North Carolina Newspapers

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"k .i.-v U
'".'l. T :.L ..i...!.. tlill nr'V( f!lt
tJ (i feriwflw Believing, in the jp;iiTutlsu,
altlsijiittortlio ? PtesHent, awl aware
artioaoOavcrlimcnt.he vnll ftel itJifc xluty. p
itMdo ci-cWafiuy which has been so freejy
fikh schist tlie AluuftitratiOii, and via-
iilrkfeiHtii eiltit3 JifetinaHe rieasurw. ' lie
tjiiteU;Stcs JMoJ wi!bcJ checks and
cridtScatjons asxpenence may nave, Mumu iu
IA fitbr 5fwms thoiexcise of the power
IjM&eriwi Iinjfrotsments by the general
U T&rieS tit fro lugucst degree inexpedient:
lipJieve ihat Ahed wtributioii : of large sums of
ilJ' -pro-
QiMiihiWca: distrus&d disaflectiorii a
and will
ifeyiitllfi aaA union to- sa V nothiuff of the
rrifiptip'de)icy ofueh lrris!at:on. Against
fatelifrhleh hag for its objft, the fostenog of
'tii jntfrepiOfohesectnia of our country at the
xHlQnothfcr, the est Energies of jUiis papef
ibe;4. V :" . . ; -;-I
j$thf wiy'proprfcd doctrine of jNullificaj'
W& wS siecry to say,tUatlu aIi;iU phases
wr mobt settled'p!iwy,attl w such will lb coui-at
fTiip. OiaorltNA Watgiima.v, Is puWiiheu
ivelf ktlTtiric-lMltar per year, jki advance
Li&UtiitiiaLi&iBen lire Counties ihore than
kiMirivlitniiUistaat lnm Salisbury, and in
.uwrptn will rje talen for lessjthan one
rk IfAilectistng will $e,done a the usual rates.
io'fiaQrijption Iwill be withdrawn, until arreara
rfajrej paijl, ua!ess the JlZlUor cltooses.y :
' sutri6ci:'siyifi' the whole stitni in ad
4eanhave the VU thman at -$'20t lor onej
4iliaaUadvkrtced regularly; will he continu-j
J;flicj4lrie a&s afterwards. ! t
4imicjfai to te Edifbr must te Post paid or
jriwiiinotibe attendeti tot: ; - 4
I -Pefsciiis Sddidinng-lHe. Editor on the basiacss
6vK Ofl: will address lain as Editor of ihd
Aplimi If 4nwi---Those that write on Gtn-
lK$meps can direct to ll. u. Jones j
rllVL! till the subscHDtfeiis i taken before tliO
eorrirrtrrielnent M this rJaDer, it will be retuem-f
ried hecanic on the publication of the first
7j SIT Vol of the History of Hume;
. ilifi4Je''T,v"l?ii3.- M- Co-)per's Spy
tiiilfth ;Pijot,arteni ssihr frurn uiy Library, and
u kjl4 u jfor two. or vtbrte years. lam ver
nM 1W aeover; theso Books, the first jn par j
;.' ftlajr, 'ariii'Vrii y t&uiM,- any one to inform me
.! P.iClb till liAIWi: 3 - -
!;i!!4f ;r-1'H. '-i ;. ii. c. Jd.NES.
be soB at public j sale, at the store
f tif Milesfl Abernathy, near the Island
iri Lihcolti jcouDty, on tho, 26th day of
ary;lf33e;toly. yung Negro womaii
lium Ctiitorerikldo. tkKlu) othe r artuh s "mt
t iheiiile Of the estate of Eli' Perkins, dec.
ifi wwcn a'
. I : i
it:a-jtiio tin tk ,m w given, oy
in ?r
wiiU; a pproveu security. '
1 T
llAYWOQP COUTV.T-Suixjrior Court
UwOctpber I'crm3. IJ 1SJ2.
iliat.'di!ecn:-t. i' i
lKezIah Gr?en.y .1' - l '
this ease it havincf been! made arocar to the
laltwhithdj eourti'thatklie defendant Ke
brripsidea i withojut the limits of thUStat,
4 tthe ihtiiiary jproess of the law can not
pserypd M heit-l t isitiierHore, ordered by the
Wrl atiiblicalidn ha oivleriiL the'Caroliiia
A;UlchmaiiaH4.ih the 'Notth-Caroliua Specti
Hid Westcrtliid vertiser the term of three
1 KthsriuoUfvinff tlie &feuani to br and's DDear
. J iSijpriHCourt of Law to be held for the I
.;nwjrwqqa at tne uourt-House in
v f ylstviUf , tin the secorHl Tuesday after .tbje
rtttionaay in arch next, then and thcr?.. to
ad aiisWet ordeinur to the neiitiim tif th'n nti.
fliy mtxiipro coitfiaso, wijl
P fntcmi-'against pet ana decree made aecof-
t W.itJiSjhCTrfered that the Editors of
)or& -j'reo.uested. to forward tlieir
apcrs - to: this'
omce fUanng tne said tares?
Mi?fbers-ar opening at the Coraer
4isUUay occupied :by Falls & Siawntud;
Frrr r? lpfK! assortment of
wil Of Which thev are determined tn cjll t i ti;
tM.M:Tcr'-)4;efed at in this
pountrv. : i hose 'disposed to purchase
invited to - call and-? jiukre for
I itefit 1 to instruct and to vleaxt
Smufepfbre, with V zM ajid diUzonc set h;mr
If WtUs worll;aml hfe UittarS himseff that th
:!L4 itffiats 'it: Literature, ..Scienctf
lririiltorc an, Commerce may be rnm)tet by
'Elufr Go?d morals aiitf refinement slmfi
4itwn W upUvd, and" atv ; the cruj
SlW1? huyc:k. AVja
il 1IV till' II LLLlJLltLLkLU
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l 1 . 1 J.1 !i i . 1 - 1 - l m .i .".j ' ," 1 "
-. j?'jiy--Saturday, January , S 1 1 3S
At tluj pijuest of several iJleblicarM, we
gtve the pentiioents of M(." .1Iison; on the all
aTjjrhlii jiestions that are n)w jengagingr pub
lic attention. The .high sojiree ffVo hicti
these opinions come as Well is llheir intrinac
mjrlt, eatiie them to an attentive consideration.
Mr. Mad;jn'oae of he bjjy that oritrinat'ed
thv Constitution, and a biem!fT of the Vifjirua
Cunentian that adopted jit." le is ooo of those
able Corahaeatatrs, whose wrUnga ftave thrown
so much light on that insFnffitebt in Uie Feder41-
iit and inay be supposed to l&ow as rell as a
iiy? Other man io America the I meaning of dlspu-
tea passages. . sTIiis publication is f rendered tfie
ihore pre per,) because soirje of lr.; M'3 writings
are s;met rnes relied on by th disunion party as
f Jtvonng t jeif tene.ts; j., l 1 . j
lt Jfr.JadismtoJIr.E.Etcrttti
: 1 Mo:ttpelie,Adgust, lS30j
'Dear Sir , -. - : ' - f; rt
lfl have duly received Ijrour etteri lnTVhIi
yourtfer jto the "nulhfylng difetitne' ad vcaed
ai4, consip tutorial Pghij by snie of bur i dtstib
Oished fjlluw-eitizens; uid toithe pr.jceedirigsof
tlw JMalitie in rJS and 'Oiijas appealed Win
behalf of ihai doctrine; land yu express a wish
i Jc my ideas on ihise subjects. I j f I !
i'i aui a'vaire .of the delicarv of the task in
! . I i . J .v . ...
take of tlie doctrine tu (iuestioi
a- we ll as some
i of tho grouiids
eidtnected witli them;
frjui whiciritiappears, tint tij
e nroceeu iiiirs if o:
v irginia ti vcei oceu misconcwi
T t ' Ji
u by th who
.uiteaPLr.pjiHj,io mejl. I in o:
!cr to understand
tofc true Character of the
institution of the
Mld. of viLinA- it iKr,nrhf tbhn. H nm Jpi.
k-Jr ' Ll i.ii i ? i i "I
of a consolidated Govern
ient or ot j a am
federated jGlivernmeiit j wlal
ir ii neither ihe I
ttnst:c peculiarities of the Ciistitution arc',1 1,
Ih0no0ef ttformatton 2, ts division of 'the
supreme powers ot Govcrnmrnt between the
States in their united rainieitv.
and iho Stutes in
theiir individual vaviacifies.
f I. It Was formed', not by tSe Governments of
the Coinpoaeijt: States, :as the' Fed oral Govern
ineilt tor wiiich rt was 'sobstito
ed was forced
-Nor was ii formed by a maiori!
the United Slates, as a single h
manner ut ia ciHisolidated Govfrnmcjit.
Ut was f JMBid by the State!; that is, by the
people in eaehiuf the States, acting in their h??h-
est. Sovereign capacity and tolnid c-nsquehily
uy ne 8aiae lauthoiny whicli famed ti:o -Suite
ISUVU11:-1 ! - i :. j f
-iemg inusiaenveo trom tne s same source as
the Constitutions of the SiHtf, it - has, within
eaeh btat; the me iuthoritylas the! Consjtitu
tiojnlof tliej State;,, and is as iiiucl a Con4titu-
uou, in me smci eeuse ol tn terra Withni s
prejerife5djsphfc, as! tho Chst!ttitfonsJ of the
States arel v ttUiii thiir respeftive tsphercsf but
wlU this byUusaiidesseaUaj1 difference that
being a conpaiit among the Stftes id thenj high
individual y, as the Cfcustitutilii of h $tate may
beitits'u&ividuai will. . 1 S ' 1 J. " I
2. And, that it divides the fupreme
powers'of 1
GOfernmeat, ibatweenthe tdernment of the I
L filled Stati9,;aud tiije Guverimentof the findi-
vidual States, is stamped oh tad face of the in
Uument;the Spotters i of war irid iuf;Uxatiib. of
coiniuereesand u treaties, auq Other enumiJrated
Powers vested in We Governmeat of the United
&Lates, being of as high and Isberein a, har
acter, as any of tho powers reidrved to tho 5tate
vvernineus ; a i - i A z
Sur is the Government orfie United States.
scvera,l spheres. It is like them organized into
Ltgislative,' Executive, and Judiciary x Depart-
menu. . Itioperatesillike therrl direcilv on! per-1
suntfacd tliinirai.' And, like : has ail com-
uuuu a pu
certain eases
outers cperauoff sepnrateiv m aeh. with the air
greate poWers of Government'divided between
them, it cuukI not escape attention, that dontro-
versies would arise concerning!' the boundaries of
. w : .., 3
h-.v t ' . a s ; rr
atife .fterhituationj of orurrngl controversies,
would not be more than -the shadow pf a f Gov
ernment; the object and end M a real Gbvern-
metit beinj, ihd substitution of jlaw and order, for
uncenainty , confusion, and vitpence I
i uat, o have lett a final tfecisioni in such
t.--k a4a! tt.L I n . - KCAA.n .
alreadv twieijty-fou, ccwld not lail t: make the
vuwyiv wvi ins uuiks. lam ulll icnil, ouu
...j. -..L .5.- -, . . - i , .t
wisiuuuon ana laws ot tne u nited Matest dil-
fcrcnt in diflerent plates, was bbvions i and not
less obvious, that thb diversiryof ; independent
deciskns must altotrellier disiraot the Govern-
meiit of trio Union, and scediv uuti
to ihe Union itself. , An uniforfa authority of the
bws,bin ktsolf a!vtalprincio. i Some of the
most imrxitant laws could nottw tcrtiall v . ere-
cuted. Tbey must be executcll in all the States
or they could be duly executed in none. An im-
postor an jexcise, pr examplejirnot tn force in
som4 Stated,! would bedefated intothersl It is
well known that 4th is waaahoiig the jessons
offcxrru4ee which had i prjtnafy ihlluince in
bnnag about jihejexisting Uopstitutfon: iA tos3
of pts genrtai Authority wonldj moreovorrevive
the jKcasnettiig loucsuues, bciween the. Suta
of doi.r'full JusUco to it. b havingn &e SSTth. , TT0 ' f1
tlwrionemsUnce, complied wfthtflik ruest rfT P as: well. as the.
rum rt'.r tfm Kni n
Ahdhavirrg, u no model,' thl suuilHudes and T . uu,n .no.oae
argfees ippllcabie ' totothor slsteitls W Govern- Tt7 tilallhUiilutf
mentT it amsi, more than any! cthdr, its vvn ftuf;u . Pu?"?uce ihet? ai
interpreter, acburdino its tcJt and hc jucU of U -ue a(UtttuluJr 4 lh UW
tfefrise ' - i T" T i J oo the buplreme law of txiiland;: 2,t:tat thai
roni tl.es4 it will be seen llhatl the charac- J" Siau shall be i bound tirMy
&.vereirn caoacitv. ana coastitntintr:thiv4iiAa. I
pi? jtiereo onej pwpie lor ecr tafn pu rp yes, it can- 4U wfl v
not be altered tir annnllod nt thl .viiri.f th -riow
. :. i 3- . O l l
preaiea oyj inejonstitutiun, less a Goveruruciu au accoroea wim tne views 01 ajmajojri
in the sir tcseuse of! the term j within the 'sphere states and ot the people. At; tho j
of its flowers, than tpcGuveriroehti created by 1 11 seems well understood, that the law
tho Const yiutiohs of ,the States are. within? thrfr Hiave created roost dissatisfaction.? ha
ysicai iorce 'or executing j tne powers uy iuuceu, wegrucouipiaini now is, agamsi i
ituj iC The coocuirent operation in the results of this sympathy , and respoosibUity,
, is oneOt the fealures niarkiri the in ihe Liegislauve policy of the i nation; t i
of the svstem. 1 ! i I - ".i-vi I ' With respect to the judicial: powerlot the-!
hulling -ports fur foreign cummerce, and' the "ad-
lAHta Mates ithouv- theia j r "whieh-1 we
now;ad4ed ill the inland States; necessarily jcar-;
tjing oa thsar xoxeccamarce'lhrgugJM uther
lo haT6njuie; the; dahl MderVthffj tol
thority of too individual States! co-brdlaatellajl!
cases, with deciskmtmdeAheiautlrty;orril
United Stales, would unavoidably rnce6l
lisioni inconipatible with be' pnscb jot 'MaMji
anu with that regolar and rlident idrninrstry
tiori, which is of the essence of jfreigoy ernments.'
Scenes cuuU not i avoided , id w hleti H inlrtitei
rial Scer of the United States! and the correal
pondnt otScer a an individual: Staui, would havo
recohtrcs in fxecnting confliciingi luV?cres thf
result of which would depend on the comparative
lurce of the ) local posses attending lheril and
that, a casualty depending pen the pliticaJo
pLnions and party feelings inipfe)rent States?; 1
ToM?c referred every clashing decisiod, uial
der the two authorities, tbralnal j'
the States as partks to the C&islituttbn, f$tiiM:
he attended w:t!i delays, witl incortvenicnccsand
with expenses amounting to a i prohibition jf tlte
expedient riot U raentioa its udeney? toji kpair
the salutary veneration for a' ijsysteiu reuuirtt?
lor t5eehiaj it.
lohaVe trusted tn nfmtSstiim fit arl'trtetimv
disputes between the GiiVtraiiient f the Unite
States and the State Governments, ; as between
independent; and separate sovereignties, would
have lost sight altogether of aj Constitution ah4
Governaaeat for the Union, and opened a direct
road iroma failure of that res jH, to" the ultima
ratio between nations wholly independent of and;
alien to each other. If the idea had it3 origin in
the . process .of adjnstrueut, )ctween separate
brancUes of the same Government, the analog
entirely fails. In the case'of disputes between
independent parts ol the eame GovernmMit, nei.
thcr part being ablo to consumato Its will, nor
the Government to proceed without a concur
renee of the parts, ncc sstty brings about an ac-'
o-jmiuouation. In disputes; between a State
gislatue, exwutive, and judiciary, and having
each a physical force tu supixtrt it3 pretcnsiou
41. t .. : . f . . '
xxuuougu meissucw ncot:auori n);gnt30ineti.noa
avoid tius extreoitj, hyw oftji' Wwiu;d it happen
arnotig so many State, that aniunacmmcklatih
spirit lit seine would render that resourcd uria
vail nig? A couU-ary supposition would not ac-
11 kpowieoot huaian nature,or the:.
euence ol
our own political history i
' vwu-nimuuu, iUi irijiuji uu a.,
Constitution, not relying on any of tho
any ining m uiu Uuiiauaitioii aau lUWs ot i any
Ui& io the coatrary noiwitiltaodini; ii Uhat
the judicial power of the cinitOo; States shall ex
aIi ? Iav ?M
Siates, and troatic -ciadc Uiidlr-their! auuiorilv:j
'On the other hand, as a security of the rights
uuu irejuuui interposuions, nor tne delicate (ues
tiotu which foight present themseisl as iip the
form of staling the appeal, arid as (a the nubfum
y of the people of and powers of the States, m tjcir individiuaFca,
Otmnpnity, in !the Fa:iuijs, agaiust aa undue probuderance of th
powers granted to th GvenuUtin lover them in
Mieir unid (rapacity, the Conautution hu$ relied
on -1, the responsibility uf tne Seiiators! and;
Keprcscntatives in the ladature of Uie Lnited
States to tho Legrnilaturvs hnd '-poopleof j-th
States; 2, the resu asibilitv of the Prideht to
the people of tho United State; 3, the l.abilitv
ui mic juacuuuyu anu o uaiciai iuiicuonuiies l.
r.F , Li' . i i. r -Mi . -r .V
the United States to impeachment bv the Repre
sentatives of thepeople . of "the Stattf, in onti
branch of the Uegtsjature of tne United Sfatesv
ana trial by the iteprcsentatives of the States,
m the other branch: the St:it fnnftmnaru
legislative, Executive, and Judicial, be.n, at.
uie same ume, in tneir appomiment and respond
tunny, aiujgciner. luuependcQt t4 the agency cr
oi tue uuited Mates. ;
far this structure of I! tlie Government
tne United States is adieqndtc! and safe for its
objects, timealone can absolutely : deiermine.-4
xPen,-'uce seems to have shewn, that, whate-
ver may grow out of iuture stages of out nation
'dl career, there is, aset, a sdcient 'eontroliri
tne lpular will, over the Cxecut ive ! and Ue
gtswuve .P par.mems of im Goverumdnt
vVhen the A hen and Sedition Laws were passed
in contravention to the opini .tis St feelinjrs of the1
community, tne nrst elections that ensued; pot
an end to them. And whatever mav have been
the character of other acts, ia the Judgment of
many o"us, it is but true, that the have irener-l
11 1 1 . . .1 . 'h
ty ot tne
present day,
s wham
ve had a
I like sanction without doors ; 4ndthat; whether
1 continued, varied, or repealed, a like pnof will
be rjiven of the sympathy and responsibility of
I the Representative body, to the 'consiitutnt bo
united otaies, ana tne auinoruy lot the Su
preme Court in relation to the boundarv of juris-'
1 uicuon oeiwoea me r eaerai ana me taie oik
I vernments, I may be permitted to refer to the;
1 . : r . s:. . . i 3 , a
( tbirty-nmta number 01 the 1 Jf edralist;' j lor
I the bght in which tne subject; was f regarded "Ly"
same view has cotilinued to prevail, land that it
does so at wis ume, notwithstanding l ine emi
nent exceptions to it. If ; r I J - TU
'But it-is pertjectly consistent witli tlie con-;
cession of this power to. the Supreme Court, in
cases falling within the course of; its functions,
I m.Uftin t tlt It n n.lWA l- it n vb t Iwwin
rightly exercised.
i w iimiuwiu . we vunci una j w i i b. i utv 11
I i .i ,t.1j . . '!.:';. .1. ' f :j j
j :. -ii ;h I ' i :
I -r
j ' No. 39. It is true, that in controversies, i re-
llatins: to the boundary .between the two jorisdic
I tiuns the tribunal which is ulthnately to leeide,
tlie! General Giivern4
ment. But this does! notrljange the principle;
of the casei The decision is ImparjtiaHy
made, according to the rules bf the Constitution;
and all the usual and ;mnst effectual precautions
are taken to secure this impartiality, j Some! such
tribunal is clearly essc&iial to prevent an ajppeal
u inesworov ana a mssoiuuon oi toe! corupaei;
and that it oughrtobeestabiKhed ender . thet ue
ueral, i than under the GiveTTiitienis;
or to speak mure properly, that? it could be safely
established under the first aloqe is a jposilioa n
lively to dc coaaattcc,
hat!pny sort txnr&tii Judges In - thehV asatj
d-d not abstain 1 from tntemperate and party hirr
HJ at "Swee liith their 4aty and
their dignity; therfe bae Wn Jbecasion decti
lons frooi the bench; wjaich have incurred serious
an4 exterisiverdisWDlUationh' Still "it wouW
seetnrthat;twUb but fexceptonsV"tIxeUrdeJ
of the Judiciary has been;;hitheijo -sustained by 1
the preojrniHani saselbf thT;tifi I
I fTlose who have denied ?r1 doubtel the -: su
premacy of tlie judicfa! ! PowerPC United
States, and denounce a the same; time a ijulli
fying power, in a stated seem notlto hve suflJ-
cientiy adverted to Ujq inefficiency . of a supre
macy in a law jof the Uad,w)tbout.a supremacv
iii theexsptiliori "arid elcecutioii of the law: tt
ti the destruction ofjall ecjuiplibe between the
i 'ederal Goveniment adthe Sute Governments,
il whilst! the, functloiiarles of tle i Federal
GvermemVatrb directly elected by and respond
Rrble to the Sutes,;andil tbe ifanciionaries of thf
States are in thf ir app3itmeni aria! respohsibility
wholly independent of ; the United States no
cobstuutional control o any sort belonged to tht
Unifed Stales over thiStatesi ;Under such tk
organization, itis evident that it rmld he in the
power of the StaM,iriiduaiyJ to pass unau
thorized laws, and to cfcrry tiietu into complete
euect,any thing in; thilconstitutlwi and laws of
the Unied States to tb5ihtr8ry notwithstandmg.
This would be a nuUifyihg power in its plenary
character; and wbjsttol it had its final effect,
turougu the legislaufe, Executive, or Judiciary
organ of the State,) 'would be equally fatal
to the constituted relation between the two Govi
einmems. -1 I ' ' !: - h
'Shouid Uie provision qf tbej Constitution as
here reviewed, be found not'to secure the Govern
meut and rights of the States against usurpations
and abuses on the pari oft the Lnfted States, the
uuai fcwjri, wtiuin uie purview ui me tonsil
tutiori, l'.eg in aa ainendmehtlofl the Ccnstitu
tion, i according k4 prpcess applicable by the
oiaies. ( i ; .
'And in the eventiof i faijur of every con
stittitiouai resort, atidj anl accumulation of usur
pations aad abuses,; nindring 1 passive obedience
and non-resistance a greater evil han resistance
and revolution, there scan Siremain but one resort,
the last ot all j an appal from the) cancelled obli
gatiua of tltc constitutional cotnpact, to orijrinal
rights and the law Lf tfelf preservation. This
is the ultima ratio Unjder ill Go"vernments, whe
ther consortia led, ciifedrated,lor a comptjtind
of both; aqd itcaohitbedoubte4 that a single
member ot the'Cuiod, inlhe eXlreinitvsuprwsed.
bat in that only, wdtl4 hitea Tigbt, as an extra
and; ultra cvnUtut
4This brings us to
tfialj right, 1 to
mako the
he expedient lately ad van
ced, which fo
t a sitiirle tstite a right to
appeal aoraiost au eitreis of piwer by the Gov-
eruaient of the Unaod Stales decided by the
State to be nnconstitut;onl, to .th4 parties to the
constuutionai compaat; tue decision of the Slate
to have the eifbct of nullifying uie act of the
Guvernmeiit of the Unitecl States5, ualess the de
cision of the State be reversed by-ttirce fourths o!
tho parues..; V
' l he distininiished najrnes and hbh authori
ties wuich ai)piar to have asserted and given
practical scope to Uij doctrine; ehtitle it to a re
SjXjct woichit miglftibe diificult otherwise to fee
tor it. j . ; -; ; . !
if tiie doctrine wtr tq be understood as requi
raig tne three tourttip of the States to sustain
instead cf that proptfrtioti to reverse the decision
of the appealing Siaje, the decision to be with
out liect during thelappeal, it would be sufii-
cieut to remark r that this exlra-constuuiiona
course might well give jjvay to that marked ou
by the Constitution, i which authorizes two thirds
of the Slates to insututcj and three fourths to ef
feetuate an amendment jpf the Constitution, es
tablishing a permanent jrule of the highest au
moriiy; in place of an ifregular precedent of con
airuction only. , !. L
'But it is understood fthat the nullifying doc
trine imports that thfc decision of this Slaie is to
be presumed valid, ahdlthat it overrules the law
of tiic United Spates, italcss ovtrfulod by three
fourths of the Stalest ' .: 1 .
Caa more be necessary to demonstrate the- in
: admissibility of sucj a loetriue; ihan it puts it
hi the power of the snSaJ lest lratiuu over one
fourth of the Uuited States, that is, of seven
states out of twenty four, to give tbe law and
even the Constitution t seventeen States, each
of the seventeen having, us parties to the Con
stitution, as equal lightiwitheach of the seven,
to : expound it, and to Jusist on the exposition?
That the semi might, jn particular instances be
light, and the seventeoi! wrong, i&m.Te than, pos
sible. But to establish p positive and permanent
rule giving such a power, to such a m.nority, over
.uch a majority, would divert tirn the first princi
ple of free government! and in practice necessa
rily overturn me tjovernmeui iuu.
lt 13 to 00 recoil ecwju mm yu& vuusihuhuu
was proposed to thej peoiHe of the States as a
icicle, and unaniiuoiislji adopted y the States as
o whole, it being a p&t Jof the Constitution that
not less than three ioun.hs oi inejoiaies snonia
be Ciiihpeient to make ay alteration in what had
been unanimously agreed - to. Sl great is the
cauti;;ii on this point, jinai in io oases wnere
peouUar interests were at xvt propoi uuu
vkn of thrt B fourths is distrustediaad unanimity
required to make aiialtfration.
When the Constitution was adopted as a whole
it Lseertaui lhatitliee wjere frAnyf parts, ; which,
if separately proposed, would have been promptly
rejected. It is far trmj impossible, Ui at every
part of a ' Constitution iaight be reiocted by a
majority, and yet taken together as a whole be
unanimously accepted jb'ree Constitutions will
rartiyi if ever be! foriM Jwithoot kciprtcal cou
evssums; without irii cs conditioned on aud
baiatiCiog each other i Is tliere a; Constititutton
of a single- State wil of the twenty-four that
Viuld bear tho expc rWpt of paving its j compo
nent -parts submitted, jui tlie people atui separately
decided on? , i ! ; : ;
'iV'hat the fate of the fcoristitntion of the Uni
ted State would be if a small jwtion of the Sutes
coiild expunge parts joflt parUcufarly valuea by
b Unt msWritv' can tiavfe but we answer.
The d'.fiieulty is not remoyea oy imuung
l " j a i . r
I ft. j.ina ii.maoa Af infitructioti. ilowmanv
leases of that sort, involving cardinal provisions
of the constitution, bavel occuried ? How many
may! tie real ter spring upr- now uujf
be ingeniously creattrd,f entitled to th privi
lege of a decbiou rn lftltelmode proposed ?
- It i certain tba t h principle of that mode
would not reach fujuiel than h; cuntemDlated.
If single State can bf ht require three-fourths
of its co-States to overrule; its exposition of the
Constitution, because that proportion isaumunbeu
to amend it, would the pjea be less pUusible that,
as the Conslitutkin vfas imammousiy established,
it ought to be unauimousljy expounded ?
r (Tlie reply to ail! such soggeiiions seetns; to
be nnavoidable and irreststiW; that the Consti
tution is a cornpacthat its text is lo be expounded
according to tne jroviaiina to espouudicg it
making a" pan tlto csbuipacU- and th
tile ; partjW pan jigh. ifqll & renounce tha exnunrld;
W pwvuin moj tUa7ij,iotle-ivr.fp
cl jt'ftlit accrues,: Imaaccrj! It-mast
surrerers from their foaltf l3tf: tl i
In favor of the nullifvinyJiirn for ihA SiaIa
indmdiiitppears, as you TiivorO&erfed.
that thb pnceedings ; Legislature of
Virginia, in 93 and 'W;iirainst lha Ali&ii sil
Sedition Acts, are much fwclr upon. 'm 11
h It tway bappen Jas experience ptv$t
that errOKeoos construe! kits; not anUctnatedJcfav
notbtaoirScieutly guarded against, io the language
used; and it Is due to th distinguished individ
uals, who have nkeonceived the intention? of
inose proceedings, to suppose mat tni meaning
f tlie Uegisiature, UioUirji well cxprehendea
at the time, may not howeycV be obvious to those
unaeijuainiea with, the cexnp-nry inaieauoas
and impressions. il v - f i- ll
Butitis believftd' tha&y keeping ifi view re
dist actio t between the G-iveTnmenruf tlie Statcl,
tiu m oKiwa m ui -senseju wnica mey i are urr
hqs mine consuuiuonibetweeothensrhuof the pa
hwiu iocr cuuuurreniaqq in weir inctviauai trap
pacitiesbetween the several modes andjuhjecti of
interposition against the abuses of power4 and fh
view of the Coauitutioo, aad interpusuoos
pealinglfrom the CousUiutioato the rights of
nature paramount to all t)nstitationss with an in
tention, always of explanatory use, to the vieirs
and argamenu which wero comhatted, the Ueao-
iatioas of Virgiuia, as vihdicated in the Report
ou uiem, wiii oemuna enutieu to an exposition,
showinif. a consistency in their narts. arid an tn-
inconsistency of e whole iwith the doctrine under
consideration, . I t 8
4 That the Legislature could not have! intend
ed to sanction such a doctrine, is to bel interred
from the debates in. the House ol Ielegates, and
from the address of the twl Houses to their cot!
stitnents, on the subject of the Ilesofutioosii
The terfor of the oihatesj, which were ably coh
ducted, and are understood to have been! reviled
for the press by most, if jt alLof the Speakers,
discloses no reference whatever to a constitution
al right in an individatl to ariestiby fbtce
the oeration of a law o the United StatesP
Coocert among the Statei for redress agliiist tHe
alien and sedition laws, assets of usurped poer
was a leading sentiment, and the attammeat of a
concert, the immediate object of thecourse adop
ted by the Legislature, bhich as that of invi
ting tho other States " to concur in declarthg
the acis tobe'uacorisituiiohal, and to cotopcruXt,
by the neceasary aad proper measures, in main
taining Unimpaired the jatkhorities, riglits, a'fid
liberties reserved to the States respectively, aiid
to the People." That fayt the necessary ahji
proper measures to be coiicvrrcnily and eopefor
ticcly taken, were meani measures known to Uie
Constituiion, particularly tlie ordinary dntrulof
the feopie and Cegislateces of the Slates, over tne patted oiates, cannot-oe
uouuiev , auu me mieroasiuon oi uus cuniiot. jisi
,i . . i i , . .. . "v
It Ui worthy of remark, and explaaatorytof
the intentions of the Legisktture,thai the workb
" not law, but Utterly nnil void, and ncl force or
effect." which had followed, in oue of tne Reso-
lutions, the wurjl ruaconsutuuonai," were a; ruck
out by common consent! Though thd wotds
were in fact but synonymous with " unions tit u-
al," yet to guard against a misuuderstaiidiuglof
this phrase as more f hap declaratory of 'opinion,
the word " unconstitutional" aloau was leuind,
as not liable to that danger.
' The -published Address of the Legislaturejto
ij tit.L f.. i . i .i;.l
warns, them against the encroaching spirit of tlie
General Government, argues the unconstilutiduf
ality of the alien and scdiUbn acts, points to oth
er instances in which the constitutional limits
had been:overleaped ; diveib upon the dangerou$
mode of deriving power by implication i aud in
general presses the necossiiy of waiching over
the consolidating tendency of Federal rlulicy.l
lliit niitlunn- iq rum that; fan it undiiritiKyd tii
look to means of maintaining the right! of thet
States, beyond the regular uuei, withui tie fotm
of the Constitutijn. If !
' If any tnrtlier lights? on the subjec could bel
needed, a very strung oue Is reflected in fthe ah
swerstothe Kesoluiion, oy tne oiaies wmcn
pretested against them. The main - objection ui
these, beyond a few gehefal complaints! of the
inflamatorv tendency of the Icesvluuous, was-
directed against the assumed authority off a Stato
Lejjislature to declare a law of the Uuited States
unomslitutivnal, which they pronounced an uii
warrantuble interference; with the exclusive ju
risdictiori lf the Supreme Court of the United
States. 'Had the Resolution been regarded as
avowing and maintainiiig a right, in an individu-
ai o.aie, io arresi ny Torce tne execuiion pa iawa
of the United States, it must be presumed that
it would have been a conspicuous object of their
denunciation. f : . . I
1 Vith cordial?salutationst
Mr. E. Everett.
See the concluding Resolution of 17f3.
JUr. Madison to Mr. IngcrsoU. j
MofrTrliLiER, June 2$, 1S31.
Dear Sir : I have received yonr friendly let
ter of 18th instant. The few lines which an
swered your former one), of fthe 21st. of lanuary
last, were wntten in haste ana m oaa peauu ,
but they expressed. tUougn witnout
1 U7,rr.
a Bank Of the United States, and a sfeitnte
fn ti, which I cannot but adhere. Theob -
jections to the latter have appeared to md to pre -
pouderate greatly over the advantages uxpecitu
from it, and the consUtutMihality of Uie rmeru
sun regard as susiamc o oy, uie ""p?
wuicu i yieiueuuigi j v r
inguauk. itl xL L X
Thftehapre of inconsistency between toy cb -
uie reopw, uieir coumueuw, auorus puuuier mconsi. tie win una u impossible lo ad
conclusive evidence of its Hews. The Address hnretn. ml nmriv nnnn k; niu:iLi
j, -, . - , ii "k ;'-! K tne COnstllUiluaaiiir ut suuiui jusiiiu-
iections to the cnstituuonality of sHcuWk in j . w ' . ,r4- Mm
T.ij iniaiiJtt. no . t tuition. A veto frorn the executive under
mwinn. how far lribtivenrecedets. lexpoua4
ding the cunstituuoo, ought to nidt soxceedint
Lemslaiurcs. and to overrule individual opinions:
Some obsuriiy hasl been throw n o!v the
quesiiurt, oy coiuuuuuiui; "- j -
from 004 Legislature to laws passed by
Legislatures. UUi Uie IWO cases are esemw.uj
edfrrot cwitrolled 'or vaicd, b the subordinate
authority of a Legislature.i A law, on the other
band, resting on not higher ui&niy IUiM
that pofflessed by every socccssive Legislature, J
its expediency as ell as its meaniDg is,
ika onnn (.fthA hUlirJ ?- I
U . The ease in mJVZJ
u . -t K - '!!.-
tueooi f ro7Siunt&
l&eiaw ua.5uccceuuj;j'-j - 1
beihj a w lhiaXu tho Jaw: w'
rtde of detsfog to the jtidre.'v ' ' . -' . W
Ami vhv arm m4mnl nnMbtai t L i
e4 oa di; -duiOoa an4TC0imdViatjoiiaad ite v
liberatelyl gariciiniied by tcv tews aad wpeatkai H
w - - m mmr j - " - - n i m m-n w. irin ;
7 i urr uiog tnuuewsear- tamer ot au1
MionwuTs porce tn simng Ux& meaoin" of
law ? It mast bo answered, Ut lWause"it H al "'
feasonahje and established aauora, that the jnud 1
of society renhirra, that the raW of coddurtcf f
its memhew should be certain and known, whack
woujdrwf be the case itdarftx
thediS4is of his predeeesmirs. should vary ha
ruleof law according to liis individual lutefpra
tauon of it. Misera est servitus ubi jui est itui ;
vaguai atjt m5ognitiinx. 2d. Becanse an j expnsw- i
tuQthclaw,pabliely i made; and repeatedly "
confirmed by Uie eonstttutod aority.Kcarrii
with, if fair laterence the saneUon of . those who
having wade tho law through their Legislative "
organ, appear uuder such circumsUocee, to hav
determineU its meaning thnijigllt :t figs ju4icjai
organ. , . j . ' . j : ' ; 'j
Can it boTofless coafeanenoe thaf therneafu ;
ing of a Cohsiitation should' be fixed and known! r
uau uiai uie;meanmg o a taw. anouia ;he . so
Can, indeed,! a law be fixed in Ut meaning and ;
opeuiUon, unless the Constitution be to ?X j Oa j
the contrary, if a particular Legislature, diCTcrtn'' i
in tUo euastraotiua of the Constimtiuq from si ;
ries of preceg coostructioiw, proceed to act ot ;
that diirerencc, thejtn only introduce oncer-
Umty and instabiiity in the CoasutqUoo, butixt
tlie laws thernsflves inasmuch as all laws pre
eeding the new construction and inoonsisient!
with it are not only annulled for the: future; buC4
virtually probounccd nullities : irom the begin
nins .: ! ; ' -i -t -t''" - jj j '
But is said that the LegislatoM', having
sworn to support the Constitution, must
support it in his own construction of ! it,
however different from that put on it by his
predecessors, or whatever bo the cbnsequjeri'
ces of tlie construction. Aridis no ihe
judge under j the same j oath to support tho
law? yet has it ever been supposed that; ho .
was required, or at liberty to disregard jail
precedents, however solemnly repealed and
regularly observed; and by giving. oSpci, to
abstract and; individual opinioas, to disturb '
the established vourso f practice in tho
business of the community ? lias the vis
est aud most concientious judge ever tcrai
iea io acquiesce in decisions in which ho
has been overruled by tho mature opinions
of tho majority ofhii col leagues, and sdt
qucntly to conform himself Uiereto, astd
authoritative expositions of the law? And
is it not reasonable th-it the same viowlof
the official ,oatli shonld .be taken by a Leg
islator, acting under the Ctmstitutionwhfch
w hia guide, as is taken by a judge ac
i Urjg under lhe whic is fc
. a uciu la tii ijai, ail- in common unaer-
ui :. . i
standing, a necessity of regarding a coorso
of practice, as above cliaractenzed, in Ui
"gut oi a legal ruie oi interpreting a law:
and there is, a liko necessity of consider
ing it a constitutional rule of interpreting
That there may bo extraordinary and tie-.
culiar circumstances controlling tin? rule Ju
both cases, may be admitted: but with such
exceptions, the rule will force itself upon
the practical judgment f the most ardent
. i . ii 1 1 i .. . .
hereto, and act officially upon his solitary
opinions as to the meaning of the law or
Constitution, in opposition to a construc
tion reduced to practice, during a reasoria
,J,e peiiod of time : more especially where
no prospect existed of a change of .con$truo
tion by tho public or its agents. And i if
a reasonable period of time, marked with
the usual sanctions would not bar the iooi
vidual prerogative, there could be no lirhl
tation to its exercise,
although the danger
of error iriust increase with the
oblivion of explanatory circumstances, and
with the continual changes of the import
of words and phrases
Let it then be left to the dicision of every
intelligent and randid judge, which on the
whole, is must to be relied on for the trui :
and safe construction of a constitution;
that which has the uniform sanction of suo-I
resaiX'C lerisiative bodies thronah ivrtod ?
j of years, and under the faried-ascendency i
0 . - - 7 - 7 e r
of parties; or that which depends upon tho
opinions of every new legistature, heated '
as it may be, by the spirit of party, eager in
the pursuit of some favorite object, or led
astray by the eloquence and address of pop i i
ular statesmen, themselves, perhaps, un4
dcr the influence of the: same misloading
causes.- . ! .
It was in conformity with the view here tak- i
en of the resuect due to deliberate and reiter
ated precedents, that the , Bank of the Un ,
ited-States, though on the orgmai questipri
held to be unconstitutional, i received the t
executive signature in the year 1817. The
1 act orginally established a balikhad under
i gpne ample discussions in its passage
through the several blanch w of the goverri-.
"ent. It had been carried into- execution
throughout a period of twenty ya, With J
J annual legislative recognitions; in one in
j stance, indceu wrth a positive ratiScatioQ v
i ot it mto a now state; and with the entire
acquiescence of all tho local authorities,.
as well as of tho nation at large toallof
- uhichiay be added,a decreasing prospect
of aby change in ihe public opinion adverse
1 . ' 5. ..A. u
these circnmstanccs, wrtli an admission ofi
the expediency and almost necessity of the
measure, would have been a defiance of ill
c obligations derived .from a "course, bf
ii precedents axnounuog w uie requisite ev
dencc 0f the national judgment land inlet.
;i . i I ,
It has been contended that the authority
J of precedenU was in that case invalidated ,
by the consideration, tuat tney proveu onif ,
a respect tor tne stipuiatea atiration 01 toe
f&n with a toleration of j it until the law
should expire, and by the casting vote given
' . I O I V: ll.
1 in UV tJCUulB uj luc v icaiuciu w ww
vear 181 1, against a biUfor estaWishing
national BanLthe vote ! being exprcsdyfir-
' - i -
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i- '
i. H
f !
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