, ' .... - : -U " Ti ' : : . ) i - ' . f -" . :.. . - - i - ....'. -fc ' - , : '-... . ;
- . -1 ' 1 1- f- , ,n - - ; j , . t p ; , , -
- f - ' - . j , - "-;.'. j " x - - " - - ' ' - '
! iriiE crows.
'- 'stralio? a Supper. The Rocky Mountaina.-A Horse
i killed for ! Food. Cold' and Hungsr. -pressing the
i Mountains.-A Sp!cndi3 Sunset. A Passage Found.
-The Anjoaturns. A j Party of Mexicans. Indian
i Scalp-Dance,-GuiJes cnt Back.--A scene of Feast
ing, -Thoughts of Starvation. Shepherd's Dogs.-
Croats anJ their Uses. ' - v " - f
On the! 10th of September, the 'clay Tol
1 lowing that jon whjch our .whilom guide
L" had been,' ejn. we bund what appeared
to bean old cart road, and also'a deserte'd
Mexican jcamp. Te road iwe followed
until it vas ost upon sandy prairie des
titute of vegetation.
This day, three moun
tains were discovered in a southwest di
rection, iindj jsome j fifteen miles distant,
bichoptiie strongest resemblance to
the description Carjos had often given us
of Vie Crows. It seemed, too. as though
we could j discover a passage through?thel
chain oi smaiier nms norm m mem an
opening resembling the Angosturas I have
often before jmentiijncd -bu we had been
so often deceived that lew of us could now
anticipate a iy sued good fortune.
In the mealn time, our me tj were driven
nearjy to desperation by bungervj Little
or no prdqpuld lb preserved by. the of. I
Few deer or nnteldpe were saeri, ahdlhey
; were so jshf that it was impossible to
. snoot iem;i(put in place ot them every
tortpise nnd snakej every living and creep
ing tningyas seiied upon and swallowed
by our tarnishing men with arapacity that
-nujiiiiJi; iiuik jiiie , uiresnunger; couiu in
duce. Occasionally a skunk or -polecat
would reward some one more! fortunate
than the rest-; but seven out of every ten
of us irere compelled to journey on -with
out a morsel of anything to appease our
One! am(ising little anecdote I will here
relate, tosh6w, iji the first place," the dire
ful sfraif pljwhich;ouri hien! were driven,'
arid in theseconoj to give my readers an
.insight inW he trickery of old campaign
ers. Ve Jir d reached a camping-ground
late one eWingj: where a sufficiency of
wood -WftB fAlirtfl hft hinAla
" tial fires.! yhil(p a knot of jus were red
cuning aroiiaa one-ot the tires, specula--ting
- as jto jour prospects, youngster
brought in1 a spotted-backed land tortoise,
alive ancj j kicking which he had been for
tunate enough to find upon the prairie.
Throwing if; upon the ground, and placing
the end df tifs rifle upon the back of the
animal -.tp pre vehtits crawling off", he next
asked anjplU hunter how to cook his prize.
The ahswerwas; that he must open the
coals and thrpwj the tortoise in, cover, it
oyer, and n (low it to remain for at Teast
half an Mr in the fire a longer .time
would only scrvhlo make the repast more
savoury. J ' . .v.: v,..... '.
Np sljqto said than done ; for in less
tHan a mjnijte thp unfortunate tortoise was
Hasting alive beneath a bushel of coals.
The cotiritenance of the young man was
Uit wiih Win anticipationf a jneal,
which, although at any other time it would
have, beeij j-e vohing, he now coveted with
tbat.loiifhrur. which starvation only can
; V r,V ? r M T 11 r s a mea' "e was not H
.destined tbjenjoy. The; old campaigner,
uuKr leiun nun inree or lour. .times that
his supper Was hot cooked, final lyr found
means to, wijhdiaw. theyoungster's atten
tion fronij tfid coals, and then to whip the
nuiiimi ouirvynn nis iron ramrod Was but
; the workj of a mjoment. Another moment,
$nd 4he welltroftsted terrapin Hvas safe be-
muiu me fjacfv ot me more elderly ranger,
and where theVoungster could not see it.
; I "Vont you think he'sneariy uone ?"in
quireatnej latter, now turning his head
ana ioolung wistfully at the fast-expirin
ucu oi coais; , - i ;i :
."rrettV well cooked by this time vou
cin lake him out." retorted .the old borber-
er, whiles fjuitly watched the first spea
lnI rniXeimehts of the youngster, as he
ursi commenced opening the coals, were
skv and decided: by-and-by, as he near
a c hottomof the mouldering heap, his
I uu ucwcxcuea ana uurncd. The ex
pressioiVorhis Countenance! ma v be easi
er magindjth4n described; as. after hav-
faug a the hard ground itself, he turn
ed to the Kuhor of his misfortune, and, in
i :ttter igranci of the trick, exclaimed,
"lie's Me . .
t r n i l v ..rcpeniea. me veteran
w I IIIU 1 O I m mm .. m
"urueTen ; he alive vvhen you threw
,vt i mini
- 117 y
I - ?SJ
" 'Ii V?1 1 ca
OntinUetT the ranker, " von
e thought the terrapin mightily
with the simples 4f you supposed
'uiuisiiiv in inn nr nnn rio Mactmi
4 wPf n jhelcould easily crawl outand
; S10?!' X !M youngster draed him-
V;? M,!f IaPketIsuPPerIess,vhile the
trickster quietly wended hi way to a
l.?gHbofife fireto pick .the. seantviPrtt
"om Ihs i prize, and ehuckie ,at his.
7:3 m - uoing ' the green-horn out of
3 sunnnit m
AheTpid we had -found' and followed
-.oujn ine morning ve uuncea
Qeel.rra;rkk Had losf themsel ves in a ba:
grarelH praifie That we must imd
passage thrdush or over the rnountairts
or-ns (was considered , certain, but
''ji''llteW0 was. npbne;couldim
of r VWT Tar 'fron beingfaware
onJ!1 F? time,,but they , proved to be
beui Jifei s tbe sun gradually : sank
.flfty nd ra-ged summits. -a
'J;1 iprjeeze sprattsr un jV6m their
SQDoffiood ; It wasMrst cbld weal
iVreai-l9 pierce directly through us. !
ed tK f"1? ed bur marchuhtil we react
pi wnicn, we encamped for
iiocK oi wua iureysL had
iiCPrsjnvomniPepi scaiienngk aoout in
every direetMn. huhting for plums, grapes.
and ram asimigrhl fall in Ihcir wnv.
taken shelter! under the banks, running
ou as wc apruauneu meir roost. Altho
contrary to ftrict orders, nothing could re
strain our man from banging and-blazing
away, at ino xurKeys as tney sped across
the prairie-fjifty rifles and muskets being
discharged atithem before they were out
ofsightTyo or tjiree only were killed
by theolleand running fire Iwhich. en
sued, and tley were but half grown, and
so extremelylpoor that they did not furnish
a meal for half a dozen men. ,j To go far
ther without boneAiiiP' to ratt. WAaihnw
deemed cimpbssible-the , wild! and hag
gard expression; the sunken eyes, and sal
low, fleshlefs laces of the men too plainly
snovvra, inat some means ot sustenance
must be spee!dily provided. - At horse for
merly belonging to Howland which in
the earjy part of the-campaign had been
one of the best animals in thefepmmand,
was now foqnd .to be so poor and badly
broken down' that it was resolved to shoot
him and divide his flesh among the differ
ent messes!: As they; led the once -proud
and gallanf animal to exscution, the words
of an old iiursery sbhg came fresh to my
mind one; that ! had. neither! heard nor
thought off for many, many, years. The
burden of the ballad. was, - . - c ;
t t Poor old horte ! he must die !" -
and I have only mentioned the circunv
stance to Illustrate the velI-known eccen
trichies of4njemory.' A man is often plac
ed in situations and becomes a vitne5s of
scenes which suddenly ajtvaken and brings
back the lori-forgotten associations of his
But to return to the actual. The horse
was killed, and in less time than it takes
me to tell thishide was off and his flesh
distributed.! I have before said that , the
flesh of a jypung mustang is excellent
but that of jin oll, broken-down horse is
quite another affair. It was tough as India-rubber,
and the more a pieee of it was
masticated llhe larger it became in the
mouth. Iqor as it was, however,- and
hard to swallow, I am coujident that ma
ny a mart In the party ate four or five
amanf n the party ate four or fiv.
irras of It, half cooked and without sal
pourras ot ir, halt cooked and without salt
I know itjat I devoured my share. That
I lost some of the good opinion I entertain-
. " "'J1'!4 uuc ruling lUt IUOU 1 Will
Hot pretendj to deny, and even a buzzard,
that sat perched upon a dry limb of a cotton-wood
overhead, appeared to look down
upon us r rjroachfullyas he saw us ap
propriating food ihat legitimately belong
ed to hinl. Tlftre was something, too,
like honesjj indignation expressed in the
countenance of a wolC which sat quietly
NvatchinffibuT Derations from thft nrt min
ing prairie; but at the time wewere hun
gry enough to make a meal even ofs him
had he fallen into ourjiands. A man ne
ver knows, what he will eat until driven
by a weeks starvation.
Our toUjh and most unsavoury meal
oyer; we Spread our blankets in the ra
vine, where we could be partially protec
ted from the biting northeast wind ; but
the cutting blasts found their way through
our scantyf eoyering, chilling our weaken
ed frames o such a degree as almost en
tirely to pp vent sleep. .With the ordina
ry stock of flesh and blood we should have
been far better able to withstand the bit
ter wind ; jpst wasrwe could only shrug
and shakeand pass a sleepless night. V
Weak aibd unrefreshed, we arose in the
morning-breakfastless and desponding,
we mpu nted our horses, and once more
resumed oil r gloomy march. Our course
was southwest, and in the direction of
what appeared to be. a passage through
ne moun&iasVbut after travellingr some
six or eight , miles we found; our farther
progress cut oft by high precipitous as
cents. To return was our only alterna
tive, and at noon we again found ourselves
near the point whence we had started in
the morning.. ' ; ' ;
A consultation .was no w held! as to oar
future course. Running directly north was
a high chain of mountains, extending as
far al thceye could reach, and many con
tended that pur best course would be to
travel alofcg the base of this, chain until
we either found a passage through or met
With the trail of the St. Louis traders.
Others, again, thought, our wisest and saf
est plan Would be to attempt crossing di
rectly over the mpuntains where Sve then
were, laborious as was the prospect. The
Jatterparty. prevailed, and the attempt to
upuso viis pixiiiicuiciie j v maue. . . .- . .
After incredible fatigue to both horses
and men, for we were obliged to dismount
and carry our arms and baggage in our
hands thp ascent was oinally achieved.
Arrived at the summit, a beautiful pros
pect was efp re usCBelow, a peaceful
and lovely valley; vas spread out, through
the" centre: of which the large stream we
had left ,the,rprevious day wound alonlrl
Innumerable brooks, taking .their rise in
the mountains aroundancaudered throush
this valley, and finally found their way. to
banks of the river werejskirted with a nar
row belt of timber of larger and niore lux
uriant grovvth. : The valley was hemmed
n on all sides by mountains, whose frown
ing and precipitous fronts appeared ;to7of
fer impassable barriers fagaihs
proach to he tranquil aind beautiful scene
lying far elow us At another time these
ragged and dangerous steeps" might have
stayed our further advance but now,af?
; :.....,.,; L
our. poor and foot-sore ani
mals a short rest; we d rove them1 down,
and in less than an hour foii hd ourselves
safe in the valley. -i-It was ribwi discover
ed that two of our men were missing, un
able, probably frpm their oWni Weakness
and jaded condition of their hordes, to keep
ujj wmi me mam Doay. ye couia only
hope that they might be able td follow our
trail and overtake us at our'encampment
it was impossible, s6 weak! anil lame
were all our horses, to go back in search
of them. " ' ' - -
On; reaching the jibber; of the river
banks we . immediately ericahipej, "and
turned bur animals loose to graze and rest
themselves after their fatiguing mountain
march, The river was foundjto' abound
with catfish, and as we had several hooks
and lines with us, a sufficient number were
caught to give us all a meal. l jshould per
haps call it a feast : for even wfithout salt
or seasoning of any kind, many of our men
ate pound after pound of the coarse fish
with a relish which a gouty alderman
might covet, but could never enjoy over
the best bowl of turtle soup the ingenuity
of man ever compounded; j J,,
Sunset in this secluded valley present
ed a scene of almost unrivallekl magnifi
cence, as wejl as of mild and heavenly
beauty. The tops of the surrounding moun
tains, upon which the blue vault of hea
ven seemed to rest, were gilded by the
msi uiost oriuiant raysi while the
deep-black shadows, as some beam of sun
light would dance around andjkiss for the
last time a more towering summit, would
course hurriedly down jhe frowning moun
tain sides, as if to findltheir hpraes in; the
depths below ere darkness assumed her
sway. A soothing, an ethereal b,uiet reign
ed throughout the valley, broken only by
the evening hymn of some turtle-dove,
vowing anew her constancy to her mate,
or by the last bark of the squirrel, as, with
light and buoyant leaps, he .wended his
way from the river to his nestj among the
mountain cliffs.'; " By-and-by a brood of
wild turkeys which had been8 hunting for
iiieirsupperaiine Dase ot the rocky steeps,
flew over our heads and sought their roost
in a Jarge cotton-wood which overhung
the river. The sharp crack of a rifle soon
announced the doom of oue of the flock,
while the report, taken up bv a thousand
echoes, reverberated from grot and glen,
from steep hill-side and quiet dell, until
lost to the ear in distance. "Night had
thrown her sable mantle, alike over the
valley and the recently-gilded mountain
tops, before I could turn from the contem
plation of the lovely scene, f ;
. Early the next morning, Mr. Hunt, our
guide, set off; in company with Captain
Sutton, in search of a passage through the
mountains, which would lead Usalons the
river banks. They returned; in , two or
three hours with the joyful intelligence
that they had discovered an excellent route
in a western direction, one which would
extricate us from our present dilemma
without much labor. To saddle and mount
our horses was a work of but. few mo
ments, and then,. with hearts much light
ened, we resumed the journey. )
After crossing the river, and emerging
Irom the timber which lined its banks, we
entered a narrow but open valley that had
been concealed from view by H projecting
point ot oneoi the mountains.! Two hour's
ride brought us into a road which had ev
idently been used for carts, as we found
yoke-keys, standards, and other trappings
Ut I A.. TUT- ! I
iircjuugiug io a luexican venice, scauered
along its sides. On either hand, the frown
ing and rocky sides of mountains rose hiarh
above us, and we now knew and felt that
we were in the Angosturas, or where the
stream has lorced its passage through the
eastern spur of the Rocky Mountains.
Well do these mountains deserve their
name, for they are nothing but immense
heaps of stones, irregularly piled up, while
but little vegetation is to be found upon
their sides save a lew stunted pmes and
4 -For three or four miles, after first enterinsr
the Angosturas, our road was along a solid ledge
of rocks, the river on bur right, and running
nearly east and west. The greatest width of
the pass through which the stream runs, until
the traveller leaves the rocky road, cannot he
more than half a mile, while the towering fronts
of the mountains on , either side are so steep
inai even a goat would nnd much difliculty in
climbing them. On leaving the ledge of rocks
tnej pass grows gradually wider, and the road
becomes sandy." We had no sooner struck the
latjer than the tracks of mules arid asses were
plainly visible. A little 'farther on, the foot
prints of men were also seen, and every ap.
pearance they had been made but feW hours.
Not a sign of i human habitation had we dis
covered, either in - the .beautiful valley where
we had; spent the previous night or along the
road vve were no w travelling, but that we had at
length reached an open highway and were close
upon a party of Mexicans was evident enough;
With jeelings the most joyful wie now spurred
Pur animals briskly: forward. The : sagacious
lingly responded to our call upon them for a
faster pace. Gradually; the Narrow! became
wider, the road grew-smootber, and just as the
suit was losing itself behind the tvestera moun
tains we came up with the Mexicans,1 encamp.'
ed at the mouth of theorge at fhich the river
enters the Angosturas.-1 As.Carfos had always
told usr thp river atjb is point turns immediately
north, watering a narrow and fertile valley.
, .Those of my readers who have ever made a
long sea vo3'ace mav remember h'owVagerly, at'
!C;, rMAY 13,-1845:
" - ' I ' ..... ... . . .
be approach of its termination when the pilot
first placed ,his ; foot upon deck, they: crowded
around anj pressed him with idle questions in
numerable : so with us, in coming up with these
istrangers. j f Every one among us, who could
peak a word of Spanish, earnestly showered
jupon the ragged, swarthy, and half.frightencd
Mexicans volumes of interrogations, without
giving them time to answer one of them; even
bad thy been able or willing. The fellows
,were just returning, with a small droveof bro
ken.down mules and donkeys, from a trading
Jrip of some two months duration among the
Cayguas and Camancbes. They frankly told
U, as sbon as we gave them time to breathe and
collectthe liitlej scattering sense they had, that
fbey hwien iis easly in the morning, and that
sucn f tbeir companion's as were better moun
ted bad instantly fled, in fear that we might fob
L I answering to the question as to the state of
feeling in New Mexidb regarding our approach.
r; ..u,U!glip us uu miormaiion upon this
point they knew nothing. The had. been ab:
sent months from the settlements, and were tra
,ding with the Cayguas when the unfortunate
Hull and his.partv were killed,, although they
bad no part or lot in that massacre. They al
so told us that they were in the main camp of the
Indians when the murdering party .returned,
bringing the dead bodies of eleven ot their war.
jnors, among whom was a principal chief. The
ceremonies and perlormanceson the occasion
the yild dances ol the warriors around the scalps
of their victimswith the painful penance of the
women in token of their irrief for the ln r
the warriors of the tribewere described bv
our hew acquaintances with graphic effect.
The women smote and cut their breasts, and
;ran naked jib rough thorns and prickly pear-bush-
iu nuw ihb iniensuy oi meir uUection.
; Vye next asked the Mexicans the distance to
the Palo Duro, or rather to the spot where our
maib body wkh the wagons were encamped.
They said that a good mule could travel the dis
tance easily in four days. Upon our telling
them the route we had taken, and that we had
been thirteen days on the road, they expressed
?he greatest astonishment 3aid it was wonder
ful that we had been able to cross the immune.
chasms arid mountains at all. They said that
jf wo had taken a course directly west, on start
ing, we snouid have avoided the deep canons
altogether, and had a good, smooth road the
whole distance. In addition, thev i
that Carlos land his companions had passed
them in the' morning, completely worn down by
hunger and fatigue. By ihU it would seem that
the runaway guide had taken a course too much
to the north, and fallen into the same errors
which bad caused us so much trouble.
j As regards provisions, the Mexicans wre
Imost as badly off as ourseU es, their stock be
ing nearly exhausted. They gave the mess to
which I; was attached, however a small quanti-
y oi oaney ment ; just enough for a taste, and
that was all. They said that San Miguel was
still some seventy or eighty miles distant, but
before reaching it we should fall in with large
herds of Iieep, and also the little village of
Anton Chico. At the latter place we could pro
cure tortillas and atole ; the former a species of
thin cakejin universal use throughout Mexico,
and the latter a tbin mush, made of meal and
water or cow's or coat's milk, and also a send
ing dish of the country. Anything, but more
especially any preparation of meal or flour,
would haye been as welcome to us as manna
was to the suffering Israelites in the wilder
The next morning.
C 1 H T '
were hired to go back to our companions, one
of our Mexican servants, Matias. disguised com
pletely, so that he might not be suspected by
any Indians they should meeToi the route, ac
companying them. They were a provided with
the best and least jaded mules we had, and
took with them a package of letters to General
McLeod. The purport of those letters was,
that we had arrived within two or three days'
ride of the settlements, and that the best course
the command could pursue would be to march
immediately, under direction of the guides, to
wards S4ti Miguel. The Mexicans, after re
ceiving full instructions from Colonel Cooke
nd Doctor Brenham, set out on their journey
across the immense prairie, and, as we after
ward learried, were leas than four days in going
a distance which had occupied us thirteen !
'Shortly after Matias and his three companions
had left -usi: we resumed our march jtowards San
Miguel Not a morsel of food did we have du
ring the day, and at night we encamped, supper
less, on the banks of a small creek emptying in
to the Rto Mora. On this stream the Mexicans,
who had thus far accompanied us, had their pla
ces of residence. After giving us instructions
tor our route towards ban Miguel, they Jeft us
P.i the ensuing morning for their homes in the
j Beforxve set out, our commander despatch.
edfbur of our best-mounted men in advance to
make arrangements for provisions, while the
rest of us followed as fast as our weary animals
could travel. ,As we neared the point where
we knew that food could be procured in abund.
ance, not only our hunger, but our impatience in
creased." During the day, I was fortunate enough,
in company with the madcap Fitzgerald, to find
half a kat-ful of wild parsley, and this we swal
lowed raw with the greatest avidity. .
;;About the middle of the" afternoon, one of the
four who had been sent forward returned 'with
the joyful i intelligence that they had fallen in
with a Herd of no less than seventeen thousand
sheep,, and ,had succeeded purchasing a .suf
ficiency for f the whole r command. ? Again we
put spurs to our horses, and a ride of half an
hour brought us up wiih the sbeDherds and their
charge, and to a fino camping-ground on the
Rio Gallinas. -
Here; a scene of easting ensued which beg
gars description. We had been, thirteen days I
upon the road, vith really not provisions enough J
for three, and now that there was an abundance
our starving men atonce abandonedjbemselves
to eating--perhaps I, should; rather call it gof.
mandizing or. stuffing.- No "Jess than 1 twenty
largei fatrsheep had been purchased and dress
ed, and every ramrod, as well as every slick
that could: be found, was graced with'sraoking
ribs and shoulders, livers and hearts. Many
( . number i;op you
UOP "VOLUME 'II.
made themselves sick by overeating j hot an at.
tempt to restrain the appetites of half-starved
men, except by main forcewould be the very
extreme ot folly. Had the food been anything
Dut mutton, and nad we not procured an ample
supply of salt from the Mexicans to season it;
our lueu migni nave died of the surfeit. "
; 1 have never yet seen a treatise or disscrta.
lion upon starving to death I ran .nenk M.
ingly of nearly every stage except the lasU, For
Ilia Krel livn rli-e. k.....L. ! . ' .
" " "; iiu;a wnicn a siron and
healthy man is loomed
ui suueniigs are pernaps, more acute than in
the remaining stages he feels an inordinate,
unappeasable Cravings at the stomach, night and
day. The mind runs upon beef, bread, and oth.
er substantials buttili; id a areat measure,
the body retains its strength. " Oa4he third and
fourth days, but especially on the fourth, this
incessant craving ires place to a sinking and
weakness. of the stomach,-accompanied bv nau
sea. ; The unfortunate sufferer still desires food,
but wiih loss , of strength ho loses that eaer
craving which is felt in the earlier' fifn nna
Should he chance to obtain a morsel or two of
tood, as was occasionally the case with" us, he
swallows it with at wolfish avidity ; but five mi
nutes afterward his sufferings are more intense
than ercr. lit feels as if he bad swallowed a
living lobster, which is clawing and feeding up
on the very foundation of his existence. On
the fifth day bis cheeks suddenly appear hollow
and sunken, his body attenuated, his colour an
ashy paleuind his eye wild, glassy, cannibal
ish. The different parts of the system now
war with each ether. The stomach calls upon
the legs to go with it in quest of food : the legs,
from the very weakness, refuse. The sixth day
brings with it increased suffering, although the
pangs of hunger are lost in an overpowering
languor and sickness. The hparflfrnm ta.
dy the ghosts of well-remembered dinners
pass in hideous procession through the mind,
The seventh day comes, bringing increased las
situde and farther prostration of strength. The
arm3 hang listlessly, the legs drag heavily.
The desire for food is still left, to a degree,
but it must be brought, not sought. The mis
erable remnant of life which still hangs to the
sufferer is a burden almost too grievous to be
borne; yet his inherent love ot existence in
duces a desire still to preserve it, if it can be
saved without a tax upou bodily exertion. The
mind wanders. At one1 moment he thinks bis
weary limbs cannot sustain him a mile the
next, he is endowed With unnatural strength,!
uu ii nu-iu uc acenainiy or renei oeiore him,
dashes bravely and strongly .onward, wonder
ing whence proceeds this new and sudden im
Farther than this my experience runneth not.
The reader may think I have drawn a fancy
sketchthat I have coloured the picture too
highly: now, while I sincerely trust he may
never be in a situation to test its truth from ac
tual experience, I would in all sober serious
ness say to him, that many of the sensations I
have just described I have myself experienced,
and so did the ninely-and-eigbt persons who
were with me from the time we first cnteled
the grand prairie until we reached the flock of
sheep, to which more pleasing subject I will
now return. 1
There were very few men with the immense
herd, but in their stead jwere a large number
of noble dogs, which appeared to be peculiarly
gifted with the faculty of keeping them togeth
er. . There was no running about, no barliiii''
or biting in their system of. tactics ; on the con!
trary, they were continually walking up and
down, like faithful sentinels, on tho outer side
of the flock, and should any sheep chance to
stray from his fellows, the dfg on duty at that
particular post would walk gently up. take him
carefully by the ear, and lead him back to theJ
told. Not the least fear did the sheep manifest
at the approach of these dogs; and there was
no occasion for h They appeared to me to be
of mongrel breed, somewhat resembling, per
haps, a cross of the Newfoundland or St. Ber
nard species with the larger mastiff. They
possessed mild, frank, arid open countenances,
were indefatigable in protecting their charge
from wolves, and Tronrwhatl could learn were
The shepherdhad crooks in their hands, in
struments I had often read of in poets' lays.
The uses to which they were put took away
much of the romanCfe I had associated with
crooks and gentle shepherds. One of the lat.
ter, whenever a sheep has been pointed out in
the flock, cither io be killed or for sale, thrusts
the long, hooked stick immediately under the
throat ofthe victim, and holds it fast until its
fellows have been driven past on either side.
The sheep is then secured by grappling its
wool with the hancf an operation, from first to
last, partaking more of the practical than ofthe
poetic. ; . .
Now that we had found provisions in plenty,
we considered the dangers, the fatigues, the de
lays, and tho vexatious of the marchas over,
andbright were the anticipations of the future.
Every face was animated with joy, every heart
was tilled with gladness. How diffetent wpuld
have been our feelings had we known the suf
ferings and privations, the indignities, and the
cruel maltreatment we were yet to endure the
terrible fate that Svas awaiting us I Kendall's
Sketches of the Texian Santa Fe Expedition.
f JOHfc U. VOGLER.
Watch and, Clockinakcr,
XmTOTJLD respectfully inform the eit-
T f i
- f izras oi iiowan ana lae aajoinins
counties, that lie has opened bis shop on
main street, in the office, formerly, occupied by -Wm. J.
Llummer, aaf saddjer, three doors below J. H. Enniss
Apothecary store, wiere he is prepared to execute all
work in his line of business, r His work will recommeud
itself ; to the aged he can say that come and yon can have
good spectacles, also glasses fined to suit any age. Jew-
elery made to order, rings, breast pins, etc:
;01l goW and silver, taken in exchange for work,
Jn 11. 1S45 - fy'--3: ':s:: ly37v' ".
rilJEA 3 "half chests superior Hyson Tea, i
JL will sell at cost to close sales , J," H. ENJ
Feb 1, 1845
-, ; -; STATIONARY. :J s
ON hand a superior article of letter paper ruled, and
glazed foolscap, account nd note paper ; also, quills,
steel pens, super black ink, red do, letter stamps, wafers,
sealing wax, tc:, &c. H. ENNISS.
Aimary Execution In Spain.
In the Autumn "of 1837 ".,' i i ' .
. i - 0, tt mutiny broke out n
the town of .Vill-,.- .T .
talions revolted, took posse
- . " Jn liiscav... Titto .
L , - -
ssion of. the rTaCe.
mj mm, mm mM
and imDrisoneH m -
Th imrtn :r xh offers
.w- i.uairjr io winch I belonwo
at that time itt.nrt - .w- J? s . Delonged, was
A "' wiTision ot Genixi1 I
Castarieda, who marched against- VilUrca
and took'it afir .. rcayOf
belious battalions expressed their nenitenr J
: Iwere allowed to return toheir duty, with the ex: '
vcpuun oMue. nngieaaers, whovere tried by
court martial, and eight of the condemn n KT
. ..... . - . r
was au very easy condemning them, but thV
difficulty was to carry the sentence into execui
lion without exciting fresh disturb - Tl'
Spanisharmy wm just then laiVerV: bad stato4
nrieftnt;nA TV... .. - . K 1
" -i " xunng ine summer of that year
there; had Wen mutinies iin tvarious garrison:
t? especially at Miranda; PaSipeluna.jVittJi
na, and Heroani, in alhf which officers of rank
had lost theirlives. ; EsparteriWom;
sures, and some sercre examplesUhat he Imade
werp certainly beginning to get things Into beu
ter order j but still jt '. was critical "lime; and
Castaneda wa s obliged to andarcon cuid.nl. .
the Spaniards.say, which mcansi being transla.
ted to " mind-his (eye.,io would not entrust
the execution of tho mutineers to the battalions
to which they belonged, because he feared an.
other outbreak ; and on i the other 1 hahd it wouW
according to Spanish militarvideas and custom. f
be a mortal affront to those batt alio " if:tnen!
out of their ranks were shot by any o.Mer corps i
of the army. ' .-V;
At last the general hit upon a way to get out of
this difficulty. One night orders were civen to
the whole division to be on tho move at daybreak
the next morning. Oaly the tf oop cf English
cavalry was excepted. The Spaniards marched
accordingly, and an hour or two afteirwards1 via
were formed uajust outside the to wnj the pnsont
ers were brought cut, and we were given td vai ?
dcrstand that the Inglcscs were expected to find
the bring party. Toihis we of cpurso had veryiw;
great objection, which we respectfully stated to'
the staff officer who had been left in command of
iho garrison, representing to him Ibatour dutyk ;
was not that of executioners, and that by forcin""
such a service on us he was exposing us to be
come objects of contempt .m..slike7to:thpj
whole Spanish army. - Tho officer,4 probably.
had orders not to press the mailer SfXwe' object.''
ed, and he then said that the national guards of
Villarcayo, who were drawn up on the groundj
must do it. . ; c-ir"': h
These nationals, who had been put under arms ; .
to act as-a garrison in the.absence of the regu-1
lars, were the most unsoldierly looking fellows I
ever set eyes on, dressed in every sort of way,'
some in plaidTclothesrwith cross bcltaand shal.!
tos, others in uniform coats with a round haf.wL
Their arms werb as various as their grbi cori4
sisting of old mulkets, witb and J without bayOj .
nets,arbines, rifles, and fowlinglpiecesmost:'
of them of a beautiful brown color from rusti and
likely to be quite as' dangerous jtothVprsons
who fired them as to those they ,wero fired . at.
From these militia-men, however, a firing party
were selected. The unfortunate prisoners wero
made to kneel down in front ofi
a wall, and 'a
fired ai ifhem.
scattering, irregular volley was
Some of the muskets would not go off, and those
which did had been so badly aimed,7 that only
one of tho men was killed, Uiough alk wera
wounded. It Mas the most hornhle scene I ev.
cr beheld. The poor wretches! some of; them
stretched oft the grounu, o.C7; 5111 on Uhelr J
t ..... . . - - hV'-.t-v-t.--.
iuees, were wruxHag in agony ot pain and tcr
rorr-and imploring a speedy death! rf h
- t or jjios, maiur nos i or Uod i sake kill
us ! Put us out of misery V The nationals had!
to load again, and somo of them had no second;
cartridge; the muskets of others had missed j:
fire, and they had nothing whsrewtth J(Xavr,
the charge or pick out the touch.hofe.UBy somo
extraordinary negligence, no reserve firing par. i
ty had been tolled off. At lastj a second volley
wasflred, but even this was not quite sufficient,
and one poor fellow was finished with -a pistol. f
It was perfect butchery, and made me feel quite'
sick, and as to the men of thej troop, although;
all fellows accustomed to wounds and bloodshed,'
their faces, as I glanced along the Hne were aV
white as their belts.' - -,;. - r'-'-'T-.tF?l :f;''
At another execution that! witnessed, a char.'
actcristic incident occurred. It was in Navar.
re, at a period of the war when tho system of
reprisals was carried to great lejigth by both!
parties. The Carlists had been - committing
some atrocities, murdering prisoners, or some
thing of that kind, and by way of retaliation,
twenty out of a number of prisoners whom tho
queen's troops had recently made, were ; to bo
shot. The victims had to be chosen by lot, and
for this purpose they-' were brought out of their
place of confinement. A wretched-looking set
they certainlyjtvcre. Although Jthey hacl jiot
beenvery long prisoners, the state of squalid,
misery into which they had sunk was really piti- ?i
able. They were of all ages; from lads of six- ;
leento 'raen of sixty, or whojat least, leaked as
old as that; being perhaps prematurely- aged by
the life of privations they had fed and by the 'wC
ferings of their captivityT ' There" was no lack ry
however, of fine-Stalwart fellows, with bronzed, ; ;
faces, muscular forms, bushy;teardst;and
hanging in long curls over their necks j; models
of Spanish mountaineerswhose frortframe-r;;c
enabled them to bear up' against all jardshipsJ
The varieties of dress were strange and striking1 j
enough. Thejpoor devils bad none of them too
much0 clothing, and whateyjiad wal, for tha
most part, wornand tatte rcd. Z 11 ero ipigh t bo ; p
seen a man with a fullj'tJress coatr thel facings ,
soiled and greasy, a strand or two of aa old tJ'
nisbed epaulette?dangUngn-pJis .
hempensandalsTnd a Tai'j,t S
fbrmeriy white, - :
was an officer, Iwt raanywerf no
ofluas that. Jackets ll;..tK'n"nin I"
numerous, and t-uoei Ty rr . ,