT Vol of the History of Englapd.by Hume; . ilifi4Je''T,v"l?ii3.- M- Co-)per's Spy tiiilfth ;Pijot,arteni ssihr frurn uiy Library, and u kjl4 u jfor two. or vtbrte years. lam ver nM 1W aeover; theso Books, the first jn par j ;.' ftlajr, 'ariii'Vrii y t&uiM,- any one to inform me .! P.iClb till liAIWi: 3 - - !;i!!4f ;r-1'H. '-i ;. ii. c. Jd.NES. be soB at public j sale, at the store f tif Milesfl Abernathy, near the Island iri Lihcolti jcouDty, on tho, 26th day of ary;lf33e;toly. yung Negro womaii lium Ctiitorerikldo. tkKlu) othe r artuh s "mt t iheiiile Of the estate of Eli' Perkins, dec. ifi wwcn a' . I : i it:a-jtiio tin tk ,m w given, oy in ?r bqnd wiiU; a pproveu security. ' 10HN&. ALEX. PKRKINS, . 3 1 T I ATE OF NORTJIV,CAUOLLN A : llAYWOQP COUTV.T-Suixjrior Court UwOctpber I'crm3. IJ 1SJ2. iliat.'di!ecn:-t. i' i lKezIah Gr?en.y .1' - l ' this ease it havincf been! made arocar to the laltwhithdj eourti'thatklie defendant Ke brripsidea i withojut the limits of thUStat, 4 tthe ihtiiiary jproess of the law can not pserypd M heit-l t isitiierHore, ordered by the Wrl atiiblicalidn ha oivleriiL the'Caroliiia A;UlchmaiiaH4.ih the 'Notth-Caroliua Specti Hid Westcrtliid vertiser the term of three 1 KthsriuoUfvinff tlie &feuani to br and's DDear . J iSijpriHCourt of Law to be held for the I .;nwjrwqqa at tne uourt-House in v f ylstviUf , tin the secorHl Tuesday after .tbje rtttionaay in arch next, then and thcr?.. to ad aiisWet ordeinur to the neiitiim tif th'n nti. fliy mtxiipro coitfiaso, wijl P fntcmi-'against pet ana decree made aecof- t W.itJiSjhCTrfered that the Editors of )or& -j'reo.uested. to forward tlieir apcrs - to: this' omce fUanng tne said tares? Test, JOIKS'B. LOVE.Cl'k. Mi?fbers-ar opening at the Coraer 4isUUay occupied :by Falls & Siawntud; Frrr r? lpfK! assortment of wil Of Which thev are determined tn cjll t i ti; tM.M:Tcr'-)4;efed at in this pountrv. : i hose 'disposed to purchase Rres invited to - call and-? jiukre for ves ?ohiga4keii,&U:o: I itefit 1 to instruct and to vleaxt Smufepfbre, with V zM ajid diUzonc set h;mr If WtUs worll;aml hfe UittarS himseff that th :!L4 itffiats 'it: Literature, ..Scienctf lririiltorc an, Commerce may be rnm)tet by 'Elufr Go?d morals aiitf refinement slmfi 4itwn W upUvd, and" atv ; the cruj SlW1? huyc:k. AVja il 1IV till' II LLLlJLltLLkLU 11 Ml Mil . ... ' -a..! -, i 40JTM l 1 . 1 J.1 !i i . 1 - 1 - l m .i .".j ' ," 1 " -. j?'jiy--Saturday, January , S 1 1 3S At tluj pijuest of several iJleblicarM, we gtve the pentiioents of M(." .1Iison; on the all aTjjrhlii jiestions that are n)w jengagingr pub lic attention. The .high sojiree ffVo hicti these opinions come as Well is llheir intrinac mjrlt, eatiie them to an attentive consideration. Mr. Mad;jn v.as'oae of he bjjy that oritrinat'ed thv Constitution, and a biem!fT of the Vifjirua Cunentian that adopted jit." le is ooo of those able Corahaeatatrs, whose wrUnga ftave thrown so much light on that insFnffitebt in Uie Feder41- iit and inay be supposed to l&ow as rell as a iiy? Other man io America the I meaning of dlspu- tea passages. . sTIiis publication is f rendered tfie ihore pre per,) because soirje of lr.; M'3 writings are s;met rnes relied on by th disunion party as f Jtvonng t jeif tene.ts; j., l 1 . j lt Jfr.JadismtoJIr.E.Etcrttti : 1 Mo:ttpelie,Adgust, lS30j 'Dear Sir , -. - : ' - f; rt lfl have duly received Ijrour etteri lnTVhIi yourtfer jto the "nulhfylng difetitne' ad vcaed ai4, consip tutorial Pghij by snie of bur i dtstib Oished fjlluw-eitizens; uid toithe pr.jceedirigsof tlw JMalitie in rJS and 'Oiijas appealed Win behalf of ihai doctrine; land yu express a wish i Jc my ideas on ihise subjects. I j f I ! i'i aui a'vaire .of the delicarv of the task in ! . I i . J .v . ... take of tlie doctrine tu (iuestioi a- we ll as some i of tho grouiids eidtnected witli them; frjui whiciritiappears, tint tij e nroceeu iiiirs if o: v irginia ti vcei oceu misconcwi T t ' Ji u by th ..se who .uiteaPLr.pjiHj,io mejl. I in o: !cr to understand tofc true Character of the institution of the Ur Mld. of viLinA- it iKr,nrhf tbhn. H nm Jpi. k-Jr ' Ll i.ii i ? i i "I of a consolidated Govern ient or ot j a am federated jGlivernmeiit j wlal ir ii neither ihe I ttnst:c peculiarities of the Ciistitution arc',1 1, Ih0no0ef ttformatton 2, ts division of 'the supreme powers ot Govcrnmrnt between the States in their united rainieitv. and iho Stutes in theiir individual vaviacifies. f I. It Was formed', not by tSe Governments of the Coinpoaeijt: States, :as the' Fed oral Govern ineilt tor wiiich rt was 'sobstito ed was forced -Nor was ii formed by a maiori! the United Slates, as a single h manner ut ia ciHisolidated Govfrnmcjit. Ut was f JMBid by the State!; that is, by the people in eaehiuf the States, acting in their h??h- est. Sovereign capacity and tolnid c-nsquehily uy ne 8aiae lauthoiny whicli famed ti:o -Suite ISUVU11:-1 ! - i :. j f -iemg inusiaenveo trom tne s same source as the Constitutions of the SiHtf, it - has, within eaeh btat; the me iuthoritylas the! Consjtitu tiojnlof tliej State;,, and is as iiiucl a Con4titu- uou, in me smci eeuse ol tn terra Withni s prejerife5djsphfc, as! tho Chst!ttitfonsJ of the States arel v ttUiii thiir respeftive tsphercsf but wlU this byUusaiidesseaUaj1 difference that being a conpaiit among the Stftes id thenj high em individual y, as the Cfcustitutilii of h $tate may beitits'u&ividuai will. . 1 S ' 1 J. " I 2. And, that it divides the fupreme powers'of 1 GOfernmeat, ibatweenthe tdernment of the I L filled Stati9,;aud tiije Guverimentof the findi- vidual States, is stamped oh tad face of the in Uument;the Spotters i of war irid iuf;Uxatiib. of coiniuereesand u treaties, auq Other enumiJrated Powers vested in We Governmeat of the United &Lates, being of as high and Isberein a, har acter, as any of tho powers reidrved to tho 5tate vvernineus ; a i - i A z Sur is the Government orfie United States. scvera,l spheres. It is like them organized into Ltgislative,' Executive, and Judiciary x Depart- menu. . Itioperatesillike therrl direcilv on! per-1 suntfacd tliinirai.' And, like thjhm.it : has ail com- uuuu a pu committed certain eases peculiarity outers cperauoff sepnrateiv m aeh. with the air greate poWers of Government'divided between them, it cuukI not escape attention, that dontro- versies would arise concerning!' the boundaries of . w : .., 3 h-.v t ' . a s ; rr atife .fterhituationj of orurrngl controversies, would not be more than -the shadow pf a f Gov ernment; the object and end M a real Gbvern- metit beinj, ihd substitution of jlaw and order, for uncenainty , confusion, and vitpence I i uat, o have lett a final tfecisioni in such t.--k a4a! tt.L I n . - KCAA.n . alreadv twieijty-fou, ccwld not lail t: make the vuwyiv wvi ins uuiks. lam ulll icnil, ouu ...j. -..L .5.- -, . . - i , .t wisiuuuon ana laws ot tne u nited Matest dil- fcrcnt in diflerent plates, was bbvions i and not less obvious, that thb diversiryof ; independent deciskns must altotrellier disiraot the Govern- meiit of trio Union, and scediv uuti to ihe Union itself. , An uniforfa authority of the bws,bin ktsolf a!vtalprincio. i Some of the most imrxitant laws could nottw tcrtiall v . ere- cuted. Tbey must be executcll in all the States or they could be duly executed in none. An im- postor an jexcise, pr examplejirnot tn force in som4 Stated,! would bedefated intothersl It is well known that 4th is waaahoiig the jessons offcxrru4ee which had i prjtnafy ihlluince in bnnag about jihejexisting Uopstitutfon: iA tos3 of pts genrtai Authority wonldj moreovorrevive the jKcasnettiig loucsuues, bciween the. Suta of doi.r'full JusUco to it. b havingn &e SSTth. , TT0 ' f1 tlwrionemsUnce, complied wfthtflik ruest rfT P as: well. as the. rum rt'.r tfm W.tl.Air. Kni n Ahdhavirrg, u no model,' thl suuilHudes and T . uu,n .no.oae argfees ippllcabie ' totothor slsteitls W Govern- Tt7 tilallhUiilutf mentT it amsi, more than any! cthdr, its vvn ftuf;u . Pu?"?uce ihet? ai interpreter, acburdino its tcJt and hc jucU of U -ue a(UtttuluJr 4 lh UW tfefrise ' - i T" T i J oo the buplreme law of txiiland;: 2,t:tat thai roni tl.es4 it will be seen llhatl the charac- J" Siau shall be i bound tirMy &.vereirn caoacitv. ana coastitntintr:thiv4iiAa. I pi? jtiereo onej pwpie lor ecr tafn pu rp yes, it can- 4U wfl v not be altered tir annnllod nt thl .viiri.f th -riow . :. i 3- . O l l preaiea oyj inejonstitutiun, less a Goveruruciu au accoroea wim tne views 01 ajmajojri in the sir tcseuse of! the term j within the 'sphere states and ot the people. At; tho j of its flowers, than tpcGuveriroehti created by 1 11 seems well understood, that the law tho Const yiutiohs of ,the States are. within? thrfr Hiave created roost dissatisfaction.? ha ysicai iorce 'or executing j tne powers uy iuuceu, wegrucouipiaini now is, agamsi i ituj iC The coocuirent operation in the results of this sympathy , and respoosibUity, , is oneOt the fealures niarkiri the in ihe Liegislauve policy of the i nation; t i of the svstem. 1 ! i I - ".i-vi I ' With respect to the judicial: powerlot the-! hulling -ports fur foreign cummerce, and' the "ad- lAHta Mates ithouv- theia j r "whieh-1 we now;ad4ed ill the inland States; necessarily jcar-; tjing oa thsar xoxeccamarce'lhrgugJM uther lo haT6njuie; the; dahl MderVthffj tol thority of too individual States! co-brdlaatellajl! cases, with deciskmtmdeAheiautlrty;orril United Stales, would unavoidably rnce6l lisioni inconipatible with be' pnscb jot 'MaMji anu with that regolar and rlident idrninrstry tiori, which is of the essence of jfreigoy ernments.' Scenes cuuU not i avoided , id w hleti H inlrtitei rial Scer of the United States! and the correal pondnt otScer a an individual: Staui, would havo recohtrcs in fxecnting confliciingi luV?cres thf result of which would depend on the comparative lurce of the ) local posses attending lheril and that, a casualty depending pen the pliticaJo pLnions and party feelings inipfe)rent States?; 1 ToM?c referred every clashing decisiod, uial der the two authorities, tbralnal j'akbioii.to the States as partks to the C&islituttbn, f$tiiM: he attended w:t!i delays, witl incortvenicnccsand with expenses amounting to a i prohibition jf tlte expedient riot U raentioa its udeney? toji kpair the salutary veneration for a' ijsysteiu reuuirtt? lor t5eehiaj it. lohaVe trusted tn nfmtSstiim fit arl'trtetimv disputes between the GiiVtraiiient f the Unite States and the State Governments, ; as between independent; and separate sovereignties, would have lost sight altogether of aj Constitution ah4 Governaaeat for the Union, and opened a direct road iroma failure of that res jH, to" the ultima ratio between nations wholly independent of and; alien to each other. If the idea had it3 origin in the . process .of adjnstrueut, )ctween separate brancUes of the same Government, the analog entirely fails. In the case'of disputes between independent parts ol the eame GovernmMit, nei. thcr part being ablo to consumato Its will, nor the Government to proceed without a concur renee of the parts, ncc sstty brings about an ac-' o-jmiuouation. In disputes; between a State gislatue, exwutive, and judiciary, and having each a physical force tu supixtrt it3 pretcnsiou 41. t .. : . f . . ' xxuuougu meissucw ncot:auori n);gnt30ineti.noa avoid tius extreoitj, hyw oftji' Wwiu;d it happen arnotig so many State, that aniunacmmcklatih spirit lit seine would render that resourcd uria vail nig? A couU-ary supposition would not ac- 11 kpowieoot huaian nature,or the:. euence ol our own political history i ' vwu-nimuuu, iUi irijiuji uu a., the Constitution, not relying on any of tho euccess- any ining m uiu Uuiiauaitioii aau lUWs ot i any Ui& io the coatrary noiwitiltaodini; ii Uhat the judicial power of the cinitOo; States shall ex aIi ? Iav ?M Siates, and troatic -ciadc Uiidlr-their! auuiorilv:j 'On the other hand, as a security of the rights uuu irejuuui interposuions, nor tne delicate (ues tiotu which foight present themseisl as iip the form of staling the appeal, arid as (a the nubfum y of the people of and powers of the States, m tjcir individiuaFca, Otmnpnity, in !the Fa:iuijs, agaiust aa undue probuderance of th powers granted to th GvenuUtin lover them in Mieir unid (rapacity, the Conautution hu$ relied on -1, the responsibility uf tne Seiiators! and; Keprcscntatives in the ladature of Uie Lnited States to tho Legrnilaturvs hnd '-poopleof j-th States; 2, the resu asibilitv of the Prideht to the people of tho United State; 3, the l.abilitv ui mic juacuuuyu anu o uaiciai iuiicuonuiies l. r.F , Li' . i i. r -Mi . -r .V the United States to impeachment bv the Repre sentatives of thepeople . of "the Stattf, in onti branch of the Uegtsjature of tne United Sfatesv ana trial by the iteprcsentatives of the States, m the other branch: the St:it fnnftmnaru legislative, Executive, and Judicial, be.n, at. uie same ume, in tneir appomiment and respond tunny, aiujgciner. luuependcQt t4 the agency cr oi tue uuited Mates. ; far this structure of I! tlie Government tne United States is adieqndtc! and safe for its objects, timealone can absolutely : deiermine.-4 xPen,-'uce seems to have shewn, that, whate- ver may grow out of iuture stages of out nation 'dl career, there is, aset, a sdcient 'eontroliri tne lpular will, over the Cxecut ive ! and Ue gtswuve .P par.mems of im Goverumdnt vVhen the A hen and Sedition Laws were passed in contravention to the opini .tis St feelinjrs of the1 community, tne nrst elections that ensued; pot an end to them. And whatever mav have been the character of other acts, ia the Judgment of many o"us, it is but true, that the have irener-l 11 1 1 . . .1 . 'h ty ot tne present day, s wham ve had a I like sanction without doors ; 4ndthat; whether 1 continued, varied, or repealed, a like pnof will be rjiven of the sympathy and responsibility of I the Representative body, to the 'consiitutnt bo united otaies, ana tne auinoruy lot the Su preme Court in relation to the boundarv of juris-' 1 uicuon oeiwoea me r eaerai ana me taie oik I vernments, I may be permitted to refer to the; 1 . : r . s:. . . i 3 , a ( tbirty-nmta number 01 the 1 Jf edralist;' j lor I the bght in which tne subject; was f regarded "Ly" same view has cotilinued to prevail, land that it does so at wis ume, notwithstanding l ine emi nent exceptions to it. If ; r I J - TU 'But it-is pertjectly consistent witli tlie con-; cession of this power to. the Supreme Court, in cases falling within the course of; its functions, I m.Uftin t tlt It n n.lWA ii.it l- it n vb t Iwwin rightly exercised. i w iimiuwiu . we vunci una j w i i b. i utv 11 I i .i ,t.1j . . '!.:';. .1. ' f :j j j :. -ii ;h I ' i : I -r j ' No. 39. It is true, that in controversies, i re- llatins: to the boundary .between the two jorisdic I tiuns the tribunal which is ulthnately to leeide, tlie! General Giivern4 ment. But this does! notrljange the principle; of the casei The decision is ImparjtiaHy made, according to the rules bf the Constitution; and all the usual and ;mnst effectual precautions are taken to secure this impartiality, j Some! such tribunal is clearly essc&iial to prevent an ajppeal u inesworov ana a mssoiuuon oi toe! corupaei; and that it oughrtobeestabiKhed ender . thet ue ueral, i atf.er than under the GiveTTiitienis; or to speak mure properly, that? it could be safely established under the first aloqe is a jposilioa n lively to dc coaaattcc, hat!pny sort txnr&tii Judges In - thehV asatj d-d not abstain 1 from tntemperate and party hirr HJ at "Swee liith their 4aty and their dignity; therfe bae Wn Jbecasion decti lons frooi the bench; wjaich have incurred serious an4 exterisiverdisWDlUationh' Still "it wouW seetnrthat;twUb but fexceptonsV"tIxeUrdeJ of the Judiciary has been;;hitheijo -sustained by 1 the preojrniHani saselbf thT;tifi I I fTlose who have denied ?r1 doubtel the -: su premacy of tlie judicfa! ! PowerPC United States, and denounce a the same; time a ijulli fying power, in a stated seem notlto hve suflJ- cientiy adverted to Ujq inefficiency . of a supre macy in a law jof the Uad,w)tbout.a supremacv iii theexsptiliori "arid elcecutioii of the law: tt ti the destruction ofjall ecjuiplibe between the i 'ederal Goveniment adthe Sute Governments, il whilst! the, functloiiarles of tle i Federal GvermemVatrb directly elected by and respond Rrble to the Sutes,;andil tbe ifanciionaries of thf States are in thf ir app3itmeni aria! respohsibility wholly independent of ; the United States no cobstuutional control o any sort belonged to tht Unifed Stales over thiStatesi ;Under such tk organization, itis evident that it rmld he in the power of the StaM,iriiduaiyJ to pass unau thorized laws, and to cfcrry tiietu into complete euect,any thing in; thilconstitutlwi and laws of the Unied States to tb5ihtr8ry notwithstandmg. This would be a nuUifyihg power in its plenary character; and wbjsttol it had its final effect, turougu the legislaufe, Executive, or Judiciary organ of the State,) 'would be equally fatal to the constituted relation between the two Govi einmems. -1 I ' ' !: - h 'Shouid Uie provision qf tbej Constitution as here reviewed, be found not'to secure the Govern meut and rights of the States against usurpations and abuses on the pari oft the Lnfted States, the uuai fcwjri, wtiuin uie purview ui me tonsil tutiori, l'.eg in aa ainendmehtlofl the Ccnstitu tion, i according k4 prpcess applicable by the oiaies. ( i ; . 'And in the eventiof i faijur of every con stittitiouai resort, atidj anl accumulation of usur pations aad abuses,; nindring 1 passive obedience and non-resistance a greater evil han resistance and revolution, there scan Siremain but one resort, the last ot all j an appal from the) cancelled obli gatiua of tltc constitutional cotnpact, to orijrinal rights and the law Lf tfelf preservation. This is the ultima ratio Unjder ill Go"vernments, whe ther consortia led, ciifedrated,lor a comptjtind of both; aqd itcaohitbedoubte4 that a single member ot the'Cuiod, inlhe eXlreinitvsuprwsed. bat in that only, wdtl4 hitea Tigbt, as an extra and; ultra cvnUtut appeal 4This brings us to tfialj right, 1 to mako the he expedient lately ad van ced, which cla.ms fo t a sitiirle tstite a right to appeal aoraiost au eitreis of piwer by the Gov- eruaient of the Unaod Stales decided by the State to be nnconstitut;onl, to .th4 parties to the constuutionai compaat; tue decision of the Slate to have the eifbct of nullifying uie act of the Guvernmeiit of the Unitecl States5, ualess the de cision of the State be reversed by-ttirce fourths o! tho parues..; V ' l he distininiished najrnes and hbh authori ties wuich ai)piar to have asserted and given practical scope to Uij doctrine; ehtitle it to a re SjXjct woichit miglftibe diificult otherwise to fee tor it. j . ; -; ; . ! if tiie doctrine wtr tq be understood as requi raig tne three tourttip of the States to sustain instead cf that proptfrtioti to reverse the decision of the appealing Siaje, the decision to be with out liect during thelappeal, it would be sufii- cieut to remark r that this exlra-constuuiiona course might well give jjvay to that marked ou by the Constitution, i which authorizes two thirds of the Slates to insututcj and three fourths to ef feetuate an amendment jpf the Constitution, es tablishing a permanent jrule of the highest au moriiy; in place of an ifregular precedent of con airuction only. , !. L 'But it is understood fthat the nullifying doc trine imports that thfc decision of this Slaie is to be presumed valid, ahdlthat it overrules the law of tiic United Spates, italcss ovtrfulod by three fourths of the Stalest ' .: 1 . Caa more be necessary to demonstrate the- in : admissibility of sucj a loetriue; ihan it puts it hi the power of the snSaJ lest lratiuu over one fourth of the Uuited States, that is, of seven states out of twenty four, to give tbe law and even the Constitution t seventeen States, each of the seventeen having, us parties to the Con stitution, as equal lightiwitheach of the seven, to : expound it, and to Jusist on the exposition? That the semi might, jn particular instances be light, and the seventeoi! wrong, i&m.Te than, pos sible. But to establish p positive and permanent rule giving such a power, to such a m.nority, over .uch a majority, would divert tirn the first princi ple of free government! and in practice necessa rily overturn me tjovernmeui iuu. lt 13 to 00 recoil ecwju mm yu& vuusihuhuu was proposed to thej peoiHe of the States as a icicle, and unaniiuoiislji adopted y the States as o whole, it being a p&t Jof the Constitution that not less than three ioun.hs oi inejoiaies snonia be Ciiihpeient to make ay alteration in what had been unanimously agreed - to. Sl great is the cauti;;ii on this point, jinai in io oases wnere peouUar interests were at xvt propoi uuu vkn of thrt B fourths is distrustediaad unanimity required to make aiialtfration. When the Constitution was adopted as a whole it Lseertaui lhatitliee wjere frAnyf parts, ; which, if separately proposed, would have been promptly rejected. It is far trmj impossible, Ui at every part of a ' Constitution iaight be reiocted by a majority, and yet taken together as a whole be unanimously accepted jb'ree Constitutions will rartiyi if ever be! foriM Jwithoot kciprtcal cou evssums; without irii cs conditioned on aud baiatiCiog each other i Is tliere a; Constititutton of a single- State wil of the twenty-four that Viuld bear tho expc rWpt of paving its j compo nent -parts submitted, jui tlie people atui separately decided on? , i ! ; : ; 'iV'hat the fate of the fcoristitntion of the Uni ted State would be if a small jwtion of the Sutes coiild expunge parts joflt parUcufarly valuea by b Unt msWritv' can tiavfe but we answer. The d'.fiieulty is not remoyea oy imuung l " j a i . r I ft. j.ina ii.maoa Af infitructioti. ilowmanv leases of that sort, involving cardinal provisions of the constitution, bavel occuried ? How many may! tie real ter spring upr- now uujf be ingeniously creattrd,f entitled to th privi lege of a decbiou rn lftltelmode proposed ? - It i certain tba t h principle of that mode would not reach fujuiel than h; cuntemDlated. If single State can bf ht require three-fourths of its co-States to overrule; its exposition of the Constitution, because that proportion isaumunbeu to amend it, would the pjea be less pUusible that, as the Conslitutkin vfas imammousiy established, it ought to be unauimousljy expounded ? r (Tlie reply to ail! such soggeiiions seetns; to be nnavoidable and irreststiW; that the Consti tution is a cornpacthat its text is lo be expounded according to tne jroviaiina to espouudicg it making a" pan tlto csbuipacU- and th tile ; partjW pan jigh. ifqll & renounce tha exnunrld; W pwvuin moj tUa7ij,iotle-ivr.fp cl jt'ftlit accrues,: Imaaccrj! It-mast surrerers from their foaltf l3tf: tl i In favor of the nullifvinyJiirn for ihA SiaIa indmdiiitppears, as you TiivorO&erfed. that thb pnceedings ; Legislature of Virginia, in 93 and 'W;iirainst lha Ali&ii sil Sedition Acts, are much fwclr upon. 'm 11 h It tway bappen Jas experience ptv$t that errOKeoos construe! kits; not anUctnatedJcfav notbtaoirScieutly guarded against, io the language used; and it Is due to th distinguished individ uals, who have nkeonceived the intention? of inose proceedings, to suppose mat tni meaning f tlie Uegisiature, UioUirji well cxprehendea at the time, may not howeycV be obvious to those unaeijuainiea with, the cexnp-nry inaieauoas and impressions. il v - f i- ll Butitis believftd' tha&y keeping ifi view re dist actio t between the G-iveTnmenruf tlie Statcl, tiu m oKiwa m ui -senseju wnica mey i are urr hqs mine consuuiuonibetweeothensrhuof the pa hwiu iocr cuuuurreniaqq in weir inctviauai trap pacitiesbetween the several modes andjuhjecti of interposition against the abuses of power4 and fh view of the Coauitutioo, aad interpusuoos pealinglfrom the CousUiutioato the rights of nature paramount to all t)nstitationss with an in tention, always of explanatory use, to the vieirs and argamenu which wero comhatted, the Ueao- iatioas of Virgiuia, as vihdicated in the Report ou uiem, wiii oemuna enutieu to an exposition, showinif. a consistency in their narts. arid an tn- inconsistency of e whole iwith the doctrine under consideration, . I t 8 4 That the Legislature could not have! intend ed to sanction such a doctrine, is to bel interred from the debates in. the House ol Ielegates, and from the address of the twl Houses to their cot! stitnents, on the subject of the Ilesofutioosii The terfor of the oihatesj, which were ably coh ducted, and are understood to have been! reviled for the press by most, if jt alLof the Speakers, discloses no reference whatever to a constitution al right in an individatl to ariestiby fbtce the oeration of a law o the United StatesP Coocert among the Statei for redress agliiist tHe alien and sedition laws, assets of usurped poer was a leading sentiment, and the attammeat of a concert, the immediate object of thecourse adop ted by the Legislature, bhich as that of invi ting tho other States " to concur in declarthg the acis tobe'uacorisituiiohal, and to cotopcruXt, by the neceasary aad proper measures, in main taining Unimpaired the jatkhorities, riglits, a'fid liberties reserved to the States respectively, aiid to the People." That fayt the necessary ahji proper measures to be coiicvrrcnily and eopefor ticcly taken, were meani measures known to Uie Constituiion, particularly tlie ordinary dntrulof the feopie and Cegislateces of the Slates, over i.ne-oovernmenioi tne patted oiates, cannot-oe uouuiev , auu me mieroasiuon oi uus cuniiot. jisi ,i . . i i , . .. . "v It Ui worthy of remark, and explaaatorytof the intentions of the Legisktture,thai the workb " not law, but Utterly nnil void, and ncl force or effect." which had followed, in oue of tne Reso- lutions, the wurjl ruaconsutuuonai," were a; ruck out by common consent! Though thd wotds were in fact but synonymous with " unions tit u- al," yet to guard against a misuuderstaiidiuglof this phrase as more f hap declaratory of 'opinion, the word " unconstitutional" aloau was leuind, as not liable to that danger. ' The -published Address of the Legislaturejto ij tit.L f.. i . i .i;.l warns, them against the encroaching spirit of tlie General Government, argues the unconstilutiduf ality of the alien and scdiUbn acts, points to oth er instances in which the constitutional limits had been:overleaped ; diveib upon the dangerou$ mode of deriving power by implication i aud in general presses the necossiiy of waiching over the consolidating tendency of Federal rlulicy.l lliit niitlunn- iq rum that; fan it undiiritiKyd tii look to means of maintaining the right! of thet States, beyond the regular uuei, withui tie fotm of the Constitutijn. If ! ' If any tnrtlier lights? on the subjec could bel needed, a very strung oue Is reflected in fthe ah swerstothe Kesoluiion, oy tne oiaies wmcn pretested against them. The main - objection ui these, beyond a few gehefal complaints! of the inflamatorv tendency of the Icesvluuous, was- directed against the assumed authority off a Stato Lejjislature to declare a law of the Uuited States unomslitutivnal, which they pronounced an uii warrantuble interference; with the exclusive ju risdictiori lf the Supreme Court of the United States. 'Had the Resolution been regarded as avowing and maintainiiig a right, in an individu- ai o.aie, io arresi ny Torce tne execuiion pa iawa of the United States, it must be presumed that it would have been a conspicuous object of their denunciation. f : . . I 1 Vith cordial?salutationst JAMES AUDISON. Mr. E. Everett. See the concluding Resolution of 17f3. JUr. Madison to Mr. IngcrsoU. j MofrTrliLiER, June 2$, 1S31. Dear Sir : I have received yonr friendly let ter of 18th instant. The few lines which an swered your former one), of fthe 21st. of lanuary last, were wntten in haste ana m oaa peauu , but they expressed. tUougn witnout 1 U7,rr. a Bank Of the United States, and a sfeitnte fn ti, which I cannot but adhere. Theob - jections to the latter have appeared to md to pre - pouderate greatly over the advantages uxpecitu from it, and the consUtutMihality of Uie rmeru sun regard as susiamc o oy, uie ""p? wuicu i yieiueuuigi j v r inguauk. itl xL L X Thftehapre of inconsistency between toy cb - uie reopw, uieir coumueuw, auorus puuuier mconsi. tie win una u impossible lo ad conclusive evidence of its Hews. The Address hnretn. ml nmriv nnnn k; niu:iLi j, -, . - , ii "k ;'-! K tne COnstllUiluaaiiir ut suuiui jusiiiu- iections to the cnstituuonality of sHcuWk in j . w ' . ,r4- Mm T.ij iniaiiJtt. no . t tuition. A veto frorn the executive under mwinn. how far lribtivenrecedets. lexpoua4 ding the cunstituuoo, ought to nidt soxceedint Lemslaiurcs. and to overrule individual opinions: Some obsuriiy hasl been throw n o!v the quesiiurt, oy coiuuuuuiui; "- j - from 004 Legislature to laws passed by Legislatures. UUi Uie IWO cases are esemw.uj 'hn: edfrrot cwitrolled 'or vaicd, b the subordinate authority of a Legislature.i A law, on the other band, resting on not higher ui&niy IUiM that pofflessed by every socccssive Legislature, J its expediency as ell as its meaniDg is, ika onnn (.fthA hUlirJ ?- I U . The ease in mJVZJ u . -t K - '!!.- tueooi f ro7Siunt& l&eiaw ua.5uccceuuj;j'-j - 1 beihj a w lhiaXu tho Jaw: w' rtde of detsfog to the jtidre.'v ' ' . -' . W Ami vhv arm m4mnl nnMbtai t L i e4 oa di; -duiOoa an4TC0imdViatjoiiaad ite v liberatelyl gariciiniied by tcv tews aad wpeatkai H w - - m mmr j - " - - n i m m-n w. irin ; 7 i urr uiog tnuuewsear- tamer ot au1 MionwuTs porce tn simng Ux& meaoin" of law ? It mast bo answered, Ut lWause"it H al "' feasonahje and established aauora, that the jnud 1 of society renhirra, that the raW of coddurtcf f its memhew should be certain and known, whack woujdrwf be the case itdarftx thediS4is of his predeeesmirs. should vary ha ruleof law according to liis individual lutefpra tauon of it. Misera est servitus ubi jui est itui ; vaguai atjt m5ognitiinx. 2d. Becanse an j expnsw- i tuQthclaw,pabliely i made; and repeatedly " confirmed by Uie eonstttutod aority.Kcarrii with, if fair laterence the saneUon of . those who having wade tho law through their Legislative " organ, appear uuder such circumsUocee, to hav determineU its meaning thnijigllt :t figs ju4icjai organ. , . j . ' . j : ' ; 'j Can it boTofless coafeanenoe thaf therneafu ; ing of a Cohsiitation should' be fixed and known! r uau uiai uie;meanmg o a taw. anouia ;he . so Can, indeed,! a law be fixed in Ut meaning and ; opeuiUon, unless the Constitution be to ?X j Oa j the contrary, if a particular Legislature, diCTcrtn'' i in tUo euastraotiua of the Constimtiuq from si ; ries of preceg coostructioiw, proceed to act ot ; that diirerencc, thejtn only introduce oncer- Umty and instabiiity in the CoasutqUoo, butixt tlie laws thernsflves inasmuch as all laws pre eeding the new construction and inoonsisient! with it are not only annulled for the: future; buC4 virtually probounccd nullities : irom the begin nins .: ! ; ' -i -t -t''" - jj j ' But is said that the LegislatoM', having sworn to support the Constitution, must support it in his own construction of ! it, however different from that put on it by his predecessors, or whatever bo the cbnsequjeri' ces of tlie construction. Aridis no ihe judge under j the same j oath to support tho law? yet has it ever been supposed that; ho . was required, or at liberty to disregard jail precedents, however solemnly repealed and regularly observed; and by giving. oSpci, to abstract and; individual opinioas, to disturb ' the established vourso f practice in tho business of the community ? lias the vis est aud most concientious judge ever tcrai iea io acquiesce in decisions in which ho has been overruled by tho mature opinions of tho majority ofhii col leagues, and sdt qucntly to conform himself Uiereto, astd authoritative expositions of the law? And is it not reasonable th-it the same viowlof the official ,oatli shonld .be taken by a Leg islator, acting under the Ctmstitutionwhfch w hia guide, as is taken by a judge ac i Urjg under lhe whic is fc . a uciu la tii ijai, ail- in common unaer- ui :. . i standing, a necessity of regarding a coorso of practice, as above cliaractenzed, in Ui "gut oi a legal ruie oi interpreting a law: and there is, a liko necessity of consider ing it a constitutional rule of interpreting constitution That there may bo extraordinary and tie-. culiar circumstances controlling tin? rule Ju both cases, may be admitted: but with such exceptions, the rule will force itself upon the practical judgment f the most ardent . i . ii 1 1 i .. . . hereto, and act officially upon his solitary opinions as to the meaning of the law or Constitution, in opposition to a construc tion reduced to practice, during a reasoria ,J,e peiiod of time : more especially where no prospect existed of a change of .con$truo tion by tho public or its agents. And i if a reasonable period of time, marked with the usual sanctions would not bar the iooi vidual prerogative, there could be no lirhl tation to its exercise, although the danger of error iriust increase with the increasing oblivion of explanatory circumstances, and with the continual changes of the import of words and phrases Let it then be left to the dicision of every intelligent and randid judge, which on the whole, is must to be relied on for the trui : and safe construction of a constitution; that which has the uniform sanction of suo-I resaiX'C lerisiative bodies thronah ivrtod ? j of years, and under the faried-ascendency i 0 . - - 7 - 7 e r of parties; or that which depends upon tho opinions of every new legistature, heated ' as it may be, by the spirit of party, eager in the pursuit of some favorite object, or led astray by the eloquence and address of pop i i ular statesmen, themselves, perhaps, un4 dcr the influence of the: same misloading causes.- . ! . It was in conformity with the view here tak- i en of the resuect due to deliberate and reiter ated precedents, that the , Bank of the Un , ited-States, though on the orgmai questipri held to be unconstitutional, i received the t executive signature in the year 1817. The 1 act orginally established a balikhad under i gpne ample discussions in its passage through the several blanch w of the goverri-. "ent. It had been carried into- execution throughout a period of twenty ya, With J J annual legislative recognitions; in one in j stance, indceu wrth a positive ratiScatioQ v i ot it mto a now state; and with the entire acquiescence of all tho local authorities,. as well as of tho nation at large toallof - uhichiay be added,a decreasing prospect of aby change in ihe public opinion adverse 1 . ' 5. ..A. u these circnmstanccs, wrtli an admission ofi the expediency and almost necessity of the measure, would have been a defiance of ill c obligations derived .from a "course, bf ii precedents axnounuog w uie requisite ev dencc 0f the national judgment land inlet. ;i . i I , It has been contended that the authority J of precedenU was in that case invalidated , by the consideration, tuat tney proveu onif , a respect tor tne stipuiatea atiration 01 toe f&n with a toleration of j it until the law should expire, and by the casting vote given ' . I O I V: U..M.nl ll. 1 in UV tJCUulB uj luc v icaiuciu w ww vear 181 1, against a biUfor estaWishing national BanLthe vote ! being exprcsdyfir- ' - i - m i 1.- -x n i k i- ' & i. H f ! J r r i Mi -,4 .1 ---Tc(. I' i 4S in . 1 1 i ym i 1 1 - . i ... I i I 1?