... . 'V-' .: ... . v . . - 1 ; . , ... . . ; . 1 : ' ' : . -. - . . j. - ... . . - .-.-
Tlie United States and Mexico.
' The lolloping is thecJrrespondenca between
Sca0r (CuefasjMexiran Minister of Foreign
AflaiW andithe American Minister, in 'which
he informs Mr. jShannor , that diplomatic inter
courselbetv eenj the two countries cannot long-
r be continucdj : , . i . ;''
N I Niti Palace, 3 Iexico, Mauch 28, 1845. ,
The'undirsigned, Miriister of Foreign Rela
lions, in addressing hirnself for the last time to
hit excellent Mr. WiUon SttANNOXMiniste?
plenipotentiary jfrora the United Slates, desires
m inform him that, as both Houses of the.Uni-
ss nave sanctioned me uw
annexation of Texas to the
-rrlrnrv ot itue unitea piaies, uuu as me uiiq.j
jster jrorn Mexico has Withdrawn Irbra hisrois
$ion at Washington, and protested against the
act of Congress and tbo Government 'of the
. United Statesdiplomatic relations between the
two countries cjannot be continued. ; V
What caW tHefjunderpigned add to what has
tlread been said bj hip Government upon the
grave offence joffered leiico b. th3 United
iJutes, usurping a portion of Mexican territory
- tnd violatirtlg the Vrmi bflreaties bf friendship;
which the Uepjiblip of Mexicahas oW'rved on
er part as long ai her honor and the desire to
avoid a rupture jwith the (United States have per
milted t Nothing more lhan to lament that two
nations, fr'o aiid repub ican, contiguous (veei
not) and wprth of a fraternal union, found up
on mutual i'mte tests and a common and honpra.
b!e loj'altjfJ -shjuld have cut short .their friendly
relations, jttnd fyy an aci as offensive toJVIexico
m it i--deirog4terj to t! le honor of theAmeri-
can UnioW4l-:,-L:'. i- .
The ipaerstgned'ehews to his excellency
Ir. Shannon te protest already directed against
innexatidn ; and,' moreover, would add, that the,
Mexican Republic will oppose the measure with
all the dec isioiifdue to I er own honor and ov
eignty.akt that the Government! ardently de
sires tbait considerations" of loyalty and justice
should yet outWeigh vith the citizens of the
United States designs tat extending their terri
tory at Ihe expense of a friendly Republic,
which, in ihe (midst ot Its misfortunes, (disgra.
eias,) seeks toj preserve an unspotted name, and
thereby f he rank to wwich its destinies call it.
The lincjeraigried has (he honor to offer to his
excellency-M-r. Shannon bis personal respect,
and to assure 'him of his very distinguished con
sideration j J'j ;" jLUIS G. CUEVAS.
To his Excelljency Vilson Shannon,
' i f - ' s&nvoy juxiraoruinary, yc.
- UirwEto States Legation, MABCff 31, 1845
: The undersigned, Envoy Extraordinary, dec.
of the United 'States, has the honor of acknowj
edging "this rejeeipt of pis Excellency's SenpS"
Cuevas's, pirjisler oi-Forejgn Relations, &cl,
note of lhe..28th of- March, announcing that the
Congress jof the United States has 'sanctioned
the annexation of Texas to its territory; that
the Mintsier it Washington Jxad terminated his
official relations and protested against the said
act of the Congress and Government of the U.
- Slater; a id t lat diploriatic relations between
the'lvojcuhtJries coulc! not be continued. J
The liberal and honorable sentiments enter
tained by Iheiactual Gr vernment of Mexico had
inducedjthe updersigtu d to hope that the differ
ences vjh Ich jexist bet weeii the two Govern-
j uiruia ijmjm ii(iiipu aiinuaui, upuiiici uis
just anq noiioniblc to both, ltvwould appear,
howevejr, froni the note of his excellency Senor
4Uevasf that IMexico declines to adiust these dif
ferences in this manner, and thus preserve the
peaco l: llct two countries.
T heuridersigned can assure his excellency
&enor jUueviisj that bis (Mr. Shannon's) Gov
ernment entertains the liveliest desire to culti
vate jamicabe relations with that of Mexico ;
and here helwill improve this opportunity tore
; neat tliat which he hai before communicated to
the Government of' Mexico, to wit, that the Uni
Jed States has not adopted the measure of an-
nexation n any spirit Of hostility towards Mexi
co, and that the United States are anxious to
settle all Iciuestions which may grow out of this
, measure, jincjluding that of boundaries, in terms
the mst jusi and liberal. -
' Having : offered the c liyehbranch of peace, and
mahiftjsted a sincere (lesire to arrange these
Questions amicably, an J upon priuciples just and
honorable to both Governments, the United
States .have jdone wba ever is jit their power to
preserve the friendly relations between them,
and it;no,v remains for Mexico to decide whe
tjier the shall be continued or whether the
peacejof the tvvo countries shall be broken by
. conflict equally injurious to both, and which
can give satisfaction only to the enemies of
- civil Jibe land republican institutions.
- s Thb u ldcrsigncd will pass over in silence the
charge, mac e against h is Government-pf having
violated phtT treaty of friendship with Mexico.
:.The righjt 4f Texas to cede the whole or part
ot her terrWy to thej United States; and the
fright of the United States to accept such cession,
have already been amply vindicated repeatedly.
1 i up unaersignea nas receivea no ornciai com
tnuoiationj as to the action of his Government
in regard .to the annexation of Texas to the
Union ; nevertheless, he cannot doubt, from the
tenorjof his personal correspondence, that the
incasgre has been passed by Congress and ap
proved byjthe President. He exjctsdaily de
spatch esj from his Government, with special in
tructionsupon this subject, and, before taking
ujr lunner steps, has! resolved to await tneir
ndersigned has the honor, &c. -
Mexico, April 2, 1845
uaj ine nonor 10 communicate 10 uis ei
fellencyjaMr; Shannoji, Minister, &c, in reply
to the note of his Excellency of the 31st March,
it tboOovernment of Mexico cannot continue
; d'pldtriatjc relations With the United tates up-
'At lPe Pfesumptionithat' such relations are revl
concileallo with the law which the President
of the United States las approved in regard to
Je annexation of the Department of Texas to
V. , (merican Union ; that this determination
; founded upon the necessity which Mexico is
maintaining no friendshipjwith Re
. public wjiich has violated her obligations, usurp
' 1 portion of territory which belongs to Mex
jco byajright which she will maintain at whaU
- e,Tet Cf ; that the relations between the two
j eoutriek cannot be rj -established before acorn-8
p VtX$ reparation of that injury, agratwi such
' ! demanded by gcod faith.-justice to Mexico,
iihonor of lhc United States, is made.
j J70rever, the undersigned will take the lib-'
if io 5ay t0 nfs exdellenfcy M:r. Shannon, that
Jc y'ted States; Government thinks thaf it
!f?i aVie friendly sentiments towards Mexico
- :x. me et giving1 such offence, and when
V Jv'ng the integrity of the republic oi Mexi
I-'?11, ywernment (Mexico) is very far from
tcd States Ungre!
jn relation b the
: 'bRUNER' JAMESi ) !. -::h Wv.?r;i V: V;( : : J:NE SERIES, '
- ;' ' " i - - ' " . T r I .i - - - -I -1- . . , .,
the assurances which his excellency Mr. Shan
non has -given, whatever may be its sentiments
towards' his Excellency personally. T 'M ; .
! The Undersigned, in making tms announce,
ment to iiis excellency Mr. Shannon, doing so
by the order of the President of. Mexico cut
ing short a new discussion which the interrup
tion of the relations of the two countries will
not permit, and because nothing can be added
to what this Department has; already said-has
the honor to renew the assurances of his very
distinguished consideration. . . .ri : J
:X,-Va':G' CUEVAS. "
Senor Cievas has also addressed a general
circular to the Ministers Plenipotentiary of En
gland, jprance, and Spain, which is translated
as fbllcjwa :' ;"' . ; "t:r:'
Theundcsigned, Minister of Foreign Rela
tions, has ihe honor to transmit to his excellen
cy the Minister of the following circular,
being impelled to employ this means of trans
mitting to his your Government, in this note,
the solemn land formal protest of the Mexican
Republic, suggested bjran act which, wounding
to the last degree the rights and honor of Mex
ico, is equally destructive to the universal prin
ciples jpf justice, to the. respect due free and
iiiicuiciii naiions, aim ine gooa lannwnicn
civilization !has fixed as the basis of internation
al intercourse. ( international volitieaA His
excellency Senor . - will understand that the
undersigned has reference to the law passed by.
me congress xi the U nited states, and sanc
tioned y the Executive, for the annexation of
iuc A7t-pariiuciii ui 1 exus 10 me American u nion.
To present; in all its deformity, this act of the
Congress and Government of the United States,
the alarming consequences of its conduct to
wards the Mexican Republic, would be a use
less labor inasmuch as this note is addressed
to the representative of a nation as illustrious
as it is powerful, which, sustaining nobly the
rank whicli it occupies in the world, respects
the laws of comity (buena amislad) between
loreign nauons, ana tounas lis giory upon me
immutable titles of morality and justice. Ihe
Government of the undersigned has no occasion
to exhibit all the grounds upon which it relies
tor its resistance to this measure of annexation,
as they are obvious and known to all, and as the
ieenng exquea among inenaiy nations, ana even
those which have no official relations with Mex
ico, will bq profound upon learning of a measure
so injurious and offensive, to Mexico, and so ut
terly uhwrjrthy the honor (buen nombre) of the
But jthe undersigned will take occasion to ob
serve to hjs excellency Senor that the
American Government having been the first to
acknowledge the independence of the Republic
of Mexico, showing itself a zealous partisan of
liberty, has been the only one which has en
deavored to usurp a portion of h ej territory
ne wouiaaiso auu inai, as n appears irom re
cent declarations, the designs of the U. States
have been as old as the friendship which it was
soushl to confirm, first, bv a treatv of amitv.
and by another for the adjustment of boundaries,
which has now been completely violated. In
aiding Texas to sever herself from the Repub
lie, the United States were wanting in good
faith ;but in aiding to incorporate Texas with
the American Confederation, and declaring that
this has been her policy lor twenty years, she
nas pursoca a course wuicn nas no parallel in
the history of civilized nations. w
Mexico, to avoid differences which for the
most part had no foundation in justice, fas a
gainst hef, has submitted to serious compro
promises she has overlooked provocations and
injuries, and has preserved her loyalty with such
fidelity as to give her more right if the right
she possesses can be increased- to speak out
and protect, as the undersigned now docs, against
the annexation of Texas to the United btates
and against all its consequences. , The Mexi
can Republic will employ in opposition to this
measure her power and her resources ; and
trusting in the justice of her cause, doesnot
fear td give assurance that, whatever may-be
the result, she will preserve the honor which at
any cst he ought to defend in the very grave
matter under consideration.
WSh tbis view the undersigned requests his
excellency Senor to give this protest its
prope direction, and at the same time to accept
the assurances ot his most distinguished con
sideritioo. LUIS G. CUEVAS.
frorn the Columbus Democrat of April 19.
t t NEGRO STEALING.
A feeritlerrian of Randolph county had
eigWofj his negroes enticed away from
him ton Monday last.hy some rascally
wniie man. jn me iiiurniug wucu mo wtv
wasfiscovered, pursuit was instantly made
and Ihe 'negroes wereiouna in ine swamp
about half way befvveen Cuthbert and
rLumpkih. The white man made Inmsel
scarce. I Un tne return ot the negroes io
within a short distance of their homes,
one of them, a mulatto girl of about 15
vears of age, slipped one side into the
V 4 1 ii -. J A u r A W7A
Wooas,anornau uui uccu iuuuu up iu ?i r,u
nesdav mornine:. i
Another case of stealing took place in
TTnson a few davs since. A young man
who had been engaged in school teach
ing, and who maintained a good charac
ter. tole a' horse and decamped west
ward. He was pursued and arrested, hav
ing in his charge a negro belonging to a
Mr. Walker or Upson, who haa oeen a
runaD(W for some time; The horse which
he stold had been swapped for another
Th culprit was taken back toThomaston,
and ivefsuppose committed to answer for
the double crimes tThe negro stated that
the man was to take him to. Mississippi
and sell hi m once after which the negro
was to tncet him divide the; spoils, and
proceed to a free State 1 ,: It will be, well
for the d wners of ; slaves to keep an : eye
out fori the many rascals , who are ,now
prowling about seeking whom they, can
plunder. - V '. ; - v ' ; v.
From the Ratherfordtsn Republican.
TO THE PEOPLE OF THE DISTRICT.
I take pleasure in declaring to the Dis
rict, that 1 am no longer a" Candidate for
a seat in the next Congress of the United
States for the very-cogent reason that I
am thoroughly convinced that! my run
ning, would jeopardize the interest of the
Whig Party, of which I have so long been
an humble member. Whateverjmay have
been my prospects of success at th time
of allowing my name to be tendered to
the independent voters, or at any : subse
quent period, has no weight in Influencing
me to persist in the contest, when I am
satisfied, to do so, would engender discord
and jealousies in the Whig ranks, and
oosen to some extent that cord of friendship
which has so long bound us together as a
band of brothers. j '
"For sixteen years gone by we have
jointly struggled amid gloom and anxiety
ior ine estaDiisnmem oi iuqsc caiumai
principles which have hitherto character
ized the Whig Party, and but for one short
month have we had the reigns of govern
ment in our own hands. I I
What our destiny may be for the future
. . . ! a
is a tale vet to De tola. 41 we; are io
judge of it by the past, we! might now
snnnic DacK wun ieeungs o,i hisuhcuvc
horror, at the idea of brooking sucfi a suc
cession of outrages and assaults as have
been made upon the Constitution and
rights of the People, for such a long se
ries of -years. ;
That the people ot this Government are
born free and equal ; that they are blest
with the freedom of speech and the liber
ty of the press : that they are secured in
the enjoyment of certain invaluable rights,
have become as mere sounuing Drass ana
a tinkling simble. The righjs which cost
the blood of those who havej gone before
us, are no longer regarded but treated
with mockery and shame.
That our people will ever; again enjoy
the right of exercising the powers guar
antied to them by the constitution is al
most hopeless. It was intended by the
makers of that instrument that the people
should not only be represented, hut that
their will should be implicitly obeyed.
Not so noV for the llulersj make the
Law regulations and they ask jthe people
to obey them, and whether for weal or
woe they have it to do. I humbly trust
that the people will make one more strug
gle to retain their possession of the reigns
of Government and give direction to the
general Legislation of this. Nation, and
thereby bring our wild and reckless Rul
ers back" to solid reflection, ithat they may
consider that the immense resources of
this government is made byjthe hard chaf
ed hands of day-laborers, jwhose utmost
exertions at the dark period in public af
fairs scarcely yield them the bread of life,
independent of the taxesthey pay.
I will bring this hastily written commu
nication to a close, lest I should spin it out
too long. i
Allow me to say that I have been in
formed that a report has gone abroad that
I have changed my political creed and be
come a democrat. The report is wholly
without foundation. My political senti
ments have undergone no change. 1 have
too long labored with my j comrades and
friends of the Whig Party in the Old
North State, to change at this late day !
I mean no disrespect to Ithe democrats
when I say that I am no democrat, for 1
certainly believe that the! great body of
the Democracy is equally honest with the
Whig Party ; for there is no reason why
they should not be. 1 hey are unques
tionably aiming at the good of the coun
try and though we may differjwidely as
to the ways and means by which this is
to be achieved yet our object is the same
and every liberal man will admit it.
I am now a resident of my native coun
ty, Henderson, where I intend remaining
and pursuing my Profession closely. If I
had consulted my own interest and ag
grandizement or self-elevatioii in this can
vass, perhaps I might have pursued adil-
ferent course ; but whenever they come
in collision with the interest and quiet of
the commonwealth at large, I cheerfully
surrender them, and submit to public will,
as I think every good citizen ought to do.
I have spent much of my time and sub-r
tsance for the advancement of the Whig
cause, though I do not regret U, and when
my country shall need my services, hum
ble as they may be, they will be freely
I tender to those good men who have.
kindly solicited me to run and have offer
ed me their support, my best wishes for
.i i n i : " a.- a 1
tneir .weiiare ana prosperity, earnestly
hoping that the magnanimous and noble
hearted Whigs of this Great Western Re
serve jnay not be dispirited nor falter by
the wayside, on account of our recent de
feat, but take courage, buckle on their ar
mour and enter the field! with redoubled
vigor, fully determined once more to un
furl our proud flag to the breeze in the
great contest of 1848, and rally again to
maintain it upright or perish beneath its
folds. 7 B. ;M. EDNEY.
Potty Bodine. This worrian, who has gone
through a protracted , triaV before - the j circuit
court of New York, for the murder of her sis
Houseman, was -found r guilty,
the 12th instant; but- was recommended to
rrr V V '-Y '1 v " , - -
' & . . . -- j ... r - tf
. . - " . i I ' n ., -.1
THEi OREGON ; TERRITORY.
From the Albany -Argus.
I(s Extent-Iu Soil Its Productions
The Ameicah Title, and the British Claim.
At this time,. when the Oregon territory;
exciting so mucn oi ine aueniion
of the peoble. it seems not unwise to draw
a brief sketch of the - situation, climate;
and other advantages of that region of the
United States west of the Rocky Moun
tains now; claimed by Great Britian.
First then as to- its extent always as
suming that we are speaking of the coun
try between! the 42d and 54th parallel of
north latitude on the east it skirts 800
miles along the Rocky Mountains, on the
south 400 miles along the Snowy Moun
tains, on the west 700 miles along the Pa
cific Oceanf on the north 250 miles along
the N. American possessions of Russia
and England. This area or immense val
ley contains 360,000 square miles capa
ble undoubtedly of forming seven states
as large as New Yorkor forty states of
the dimensions of Massachusetts.
Some j of jthe islands on the coast are
very large sufficient to form a state by
themselves. These, are situate north of
the parallel of 48. Van Couver's Island,
260 miles in length and 50 in breadth,
contains 12,000 square miles an area lar
ger than Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Queen Charlott's or rather Washington
Island, 150 miles in length and SO in
breadth, contains 4000 square miles. On
both of these immense islands, though
they lie between the high parallels of 48
and 54 degrees, the sou is said to be well
adapted toagriculture. The straits and
circumjacent waters abound in fish of the
finest quality. Coal of good quality, and
other veins of minerals have been found.
The region between the parallels of 42
and 49 degrees, is undeniably a splendid
and desirable country. It possesses that
variety of soil and climate and productions
so necessary to form a desirable whole
consisting of prairie and woodland, in a
rich profusion and variety. The forest
trees are gigantic from 15 to 50 feet in
circumference, and from 100 to over 300
feet in height 1 This may seem incredible,
but the&e facts are vouched by every trav--
eller from the time of Lewis and Clark to
the present day. The trees Jare, princi
pally pines, cedars, and firs. To farmers
in the Atlantic states this may seem a
strange growth of timber for a fertile soil.
Mr. Franham, who spent some months
there," and -who describes with great pow
er but perhaps with some exaggeration,
remarks for the country north and between
the Columbia river and the straits of Juan
de Fucia, that The forests are so heavy
and so matted with brambles, as to require
the arm of a Hercules to clear a farm of
100 acres in an ordinary lifetime ; and the
mass of timber is so great that an att empt
to subdue it by girding would result in
the production of another forest before
the ground could be disencumbered of
what was thus killed. The small prairies
among the woods are covered with wild
grasses, and are useful as pastures. The
soil of these, like that of the timbered por
tions, is a vegetable mould, 8 or 10 inches,
in thickness, resting on a stratum of hard
blue clay and gravel
The Columbia takes its rise in the Rocky
Mountains, as high as the 54th parallel
and in its various windings traverses a
distance of 1500 miles. It enters the Pa
cific Ocean at the latitude of 46 degrees.
Frazerfs river (350 miles in length) enters
the strait of Juan de Fuca at the 59th par
allel. One hundred and fifty miles south
of the Columbia, the Umpqua river enters
the Pacific' This stream is about 100
miles in length at its mcuth, three-fourths
of a mile wide, with 15 feet water on the
bar the tide sets up for 30 miles above
that, it is unnavigable on account of falls
and rapids. Forty miles south of the
Umpqua, the Klamct river (in latitute 42,
4p) enters the Pacific. Its length is 150
miles. 1 Mr. Franham remarks, as some
thing peculiar, The pine and cedar dis
appear upon this stream, and instead of
them are found a myrtaceous tree of small
size, which when shaken by the least
breeze, diffuses a delicious fragrance
through the groves."
On the south of ihe Columbia therejs
more prairie than wood land. This is
stated to be the finest agricultural section
in Oregon. The trees (pine and cedar)
on the uplands are of the same enormous
size as they are on the banks of the Co
lumbia river. The tallest and heaviest
trees in the Atlantic states seem mere
saplings in comparison.
It is singular, though it is so stated, that
Indiari corn will not thrive in any part
even of j southern Oregon. This seems
scarcely credible, for they can raise wheat,
barley, oats, and even the most tender
gardeti vegetable in a great portion of the
territory; as well -as the finest variety of
apples, pears and strawberries. The dry
chilly nights in summer, even when the
days are! very warm, are i represented ; as
the cause of its non-adoption to corn.
In relation to the general aspects of the
Orecbn territory, taken as a whole, Mr.
Franham remarks : j
The mineral resources of Oregon have
not beeri investigated." .Great quantities
of bituminous coal have hbvever " been
discovered on Pugefs : Sound, and bsrihe
iVillamettei bait springs also i
) and other fountains highlyumpi
, - ,---. r -
,w . . ' - j . . . . ' . . ,
Willamette Salt springs also abound ;
There are many wild fruits in the ter-
ntory that would be verydesirable for
cultivation in thegarderis bf the states.
Among these are a very large anddeli
cious strawberry the service berry-i
kind of whortleberry arid: a: cranberry
growing on bushes 4 or 5 feet in height.
The crab apple, choke, cherry, and thorn-
berry are common. Of the wild animals,
there are ihe white tailed, black tailed,
jumping and moose deer ; the elk ; red
and black and grey wolf; the black, brown,
and grizzly bear ; the , mountain sheep ;
black.'white, red, and mixed foxes rbea-
ver, lynx, martin, ermines, wood rats, andl
the small curled tailed, short eared dog,
common among the Chippeivays. !
" Of the feaihered tribe; fnerc are the
goose, the brant, several kinds of. cmnes,
the swan, many varieties I of the .duck,
hawks of several kinds, plovers, 'white
eagles, crows, vultures, thrush, trulls.
wood pecKers, pheasants, pelicans, pat
ridges, grouse, snowbirds. &c.
" In the rivers and lakes arc a very su
perior quality of salmon, brook and salm
on trout, sardines, sturgeon, rock, cod, the
hair seal, &c, and in the bays and inlets
along the coast, are sea otter an inferior
kind of oyster."
Capt. AVilkes on the same subject ob
serves : . ,
"Fisheries. It will be almost impossi
ble to give an idea of the: extensive fish.
eries in the rivers and ?on the coast.
They all abound in salmon of the finest
flavor, which run twice a year, beginning
in May and October, and appear inex
haustible ; the whole population live up
on them. The Columbia produces the
largest, and. probably affords the greatest
numbers. There are some few of the
branches of the Columbia that the spring
fish do not enter, but they are plentifully
supplied in the fall.
"The great fisheryf the Columbia is
at the Dalles; but all the rivers are well
The last one on the northern branch of
the5 Columbia is near Colville, at the Ket
tie falls ; but salmon are found above this,
in the river and its tributaries.
"In Frazer's river the salmon are said
to'be very numerous, but not large; they
are unable to get above the falls some 80
miles from the sea.
' In the rivers and sounds are found
several kinds of salmon trout, sturgeon,
cod, carp, sole, flounders, .ray, perch, her
ring, lamprey eels, and a kind of smelt,
called " shrow" in great abundance ; also
large quantities of shell fish, viz ; crabs,
clams, oysters, muscles, &c, which aretll
used by the natives, and constitute the
greater portion of their food., i t
Whales in abundance are found along
this coast, and are frequently captured by
the Indians in and at the mouth of the
straits of Juan de Fuca. .
"Game. Abundance ogame exists,
such as elk, deer, antelope, bears, wolves,
foxes, musk rats, martins, beavers, a few
grizzly bears, and siffleurs,whicharc eaten
by the Canadians. In the middle section,
or that designated as the rolling prairie,
no game is found. The fur-bearing ani
mals are decreasing in numbers yearly,
particularly south of the parallel of 48 de
grees; indeed it is very doubtful whether
tney are sumcicntiy numerous to repay
the expenses of hunting them.
" In the spring and fall, the rivers are
literally covered with geese, ducks, and
other water fowl.
"In the eastern sections, the buffalo a
bound, and are hunted by the Oregon In
dians, as well as the Black Feet. Wolves
are troublesome to the settlers, but they
are not so numerous as formerly."
He then finally sums up his interesting
narrative " To conclude, few portions of
the globe, in my opinion, are to be found
so rich in soil, so diversified in surface, or
so capable of being rendered the happy
abode of an industrious and civilized com
munity. For beauty of scenery and sa
lubrity of climate, it is not surpassed. It
is peculiary adapted for an agricultural
and pastoral people, and no portion of the
world beyond the tropics, can be found
that will yield so readily with moderate
labor to the wants of man." Mr. Fran
ham dissents from this opinion, and holds
that Oregon is not equal in its soil or ca
pabilities to California or the valley of
Great Britain claims withoutreserva
lion, all the territory north of the Colum
bia river, and with an equal rightto nav
igate that river. It is said she has ofTered
to make that river the bonndary between
the two governments. This claim, if al
lowed by the United States, would take
full one half of the Oregon perhaps more.
To this, our country win never accede
During the discussions in the papers and
in congress, our title to the 49 parallel was
considered valid and unquestionable.
The American title rests upon the strong
and acknowledged right of discovery.-
Captain Gray, of Boston, in the year 1792,
in the ship Columbia, entered for the first
time the great river of Oregon, which he
named after his ship the Columbia- and
to this day it bears that a.nd no other name.
This is of some moment as there is a law
of nations which reads thus : The na--tion
which discovers and enters the whole
country Watered by it" In virtue of this
disrnvprv - th Hnlnmbia Vallev belonCS to
the United States as againsujngtana.
;f,!?Crfc.ctour titIc iVnot denied
rnrcrs, us tributaries which spread through 5
all Oregon, xverc first explored by the A-- M
wmencan congress at the suL-estion of
Jetierson, under Captains Lewis and Clark.
There xyas a minuteness an6a fulness, in
their discoveries which cave i W kuu-
authenticity to a title founded upon prior
discovery. : " - : - - - , ; r
7 Oregon is ours also ' by -purchase (ia
1819) fronvSpain; undeniably the first dis
coverer and-occupaht of the coast even as
far. north as the 55th , parallel.' In 1819,
Spain; lor n consideration of? 85060,000,
ceded the United S tates Florida; and 'also
all her rights, title, and claim td'all terri
tory on the Pacific coastnorth of the 42
parallel of 'latitude.'r.Ml- , i
I The only circumstance , calculated to.:: f
weaken the perfectness : of the 1U. States - f
title is the well known Nootka Sound con I
test (in 1789) which terminated in a con- i 1
yention between England and Spain in J
the year 1790, some twentv vears before" !
our purchase from -Spain,. and with which
condition, our title is undoubtedly clogged.
The terms of that convention 1 have been
the source of infinite dispute After an
examination of the terms of the treaty 1
the debates in' the English parliament. f
when tho-lreatywslaid Jieforo'; that '.bo. , 1.
dy the contemporaneous; action in rela-3 j jf
tion to the surrender or the EnglishYpos- ; 4 0
seized by Spain--which surrender, by thol 1 f It
way, an English historian73cIsham,;in- J ' A1
sists was never made the-whole conven- , ; - v , ;
tion seems to be resolved into a joint oc-. J ll
cupancy on the part of Englishmen and' Y' I "
Spaniards for commercial purposes. Such,
a one now exists and has exited for twenty-seven
years between Great Britain .'and t
the United States in - relation'to the very .
same territory. Yet we doubt whether
any American considers that we yielded '
in the least our ultimate title to the.Ore- i
gon, by that joint occupancy. Applying
the same principle to the convention be- ' . s
tween England and Spain, and the con- 4
viction will arise that the title was leftiuY
abeyance to be determined by "subsequent .5
agreement. The following is aclearsum- " j
mary of the American title : , Y ; 1 fY J i
if Discovery of the mouth of Columbia
river by Capt. Gray, of Boston, giving tho;
name of his Vessel to the river. Y . , "
2. The discovery of the head of same j
river by Lewis and Clark, under the au j
tbority of the United States YJ 7" J
3. The settlement 6f Astoria under the I
auspices of Mr. Astor an American na- 't
turalized citizen. Y i f '
4. The treaty of 1803 with the French i
republic. .11, VI,'
5. The treaty of Spain of 1819, acquir-: j i
ing all rights of Spain to land north of '42 j
degrees beyond the Rocky Mountains. ' ! Y
between England and Spain. " . . - Yi?j
7. The treaty of Utrecht (1 703) between j ,
France and England, settling boundariesr j !'
this settlement becoming ours, , as . the: ;
successor of Franco in 'that- part of hicr i!
dominions. - -7 k
8. The treatyof Ghent (1815) restoring i
Astora to the United States as American j
9. American citizens were oiiee in sole v -possession
of the Columbia river region.4 1 !
Even should the Nootka Sound coiiven-
tion be considered a cession, of titjeond 4 "
sovereignty to England on-the part of j
Spain, it only applies to -""placesf named Vt
therein, and those arc situated north j- of j Y
the 49 parallel of latitude. It is well . rer ;
marked, " Not an inh of soil ? in.. the. val " '
ley of the Columbia and its tributaries v r.
was mciuaeu in me provisions oi ine con
vention of 1700." South of Nootka Sound "
all parties in this country concur that our
title is 44 clear and unquestionable." , And '
there is not the remotest probability that '
our people will ever consent to surrender Y v
an acre. l-v---
Though this question is evidently rsur- :
rounded with complicated difficulties and
embarrassments, growing too, in no small
degree out of the joint occupancy, we have " ,
the hope that it will be settled peaceably, f
honorably, and satisfactorily under the.
auspices of our president and his able se .
cretary oi state. , .
MEDICAL RECEIPTS. '
Inflammation of the Brain.- VXooA letting ia the ao- i .
chor of hope in this disease, which should be employed
copiously on the first attack, and repeated as the symp-
ptoms and strength of the patient will admit. Immrdi-v
ately after this some cooling purgative roust be given. -'
ice pounded and-put into a bladder or folds of cloth, wet
with vinegar and cold water, should constantly be applied' v
to the head, the head should be shared and blistered---;
bathe the feet and legs in warm water, give campIiorat-7
ed or amimonial powders, or nitre dissolved in the pa- "
tient's drink. " ' ' "
Bad Coldt Treatment of colds consist' cf cooling
remedies when it is slight, little else will be necessary j -Live
abstemiously, avoid cold, a Bathe the feet and legs .
in warm water. Drink frequently of weakened liquors; " '
flax seed, balm or ground-ivy teas. ' Weak wine wheyi
6lc., when the disease is more-Violent, bleed ; if pained i, :
blister. Give an anodyne at bed time, &c. ' Inhale the
steam of hot water, or vinegar and water. ?
Putried Sore TAroc.- Indications of cure are similar
to those of the nervous or malignant fever. , On the first
attack, an emetic is necessary.-which .may be repeated
on the next day, which may be followed by mild cath
artic. , It will be necessary after this to recruit the patient -with
bark and wine Ulcers in the throat demand early! r
and consunt attention. Hence, the use of gargles must 4
be resorted to ; common and astringent are sufficient
The 3irmp.-When 'alight; it is necessary, only'; to
keep the head and neck, warm, with a spare 'diet, and a"
laxative state of the twwelsV U be much
fever or: pain of the. head, i is necessary to bleed and
blister the back of the ineck, drink -freely of diluting teas,
such ax'i,oi-fyin. If the swelling
should fall intothe testiclesadmlnister a dose "of calomel.
RMsT.f the. Palate. fever accompany this arTec
??," Pt?c(??Hn Prgatives- using , nothing
but a vegetable diet, avoid speaking,! anf gargUT throat
with an astrmgentlrgie--apply salt and pepper by
.. -a '