North Carolina Newspapers

    ft '
SrEirfi theiccnant is ovcrpfte jreaTalaii
he taken lor ta ihi 6n
ftSar w. rcHisinff wiU be done tbe vaaX rates
ii i iniii iitbe wUhdnnvn juhtil arrearaf
f ; cfs a paidjttnlcsa freJr dotes.
ic;vihrihf!tWjniirm? the whole
sum ' in aa
yirtrt hae1 heW(achnwnt&0 tor oft
SVeiflliil if adjaflcea regularly, will ;he tonUiun
S; jlAtl If tttw to the Editor mast be
Pod paid i
et hmifikssi can iltteci to II. C, JontisP.
Klll All the snbsenptioHS talceii Before the
rmraimnent luj.-tlfle j?er,it wilMbe reineiu
tre4he(eaifcott "f
MTIIiL carfi
above busihest in lU
ij eJJJti -i 'oranchqs. I in the hobse'Sbrmefl
( ocouii Jaidea B j liamjrtoh, onp dour abeff
ilrari&tU- :8tore; Ike is conritteuiby his long exi(B
If thai he lias acfiuiretla practical know);
llellf ihis froieaai thiafci that hlsj work Will
:IJjbeuiiR;is wt4l,!ae,b any wWec&oM'i in the State
IK'hoiii hahJia 5iall adsortmentl of jeweby
aU Jilverwafewhi?li he wUIseUciieap,
f . . J' fi ! Willi ;VI m w , .
M ort the
UileM Ifcaukfulfur past castOrt anatUlhlicitsaL leirinw n
ttlarekHeettsto' whd haV use, for h tKil
lirjjMevvm vtaTithis work t4 do wetlMUeffy htfeTJ
i (..Jin fui-uithRt if !it tiiU iij ckarre wtil ,lniBiany oj.
rr i". v::.j.-:r J i. !.
: - J 5 ... I ;
lie iSopseriber Tespe5ttuljy -bogs
ht&veko inform his OLl) CTUiS
a A 1 J.
rOVIEIlSianu4 the Poblic iirenerallv.
iat. bf rintinup to keep tliat J ;
I'Vii MllEVTLX -V. Tifl ctLvnm
imyVjiEYUGEl where he WU1, at ili
i jtfaf&i 55y PPJ ..' reoBiye coin pan j,.
DAIl are as cooil as 'the
Market airrds. His ROOMS and BEDDING.'
Illnlmfl none i ll s; STABLES, ilarge ahU
mi$4t. -''atjl to horses. ! Newspapers
m Iroaflierentr-partsiqr ine.uuui otates, are ta
il kyi jthis" EsTABLtkujcifT, ffr thej usef the
fUdjiyi nMV.lMllw!U "U spqred by tjie
fiV'ky'&ttty ' jfoQHe'pihi'kuests comiuitahle: I IS
;:- ; 1 Oct . 1 83i . J : I J " T: WADDI L Jr
ii-tSP1'-1? Jhioogh tlits place
in evvuuT'Oi me pwzps, win una, ai mis iiousc.
prompt aitenvion, eumioriawo accomtnonattons.
.1 v
in states villc
ItilxbnatJTi the Female 2SemiWy in Suttl4,
ville,: V4l be s.uspchat'U until the nut; IVlonda
rr January
1 a
fi IntMetUnMi the Piani Forte, by Miss fJ.1
aker, 201 i Stnne dimciulty has always 'bepa"
!.Kind: ik wocuring boardinfr for so large a numBer
oi k-VounfE iauiesi as atienu ints c?cucoj, conse
tntly it Would:
be highly . jrratifyinjr to the
: HffUdd bveii a private Boarding-1 louse jfir their
acaiiQ6da,tiou.---U is probable a commodious
jl touse could booLtanicd for that puf pose .thif
Ei J. BAKEi, J
: j- - Tcadttrs.
Ml - H '
Xov.14 iflS
nerslup. ueretotore existin?
i tweeit
me ouoscnwrs, in tue town oi Mor-
bi3visdisol ved by mutual cMfisent. All claims
; due tm said firm, are irausferred to Robert ICi
f1reiwft it h desirable ; that fhd
iute should be iWjtiidaitcd and settled, either by
If'Baym'eutWnoii.asAn as-practicable. !ir I i
Robert C. 'Pearson, thankful for
L inlorui! his friends and the public
coiiimac to carryf on the business i
that hei
in Alor-
feantoh.iat he 4ia iult received, and is receive
! JagtReral assjrtuient in every branch of his
uiiQf ot Uusmess, aQd by his anremitted -attention5
; tohbuwif, tad cheapness of his Goods j lie!
?tS0ilsMWr-:tJije ntiQuance of a liber'
Hllliaie'lif tho patrunigeof a generous publicJ '
jljltih,;- b- . i ' J ; j
WAiTAVOODCUVrV-Supexiur Court
Law October Term, A. D. f
I ii !
X l-U i-
VuiaraGreoa: ' ! ,
i i
I KexahtGrcea t i-u' t-:' T .1 i'
B biiiliavin;? been made anoear to lhe?
ifiis&ctioniofi thtk courk, that the defeudant Ke
1 ittab Green jide&witliiMit thililiiiii..f iiiuSntc
r!so that ijieuHu pessofithe law can hot
f H If ?m bfllienh ;is therefore, ordered by the
t - i f -r "- J""1-4! pe maae in me MtaioiJna
Irli-Vatchrnaiiiod ij tnftN1,rtl..f:!.r Jin,
I J f V iaVeJtisef n th terui ofthh
tit lonths, liotifyujjj thei defendant t Im ant
i f &aWf;? taw to be held for the 1
VlJ Hl;xllJW0(Xf al lne Vourt-Uouse I in
u aynfSVUiei on Uia second ruesday- after the
uihr51ayriii Alafch next, then and! tUhHf
eadihiwer or debur tu the petition ofrjthe
aonitherwiie; judgement jm conftsso,
pieQtretl against her and decree made accor
'I-And , it, is fortherrdered that the Editors! of
:8Baidiapers,-be reriuested to forward their
pers 4 this; officii duriaz the rsaid three
- ! t ,
m i i'riViOparinersiwi., neretoiore exisiin? oe-?
. i.
! SalisLJSatiy,ftte 23. 1M3.
J Hie Senate-then proceeded again'to fh Spe-csaTprdeV-cfnhe
Bay, and tliBUJ making Jur
ther provision for'thiMUectkiof' 'the Revenue
boki$ aiiiioQttefed-- ji - j'
Mr - Claytons oTj Delaware tJe&. filo said
that when the eloquent: and able ?ettaor from
-Vrirjjnia1jJlr.TyJet) rose yjerdata1? discoss
titer bill uiider consideration, tier HaJ expressed his
apprehensi4i that soirie loose rernhrk whch might
(all froBr hhu in thet ardor of . deba te, might prore
fatal' to nib: Entertained anil f delighUsd'a-1
was' by the perspieuons and adnxtrable speech at
tlje gentleman, sustaining th$ .ductrmesof the
prWd State which he so hondryly has.erer re
presented on this floor, since nis-first ihtirixlnction
as a member of this body , Mt.t. confessed that
he cmildlscarcoiv conceive of! tiu nusihiliv
any:dUtortioh of his views or mappreheosiop of
his sentitniffifs I know weltfsald MtiCltyttn.
outset, any wilful design Us; fftsrepreiient fcim;
and lie knows mUr well that If. in th nutm
-Mtl hateil debate,) should at any4' time, rfaile re-
epuiious, iaM kj express, myselt as
livtj tae pleasure U stand correc-
lanations. W hue "about to dhssent
bis oniniotis on the 1 n'terestin? 8ub-
jectf oner;me- to add. sain air. Ulavtoti. that if
anyckle expresstou of mine deliveml in the
heat oil this discussion, should pole rood its mark
and offend his honorable pridi ha will let me so
id i prevail most generous tnouIa that
I ha ve ikot ij arxwvo'er Ute hoiise aud hurl my
br6tUer j . - .-';! 1 -iHf i' -T : f ;
lfcfpstt, Clayton said, a doubt bid ver existed
in hjsudgment as ike coarse ivhih it' was h is
duty ty pursue in referring to tliis most interesting
inesisurej that doubt would haive been dispelled by
ortaiii jjresjlutions which he ,hll in wis haiuv
proceeding ' from the Legislature f the State i4'
whso; interests and wishes tie-waf a Uepresenta
tivo on this - floor.- 'T-hose ! Isoltftiorisi in sub
suri?e!, declare iniatthe Constutfos of the 5ni
ted sStals ts nut a treaty orer compact be
tween;8oyieTeigB; States, bat a formW goVei nnieiit
eiu4nati eg from nd 'estabHshed by ihe authority
ot W People of die United .Stales; that this
Gofemment, ahough ,one ilf 'limiied pliwers, is
supreme within its sphere of actio, aaj that the
People otfe to it ah allegiance; whfch -cannot, ip
coti3JHaiic6 with the Constitution, 6e w thdrawn
bvtajte nuiiifcatio or State seces&ion: that the
premepouTt of thb United Slates is the unlj
and propejt' tribunal 4or tlie ettlein4t ih the last
rvsort,)4 Ooiitroversies atrsingj ntidk tfct coti
s'thitrHi aid- the laws of Cutigress4-lbaf in ' ca
se grs ahd intolerable -aeesfonw lbr which
the rdiuarj remedies to be found in; the elective
frani:i3eand the responsibility of j pubic. ofScers
arc inadequate, tbe remedy isun btra 'constitu
uonlesisJLanco and revolutun. Janguage
of oUrPeMple,(said Mr. C.) as exprsl by their
rcprNentaiives, in rtVjrence to the fetalideluston
pervamng ne, receui orumanca ana ieguf.iaiioii oi
South iCariilina is, that, while theyleurtain the
tiuueat jeeiings towards the People pt , that State
'withlwhoin they stood side by war of
the Revolution, and; in whosef defence their bluid
was f;ely Spilt," they will Jriot fafler i their
alltgiancej out will be fbutid now, as then, true
ti their country aud its Government: aid they
4edg4 tlieuiselvos to sapxjtttbat Gpvertfmeut in
the exercise of its rights aqd in the
discharge of its j constitutional dutit. These
redoiuiiensj'proceediag as titey do ;froii geutle
meU of all political parties, dd not instrdc rao to
adopt ;the priaciples embraced I in thma4 my P
iiticalj faith and creed: they leave ni uhrfammel
led by any mandate, to follow the Course which
my pn judgment may dictate m re&renL; to the
whohf-stibject. " i ,J .
But, Mr: Clayton said, hii 6entimentswcre no
secret to the People of the State he'had he hon
or to represent, or to their Legislature.! When
doctrines directly the revers of those ere first
advocated jwithinl the wal-l of ihfs namber,
though fresh in hi seat herel bis voice had been
1 raised agamsi them. : The very first! eilort (said
Mr. Clayton) that! was ever 'made here iii favor
.of tbb weil ,Carotpid -fUKlrity, vfiYiflcatm
lyd j Ulalti ConwUion, urged by a gentleman
ioW i happy convert to ranch of. iy political
catechism', and urged then with" a U" a.
oilityj whirli has ujot been surpassed ntnis de
bate44was replied to by me wtiile ffeebly - sup
porting the very doctrine contained inth; resolu
tions; pC Delaware, so far as I 'have purred to
theni : I assure that honorablo; member I Uiere is
tuno no other! mode known among men J whereby
ne can oe pomicaiiy savea. g -. i . &
Sir, (said Mr.X the principles vpfetei I en
teral pubfic life, and Willi which by tlief blessing
of God I intend to live and flie -the lame prin
ciples! fur which 1 and my poUical friends have
beenltejndmg during the whole periotl eif my
service in thi4 senate; haterbdctv I eliscoVered by
the President! in this perilous crisis of our coun
tryK;hUtory, 1 tahe the only true cuhlervative
principles of the Cottstituiion. Aft unef of those
who have steadily, though unsucuUitpprxised
what; in mv conscience 1 believe to have been Exe-'
cutive, usurpatwns ofpower-Muctrincs jeading, as
I have afien predicted, to the ptesbnt results
true to the same principles, 1 now fiucj myself,
cjursejtf the Aidn4nistration; hnxbusjjraptir
t;iug its very strongest measarvs. i At ie: same
tmie I find the. President, without the 4iij 'of my
self iod mjr pojitical friends ia a very small and
hopeless 'minority,' in "the Senate l is under
these circumstances, sir, that the Chairman 'of
the Committee sslgbi a reason fur supporting thts
bill so directly opposite to rninereo repugnant to
all my notibnsof right and wrong--that 1 deem
it my 'ilui mUmifie to enter my iprote4tigairist
it. He supports Ube bill, if I . UAderstad him
rightly;, rjeeanse the President is to execute it.
lie votes for this great measure because it; confers
power bn one wfioYtep it not! in GaUi!);never
"nevei abused powertT He goes lbr thi loan
he sustains the prineiple for thb sake of fthe man.
'rheni may be others, sir, who. With adef (devo
tion which no circumstance can etimiaisli r abate,
wiUi an ardent zeal wbJrWtyraMy cid cool,
with dbiihd eoblQdenee which neither 'imev nor
J tide cculd ' ever weai a way would bo to tho
"yl -Xtf' 3
god of 4hetr idoliUry, and in their, hearts fitUairri,1
W tolentas tita i JtoX J supporf . the ieaomg
prpvisiens of thb bill for reasotw fiii yeiy Tcveisp
of these.! n I wir repose power" in the President,
oecanse i can stqa no wnercnaoce w suvaooa ioi
my tMntiy. wifl notbe deedj
doptionf-4he measure because hs recom-nended
by the Preaiderrtor because soch a reason as the
Chairman .has assigned indices otliew to uppon
it. Whatever beanties the ; ChairmSSt Jna? dis
cover m4thispart of us o1r n arguxacmt, iThatevt
loreign mission may now guwer jn uie ia wr
fore thenf, I see, and' wish to jsee, nt rojkts; f
politiMl advancement for mjf.or; 3iny ; of my
frieridsSjrisingoot of tbe -sudden devolution ' ia
Executive ounions.i We .i have ' committed the
impardoaable Vtn against that being who ftppears
to be 8opromiftent an object of the humble adora
tion of, others, arid lfpolitical jjleatli be the pun
ishmedt'to be inflicted on for out transgrd5siois
we" will at least perish! hopior nothing fmos ''the
smiles, and fearing nothing freim the fruirns of
Execati foower. 'Jl u h " jT viu f I
Norrtir. I trrkt. will nv mah Herewfio nbas
ever justly Uaid claini-'tir the-ioaHtaMieli:
National deUrred rMt thst "un-'
port of tbi;bUl the l neraldemunciatiorr jjC
n as Aitatrai nuasttre. w know weu wai mis
8me ingenious stratagem Has- been j resorted to
'for. thirty 'yearsl alternately to elevate and o de
press ibejleading demagogies fa this cihtry
-Jnebesttiasstblt) nfin tu eacaDe the toroe ot rea
son, is !iui appeal to the rgndrant; pre jadio df
manKinrji Urre Arhonas engaged .in nns aeoaie
traces, by the aid of the m st marvelleia4 powei?
oi comomation and detfnetum, .uiei. nouuicaiioB;
iesoliUions of Xy
to the.federal party An inffenus.moderu wr
'.ter has snovrn hbw the Svord ictiicuierj. bay b
derived ionx eremiaft'Kin bufevenfys pra
ees raust rcRiiii "unsxingilo the superior tnjf
genuitytif the ihVenbir ortnis charge ion the
men of other daypiall be beld Up; t'thi
which gave birth to tbe whole heresy: of jolli
fication, are,ntitled totio respect, :whetner wjp
consider ihetime of their oadoptiem bri this mere
ofyect for which they ; were jdran Ther
were- written ; by ' a candidate ! lor ? tfice, in a
period oi nigu party, excitement, for the very
peuuu wt ui"u party cxciwjujk-ii, 101 uiu toxj
Prposeof elinrnisOwn?eleetlon. They weft
liZlio. :s-.:.?j; .jii
well calculated to intimidate political opponents
by the threat of liltimaiedtsunion in the event ot
his defeat, and as suchrihey were denounced by
the c States at .die time, in tire, strongest lan
gaael t -Phev slept bn the sbelf after they haa1
done their oflfce, without an effort bh theVpaTt jof
any mah td vindicate the principles' contained i
them, until after the lapse eif thirty years when
they were awakened hvthe ' trumpet! of diord
reseyndlhg aaia t: t g out th's happy eour
I say, sir! that no ettort yas luadn to deferid heni
from 1800 till after the passage of the taVifT act
of 1324 yet they were assailed aud eieiounc4
in the hearing' of the very men who tighttd
have beeri firet to stand forth in thir-belialf. H
the debaton the Judiciary i)f 1802, tfr1 Giles
of Virginia, having barely So far alli 'd d to the
the subj cj as to meaiion thedeterminititm by the
Courts, tltat they are judges in the last resort of
the const itutioniBty of your laws,, to prove what
he called their Dlimited claims , to power
was promptly met in reply on thig wliole . qufs
tion, byjift; Bayard, who triumphantly vindical
ted the true principles "off the Constitution a
gainst tire then recent and.arrogaAt pretensions of
State nsurpatioti, State veto, State !interppsition
and State tyranny. 'Standing on the very prin
ciples we how advoctite, he threw the gauntlet to
any champion ou the tlier side, to come forward
m defence of the principles ;in those resolutions
Sir, no such champion then appeared ; TJf reso
lutions, wiiTch covered the wjiole ground of thi&
part of the debate, notevetr-named, much less
defended or held up as authority, by any one whd
ventured iiito the lists. They had served their!
seated in pnwer, and it waa tneir mlerest totorgtll
and to defphe them. , i -;
. . Suffer uih, sir, to add one other preliminary;
remartc betore 1 proceed to the argument ot the
main Question Involved in the consideration of
this bill. The gentleman from Notth Carolina
(Jit Brmn ) in reference to the bse of force
tosustain the revenue laws, cited a passage from
the speetdi of the ,6ame distingiiUhe-repBresert
tative of my native State to whom ( bare alluded,
delivered in Congress, oa the subject of the em
bargo law. 1 The object was I to shoiv that our
government ought' not to be sustained by the use
of force, When concession can prevent it and
I grant thei gentleman the full benefit of all the
passage he has cited. I am willing to adopt
the recommendation of that, tirnlneni statesman
in the present case. I am 1 willing; to concede
all that can be yielded to an honest difiereace
of opinion consistently with: the honor and in
terest of the nation. , i would now give mv vote
for a new tariff which should extend the list of
articles to be admitted duty free, arid as far as
thatlijst could possibly bo extended without in
jury to the essential manufactures of the coun
try. But it ought ne ver to be hoped for, that the
system which how protects the Mdusiry of the
farmer, the mechanic, j and manufacturers; in1
short, the Whole laboring freemen in the Jiiddle,
Western, and Northern States,, front competition
with the British, paupers should be qtterly and!
unconditionally abandoned. ' Sir, I am weil sat--!
isfied that it cannot be si abaniMied without the
imm'neot clanger of a. Secd ro.-uluiujn in this
government; and that, in this view of the sub
ject, it would be infinitely , better to bear the ills:
we have, than fly to others that we know m-t
of If the beasure proposed should, as tsallegeei,
drive South .Carolina into open seoession-still,
sir, I hold, that State secession is a lesser evil,
titan State Nullification.) I think . this p -sit km
is easily dernutistrable. If the latter doctrine be
triumphantly established if indeed, it be true,
that any; one, of these States jean rightfully and
eMostitutiorially decide, in the last reort on the
mode and measure of redrest for all hei ; allege! 1
grievances-then,! sirps South Carolina, while
all her .ports are openior the, admission of every
article of importation, duty free, still within tbe
pale of the junion and entitled te partHpate in
all its .blessings, fc though she refuses to share
in any of iri burthens. J ;' i :.. j ;ii
The whole amount of Southern -exports. :
mountiorr to 40 millions tannuall v. mav-be itrL.
changed ror loreign manufattares and foreign 1
pnunce,uui pj.nnue 01 uus orairraoceot nui
iificatioti. the exchange may .through these tree
ports, be forced npon the corisamptioBof the whole
country, ml defiance of all our laws fur the col
lection of duties. Tlie immediate e4ect of this !
must be desolation, and rvur to us desolation'
and ruin sd certain and so speedy that our South
era brethren would find usa prey hardly worth
the troob&of pursuit after, the lapse of five years
Throwing font of view the! destruction of our
manufacturers and mechanics j (the 1 immediate
consequence of this state iof things ) I what
have we to meet the naver-endin? drain, of uur
iaoney to pay for all the oust important uet es-
taries of lifj thus idiirchased
ftveXtxei we Tihbiiler rlegeby tlie ra
"w w i3 ) sKcn oar country jwoxtkr ie depop
aUted, preseniiny bar a wiior ana meiaocholy
waste, and a lastm? moment orxwr owfl follf
sad bMouail'Ai the same t !ime thoxe vio
would temporarily profit by thwf state of tilings
woojo evweuuy;iKr tne User aiso;' for i whera
wquld b tei articles ticeivei( in eichang for
their i prusace, When we should be no longer
able; beiy tbeaf j fOfJ tbe other band.nhe cori
sueteesjuf thesecessijm f South Carolina from
th tfotlibtilthat'is' aberent deeply to
be;dedoJedhild!th4 taematfUu national
glory j Uretamedwouhl be infinitely to be preft r
ed byrta p sech a cbnditlort of affairs. Ye
should, & the efent of her iticeessfully main
raining her seperate mdependeoce, subject afi
eredaots ind all her exchanfor them wen
loirotincea among us, tu our own TaruT; and if
pejee did notf al way g tmile nporr us, as it bertv
f ire haa; w sfrfold latleastihv tr WrlrW
of iits blessings, laamtain enf independence W
Mwri i ii tne nenerabie member
4J. w lerrora ejri me, nuHiflcatfoti presents
even istiij trreattr Levils m i omftnefttir nA
that Tcarinot' be deterred froin the support of
eflect of their Ordinance and iegislatiin, by the
threats Mi disunion aa a necessarry coiiscouecce
aftts;paasa?B..MH ? . .i; r
j I -eome; then, sir, to theidi$cussiori of the ttaih
daestiod rio'wbeforeius. : '" I
I- Are this Ordinance anit inJIir, f Qitk
.?TWnf;nr Willi the Constitation df the
tUt o ifclrrT- . "V
4.L.u Z:ZiZ 7-"Z'
r iT- ' w,v t wwic iuno lawn f
lastly, if We have sncb powers, ! are the i
t . - . . W - W. V W w
IMjriore iiiivoiVHrf
owwiience r . 4 a nere never was: any question
metahtsir?al snhtli k
these tiavj? been by ntle'men holding the ikv-
awve ot each of hem. Thy ! invarialjy seek
t tile ibosttiaUi-aae infetinab!e distinctions.
II would with'- tHem1 befevideiicet ctgj& obtu-
W intellect U tail alwavs to discriui mate bd
tween a ;8fcAe anef the People 6f a state between
i oivniirhki o..M.M 4. J 1 j ; 5
! 1 ? pr-cts.on whre each of these or?g n
ated, andl whore ; they
how remain hstwiea
vfluiu.i 01 tue Dowtrs I liie irnvnrn-
ment and the source from winch those powers
JB: anu neiwec?n me eDct?t,f a rati-
ncaifon ;oy the people o; the United States ctif
lectwely, and that f a rai icntioa by the same
people voting by 'state divisions. Theddrisa
to the people ofSoiith; Carolina by their Delo
galesin Convention! is repjete witlrsucli distiuo
twins. Tlb passage from that coritU state paper
Which l ahi about tojreadsir,'exhibits the origin
of all the err. r of the writer in h.s opinions of
the; naturu of' soyrei'u-y "? '
HA foreign or inaiteniive reader, unacquainted
"with th? origin trogu; and hjstory of tne
' Constitution, would be very apt, from ihe phra
"seology eif the ihstramenl. to regard the States
"astnving divested themselves of the r s ivreign
ty, and to have become great corporations sub
ordihate to ne supreme government But
"thwf is iserror! Tlie State are as sovreigu
now as they were previous to then entering
"into the compact! "lu common harlauce, and to
"avoid circumlocntidn, it. may be admissible o
'noujrh to 8peakof delegated jand reserved sov
"reignty.iButj correctly speaking, sovreignty is
' b unit.;;' t is one!, ibdiyrsiulel, and unalienable.,
it isr, then, ah ' absurdity t imagine that.
the sovreignty of the Slates is surrendered in
"parr, and retained in part, t he r ederalCoti-
stitutioh is a treatvla ir.mtederation.ari alkahee
byi which so inay;fireirfa States agree to
exercise ineir sovreijn powers coioiHiiv upon
"certain objects of external concerns, on which
they are equally inieiresteeU such ss war,
concerns, on which
commerce ierero-n negotiation, and lu
!Mian trade; and upon all other Subjects of civil
rt 'gniy siperalcly. TTub b the true nature of
vteirfttv is tv Una authority a Mrf" :it
T r Pf9 w rsucli as are proper to secure thatJ1""11 tieir iuts. ine iecotive, exercismg
r r j " sj -
and safety; of all. a vain did jthey declare that
i a! - .; . -Z "
individuals1 entering
mto society .must give up
preserve the rest. In vain
a share of liberty to preser
did they, the representatives of the States them
selves, Ordain 1 that np ; State shall enter iuto
any treaty alliance, or confederation ; grant let
ters of martme and! reprisal; coin money, emit
bills of credit; make! any thing but gold and sil
ver coin a teuder in payment of debts; pass any
bill of attainder; ei post facto! law, or law iin-
wiring the obligation!
of contracts. In vain
did they provide that ho State shouldwititout
the consent of congress lay &xty imposts or duty
on imports! or exports, except -what may be ab
soliitely necesSarylfor'l executing its inspection
laws. Subjecting, at the same time, all such laws
to the j revision and control of congress. In vain
did they determine that no State shall, without
the consent of Congress, lay any duty on ton
page keep troops or ships of waif in time of peace,
enter into any 1 agreement or compact with an
other State, or' witHL 'foreign Pover, or engage
tii i?f uhtess actually Mvaded. or in such immn
bent danger as will not admit of delay. And
what ! is more than all thb, 1 the people of South
CarUfnafiin this 23jl o May, 3788, in vain-aol
tmnly dechi.'e to uij aid to the whole world,
ihat; they aksen ted m and ratified tiibconsuiu-f
tionv Itjwa reserved to the fwbdom of after
isges to discover tliat; they had not the pow
er to1 make a valid contract that their sovreigit-
tv .was a unit 1ndivpable and unalienabh?."
Why, sir, if thb dogma should be established,
the necessary conseqeenc of jt b, that there can
be but two !frms ot geyemment known among
men-!ah' absulate democracy, ; or absolute des
potism t I If Uie people cannot alien any portion
of their jsovreign power for their own good, we
ire ourselyes usurpem of authoiity and are guilty
ot treason by tbe very act ot attempting to le
gislate lbr their benefit. ! '
I My hbriorable friend jfrora Virginia, while so
eloquently supporting what he i terms tbe dem
ocnticoctrines of 179, 'assures us that our
Govemaient cotdd not be euveieign iri any sen e
f that wprdi ; that it waif but an euanxtiun from
c !taia land; .hed$sexisleiicottt at the
leasarijtbe. SateifJi-,Jie:.. fota the signifij
eantiaterreratorya to sustain himself ,in thes
positiorrs Can there be ueh -'a thing as a citi
zen of the United States? and to thb he de
mands an answer. ! "It . " I. " r ' ' ' i
i I will give kinf that answer; sir, bydesen!
thb ! trovenoect as it actually exbts.
is he indivisible pd wudtenalleV The in- f President ol the Court) tii his place as a meat
f renc j drawn from tijese premises b, that it is ! ber of the House of Ueresenta lives, took tlie
an ahsurdity tii iuiagie. tliat: the sovreignty of distinction relied upon between judicial and po
the State ts, surrendered in part, and retained itcai power, he cleaily pjiiamed and dehned
in part. In vain did the framers of our gloriuus 1 he Court can deckle only in a case which
Corisiitution, in their circular of the 17th Septem- ! can oe brought belore it. f It! can do nothing ol
bet 1W i declaring that it was obriously tin- ' "ere motion, it has no Legislative and no
practable in the Federal Government of these ; Executive power, but in! every case : in law or
states to secure all rights oflmdependent ' iy which could arise before the Court under
rtitrrit,, iA Pjh.aVid vet ofovide for the interest ; the Constitution or lawsuit is, as the Courts of
Trtic radical and oai error bil
hs Icllctt ' cmiisis ii tire H otBtssion'tjv dii.
enrmrabetween t ibdMlGoveameBt;a natiat
al goveramea:,'a4 oar got ernment which 'b
j tM-uuu urn iuouai, oak, a com-'
pound W both. -The hfiirv of itaucijin b souii
fold. It wis tramedhy the States inn Conv.
tiont of hA Sutes;aflii 'the ITtlt SeptC1 1787
by iat vearion; it Iwas-direeted first to be
submitted to the United Stated
assembled,.and tbea'yCsnventioa of ?l)e
egatejehosen in each-Se'05 f4sSmfc thee-
ci, wauw ukh reewmenaauon 01 ' lis. legislature, 1
ror-uurftMCrtX taici rattjieatton ltfwisusscdUd
to by the I People after it bad rjeen ?bpo bv
the States, ' it is thus lifer a ceatract between
the people -audi- the States. Uodiag toem'and
eacb of dtern .f "..' - ." .-,.- n f ; :
This CotitutiMi bt a ' form government
agreed to between the- 4veraUttes between
the People of the several ; Statesbetwed '!the
People of each Slate, aril the State I itself-and
betweea ibm People of 5 each Stato and overv
oilii State. If the sovireigttty 'ot tae People u'
each State ever had1 beeaa unit, ' indivuible and
onalieaabJe, m the Rente of the . South Carolina
Con veution, the eonrractwouid have been void
ab iaiiio. But presumiaor that even the treuile-
maa frgin Virginia will agree tnal it w not an
Uie ratificatk
scribe' briefly
and the operations of its powers. Originatiag,
as it did, both, fmn the I States 1 and the People,
... l r 1 - i, ,
tuor mwwsiwa 01 11s powers" wouia nave su
tuonzed the orwioti oa 8,tnmn4 either
exclusively national, or a mixture of Jjotu. - .
The House of ilepresehtatives is a body which
the Peoplejilooe aONrepresented. i Inthe . Sea
at.; the farte ulJM are represented without the nmiDnr of the 'People costaiaed
-1 -V -
( 118 uuaimee i
vetoon tib'iavOs: in th4 ' Retoreseai
taufe of the Teopfe ami th States oouibined:
1 hese orelinate branch of the Icgidlaiire power
are checks oa each others as the 'Senatot from
Jtiaiee has described theiiw It is . iadeed, sir.
literally true, that less thaa one htth of the Peo
ple ofiheStates, 6y their Uepreseauli vee in thb
Senate, could now delVat kuy law I proposed by
the unmee1.te delegates -jf the People of thB
United States in the either hraucb of Congress.
That : brunch b national orf jpopular--thb fodera-
ve ana me execuuve is eiocteu oy tne pow
ers which create theni f both Well may it be
said tiiat there never was a goverument before it
in which the rights of a 1 marity Were so cotu-
pieteiy protected. Jjut this procectloa does not
stop here! Should all these branches of the guv
erumeut trample on a minority by the enactment
of an unconstitutioeal law,? it may appeal with
saiety to iho Judiciary, another braacn of the
Government, the taeuiberslof which are nomina
ted by the President, and confirmed by Uie lie-
presenUtives ot the States! in this body. And,
unally, should the Judiciary decide in favor of
in oppressive I w, there dien an appeal to the
People to remote tne agent who have been
guilty of the cppressiou f i'he rate of the alien
aud sedition laws would furnish the honorable
member from V innuia Willi au apt iUustratiou of
the eUective operation of. vliis last and most im
portant check on the exercise of the power
Thb government possess the right of self
prest nation,. Asa uecetary mcideut tu thb
uiporiaut rigut Uie Judicial Uepartuieut posss
Uio power to settle, in the emphatio language
of a resolution of the Legislature of my native
State, wmcu i received butyesterday and 1 thb
day support, "ail couiruversies between the Uni
ted States and the respective States, and all
c mi trovers tea arising under the constitutiou it-
1 sell." Ull this must luiwrtant question, it I
understand t e hooorablei Seatjr froui Virginia,
. . . ; . . . mj'2. I ' ' m . :
! mint' 1M collision, uie supremo vouir cannot oo-
i cide.'i. I ke geutlemaui lro.u Kentucky (Air
Bibb) holds that the Court catinotexercue poiiti-
( cai power; and ne aversinai uie quesuon now
ngitatuig the State of South Carolina cannot be
: decided oy the Court, bedause they arc all cases
VViien JJr. iViarshall (viie present illustrious
. - si.- .
' the United States are now organized, the sole
i tor 011J r. .tmnfV kk ovur t'lisait Itisrn lf
t Arc.ier , ;
Awarvs (Uiu siJ iiiiu: uao vivi aewsew
to contradict thb pnuciplo. On the
contraty, the whole cuneut autuoriues m tne
Court sustains it. ' 5
Can then the question as to the validity of the
South Carolina ordmauco and ligislation, made
1 as tliey arem opposition fto four revenue taws,
j arbe before the Court ? Why not ? Jf it be
not preeuted for determuiatioiK there, it must oe
owing to no other cause which I can understand
than the refusal of hex citizens to bring up the
point. In an action for a breach of bur reVenue
laws, tho ciuzenof Carolina who may claim
the benefit of thb State interpueition can smely
piead Uie special matter iri bar of the actual aetf
ting forth the ordinance and laws under which
he demands protection. Thei Attorney for the
Government must demur I to the plea, because
tho facis coutained m U a not treasonable.
The judgment of the court below and ol Ue
court 10 appeal must be ba tio-trfy tjuestioo
wliethcr thb ordinance ami these laws are con
stitutioual. Will any j professional geutleman
here deny this? WiB any onp of them state a
pissible difficulty in regard ul the propriety of
thb mode U presenpng tbe whole ejuestioa in
issue between us to thb ttibunal ? Sir, I defy
their scrutiny . They . know as I do that the
case is one which can be easily submitted to the
Court if they dare to do it
The President in hb lath message in referf
ence to thb most mteresting subject, has brought
back the Government to jits troe principles and
maintained the authority of the Court as I havc
stated it. if !
Thesentimenm of the Vice! Piesideot eleet
.coincide i with these oo this rtjteet9xUatlhtt
haslDnorJOD-cuBlnutta, ' 'Mr Van uureaf
m hb speech oothe Judiciary , "In 1926, ay 1
itliasbeen juuly observM that there xf
not upon thb earth,and there Wver jdid xistj,
a iudiebl trihunal ckuhed With IpowerS so vaftf
oux. and au iinrjortaar. aa the Supreme CoortJ
By it treaties and laws made paraoaat to
the Coostitutioa.are declared tiibe thd Sprem
Uwof the land. "So tar i at least wtbe acts of
Congress depend upon the Courts V ihetr JT
euuon, the Supreme Court? b Use judge whether
j nosuch acareplila;,lf,
keta therefore "may absuluteljr omm1 nice
waUa the acid u' the Xauxai lajslattua.", j
.? kVf O0,y are ins acts r tbo National W tt
umpir4 between thb eooflictm powers ofthi''"
Qenet U and State povenrnefl ts. Bat thiss s
rM all? It not only sitsr in final Judgment oW
our aeti as the, highest legislOive body known jb
W$ outryii it on ry claims ti" be the aVso
rate 'albiietwixo'rtFenVj tate fok
vrndeat4-btit it exercises' the same "greatjoir
er bef?een the respective Slate," IbrraUi thi
great confedncy an J their otpji eUlztndJ f !; !
tvhoBQ acts the : seal .of condeniaatioa haa nn
Ooia time to time been placed by .the Supremo
vawu. f a in? voTCTeigu auutorwes or .Vermont
NeW IlaiJinshire. New Ynrl- Smm Jn P-
mvaala, MarvhndJ tirmnia. North !CWJink
:viw4t'rS ITtlw -i'rk 1 2 . p
:rr Trt'mJ .vuw, uej mum,
been, rebuked and silenced,, by the over-ruling 1
Spthoritj of thjs.conrjU , , I musi not be under- f
stoooir, as complainmz of the; eterase of this
junidicUon by the Sutveme Court. h bass enun
lueofrrcmesa tu ineif aectstona. t insevtaorui 1 '
' tjf0. this it not j UU jtlads
I Mr, Clayton here spokeof the attempts mado 1;
to eXQJierate Virginia frora the . imputatlia of in- - j -
cbnsistency, between, the principles of her reao- V"
ldtioh;Qx 98 and those adopted unarumooaly U11 1 " '
answer to Pennsylvania Tho; Senator i from ! j
Virginia says that, Decause toey were Qnannnop j
they field not have been wejlcwnjderet Though 1 .
tie Senator had orged the same argument cn a rh
former occasion, MrC, said he could nt deem it
sound, A o'hanirootis 'vote, in hVorouun, imp!i- !
ed a iyell omsidered and , fyell settled deckil. !
e nmeM raised .aporjVlthe distinction be ;;;
ttveea a pSbositioq for an atbijerb decide con- r. -Uojersies
between a State and the Federal Gory
erinetit, and 4 prppostiou f n cn arbiter betweeu
the Sutea themsenhcrs, he . rejected aAtncta "
piiygical .refinemenC l U.'CXtrelred to tbo' ' '
.Soati Carolina Address, from which ha dted tbo V
!flIowmgiiass52- '.'l!-'-l: : p'-liV
I U b loruioat for the. riewV whiche hiyo "
jsttaken, thai the history of.Ute' Ctitatljiifc
as treed through ,the journals of Mie. Convention
which framed that instrument, places! the right p
cba tended fir upon .tfie satne sure ; foondktiam.
A aese journals turmsn abundant, nrnoj mat- rnu
Irne of jurbdictioa between the States and
deral Government! in doubtful cases. i and
Kandolpb, the mjst prpfnihf at advocates for a
Supreme. Government, that it was impossible t
daW thb line, because no tribunal au&kieniiy
impartial,' as they .conceived, could be found, and j
that I thve; wa no alternative hot to make jtW
Federal Gwerument supreme, by giving ltilii j
al ech cases, a negative on the actsjof . the Stite
Legislatures. The pertinacity with which tbj is j
netiva power was insbted on by the advojeatea . ':
of a patioaal govemmeni. even after all the lnV
portapt provisions of ,the judiciary ot' third !Ur !
licle jof the Constitutiori were arnngud and ar ,
gloed to. proves, beyond doubt,' that trie j Supreme :
dotirl was never contemplated by either party in j
that ponveation as an arbiter to decide conflicting
claims of, sovereignty ! between the States and vj
Qm jress; and the repeated pj'ectVt cfi all oro- ;
posab to cake from the State the 'powers plaetttg '
their own construction oa the articles f anton.
evinces that the Sta'es wero "resolved never to
pirt with the right to judge whether the acts. irf ;
the Federal Legislature were or were liotah ia
friniimentuf thobo articles." ; , , j 1 .
The facts upon which those conclusioas Were . r
based were, ho said, erroneously stated J Tlwro
was in the Convention a member from the State
of; Maryland, who wasa nullifier at' that day;
lie Was a man of distiagubhed ability land le
gal attainments; he referred to Lather j' Martin,'
Heopped the Cistitutim, and refused hb si-
nature to it. He represented one of th;o small
States, the safety of: which he believed tio depend
on tlie establish men t of a purely federal 1 govern-
mejnt! Tile 1 loose of Delegates of. Mary Und
demaaded of him hi reasons for refusing to sgu
the Constitution. Tfiose reastnw he gave, in n i
very able view of the Con3litntioti, ebraoing
all Uie objections to that instrument Which havn
since been urged. Ha hjeeicl especially to lis
powers given to ins auprwne ioure, ana u
the clause providingXj jthe puuishmeat of., tre ;J
son. I ' 1 ' . ' j .... -j ' 'I 'l :' '
These powers ilrMartia cohudW. consoli
datedithe government Arbitrary power he say
may nd ought tobejresbted, by arms, ifecessa
ry! The time might eaue when the dignity ami
safetv7 of a State mlffht render neoewsary resort
to the! sword, in which case the Constitution pro
videdthat every one of her citizens, eov fesbtmg : ,
the laws of the Pederil Goverament, diall 4
iUklt Ivith traiuws: Mr.C- wtobtiiwl v
ceain passages tront'iho dooimcat td wjiich f&.
hail rlferrod: '! ;f ' j' u . Jib
fBy the tliird section of vthis article,; tjs de--cl4red,thattreasoa
agaih3t the iJui ted State,
shUlionsist in levying war agalwt tberit. fw
adherfag to tlieir enemies, giving ? them aid or
coinf'lt.-' ! x " . '- Ji-,' ;!'-"
By the principles of the Americ4 revidulw
arbitrirr power may and eegbt to be resbhsd even
byi airosVif necessary. TIkJ time may com
when it shall be the duty of a State order tfj
preserve itself fnin the oppression of the general
government, to have recourse w m woi. iu
wnbhlcsae die mvtweed form of government de
clares! that the. State aa4vy -tia of Ka f
citbers whonut under iu authority, are. fgmlly I
of k direct act of treasottA&c.- J ' . -Nj
fTi save the citizens of the respective SUte
front thb disagreeable dilemma, tnd tssecur
them from btinff punishable ae aiUo tie
United Stfiles, when acting expressly obienrei
harecMained as sn smemeot ttsM
tioh ofi this article the feUewwg dausaf rPro-vidV-dJthat
no act or acts done by one or
the States agabst the Uatted States, or by any
Seoefi lhe Vkiie4J:
aatborfty of one or cwre pf SfS f treasm vt vpniAed as sack, ,
--i-'-r f7m Uvu-d Iry one 1 mere 5
ro lease of war beteg 'WftJZ
of the SUes against ne rZZjfy&y'-
conduckof each party Z
adbeiwurespecuvely,.sr,be wguiaww
7 JZd erumasl. since tber
mercy 1 u.o euf:. :.:,t Bd'entira
coedd not sujceeea m iaeu "" j
uJruel that a Ste may nullify the. fJ
UaU, and
moat bo aome etaase ofjUie Conto.
Xom rnce to th, bR
Gpefrnent6y tne XZi aothurl
pairs, flered an fkV.
lmlArk raa reiecied, W
thst r
H 4'.-
.'it .:
- 9 -i
f !
i s

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