-.. j r - ,1. -. ' 1ri--: '-f iu.-iv -:r ' is" tiiul n :- irr . -:"
' Lnl1.Uif nro poLtaini i per I annuin in advance;
TjvtWV SW'&; 3 square for h) first;
cf25knth.glHr.; . i . .
.i'ff 1 1 r Hv ; v:- i -74'
OF Mil! STEWAR
4v THE OF THE TARU
he Hoawi of Ueprew!ltifi of, ih ongresa oi
. United TSiaMipeci4be. 9, 18 15
MIt DOUGHS ;m
(of the reference of the aniiu-
moved a series
'M MvMS IMSMMBM SSVm; -M: J new series:-: .
f '1 H i', 'r,i:.i:i ' " n.L: J. J', U: iws.Att!ock "wri . Kclers. I Do Tins, axo Lieertt tr.
KlIISIBEU 30, OF-VOLUME II.
I . St tT t3
'iifatcs. . fThe"'scpi :t hosB resolutions
f i .1 '
solutioni ' by-, insert
of the Trea-
mbvetl to nmnd
cannU rr!ear intjmatinto yjou the ; txMdin- the report of the Secretaly
cy ofpivin efllicttjial encouragement, as -iellto surv.
the ibiwl.iciwn ..I new ami ii.eful fnrpjiiin, Mrr JQHN$0. of Tennessee, here in
fmmahcad to he exert.orjs f skIUpd ge. terpokedj and desired to present to Mr.
W " - -rTT-- Svart this question : Whether, when
Jons : to, tbejlcpmmiijfesc fta repb as the
-'jeN W -iWoiKftlilhiit no alteration
i a jtujpporting hiraoiiQn, iMr. S.lsuid tjiat
rJioughX ifi: IloSoJ ought fo meet this
iquCion jatpnee.;. Iteemed to blnvto be
Jeyuty ofhis corrrjlitfee to give, an vx-
wipppn .oj j tirs, .v.eoii iqe general sun-
1111 V '"I'-'V
lidiYiduais vnpvnad pommenceu mahu-
jicturing estaWishrnepts, and whovyisfied
ta knQW -vvhetKer ithjvpuld be safe fot thjem
o proceed.; Theiriinquiry of him was,
bat was got ng to llej done. Whet herjhe
cniirci):iieui 01 prpxecfive policy waff 10
pu-st jiii riots pn rfcpstjiptelUgent states,
mrtif t(iathad eer j graced hese legisla
ti1ejhkiM and ustaipetiopby ohniC
Calhotin. sea reel v less distinguished In
dia cotton opds, of the. very! coarsest qual-
prrioiinif d to more than ; a hundred) per
cent. Very vt-ll ; and, what dttniiis prove?
Why. simply that the! prices of those arti
cles had heen greatly diminished, as in
thW case of cottons. Tiie samedutv which.
"C !fr h i ' -l J- j the dutiejs levied were; sufficient for I the j itj known toevery lady ail be time by the ! wheli levied, had heeji but 25 per cent.,
ongrcss ha9rcaciy,and, n6t vithptit , purpOSPS Gf revenue, MrBJ was in favor S nahic of hurnihums. cost thirty-three cents I had now become 15fj; per cent..sjmplv he-
,Zf TV a"e5 'r V!7' of adding other duties foV ihiurpose of
' 'T - rrrrr J protection !
it'll rfiiidii wt n riiir wt. a n at a a m 4-1 t( t rt a
much consequencw not to ensiire a continuance
inir(eH.n 111 eiye-ry way wnicn saau appear
eligible." Washington lastAnnua Address.
He was President of the Cblnvektlon
which had formed the Constitution! and
must.be presumed to have knowln sforiie-
KTovertu rncd, las had
by tne i ivxecuuve
That inquiry was
Mr. STEWART was understood to say
in reply that he would attend to that ques
tion -directly, hut did not wfsh to he inter
rupted. He would now proceed to read
a paragraph from the message of Presi
dent Jackson, hy way of refreshing gen
tlemen's recollection as to what had been
the opinions" oh this subject avowed by
that distinguished man.; Mr. S. consider-
o. H,ru...u u.n n, ed the. passage he was about to quote as
those pf the Jefferson school, wou d 4laiit ; contaimnr 0e ofthe clearest nJstronir.
thatjhe, too, knew something ot (he (Jon
siiiuuon iney wouui una tnere tnrefi suc
cessive! recommendations of this same pol-
icy as among tne Highest duties ot liov
ernmeiit. Here are the opinions of Jetfer
son.i He went to the extent of kbsblute
prohibition: '' ' '
coming -MplromiiiH partsjof the country, T"(cu!tivate peine, and maintain .mtoce
-and be thought it lUfdutj of that youse I rrs"yi I t "1
tj reply to these
people know at
was their obvious
est vindications ot the constitutional pow
er to lay duties, for; the purpose of protec
tion, that had ever been put forth to; the
world. Here it isi
"The power to impose duties upon imports
originally belonged toj the several States. Tbe
light to adjust these duties, with a view to the
encouragement ofdornestic branches (if indus-
try.is so completely identical with that power
r-inftuirie! and to let ihe V ' . ,,S,,C,,KV ,,uwF'r,u' i?u"" ; that it is (Jimeult t. suppose the existence
onM iwhether the nojicv a H n,rt,V,iof,,a" ; d ! frol&Uhe otlP w,h,iut the other, The States have
i Til- . ' 1 I J manlilrcturcs atlaiitcd to out circumsiifoices ..,x,t !..,5.. .....1.. J :
American irtlUvtrv was to -'.. . . ,' , , l . 1 nuu.iurn nuuic aun imiv ovfr iiiiiiiris
1 i t : - - T 1 1 11 ri 1 11 ii'ii i 1 1 11 1 iji ih iiiiiwt'iii iii uii f 11 .p.! i
t -r - n - -: r r I 'sinriiun. Kivmir iru vrv
w ra x J
naiiie of hurrirhums. cist thirty-three cents I had now become 150 per cent.. stmply be
a -ilr();iso tat the " poot man" would j cause the price had gone dowii to one-
then have had tos pav four dollars for j lourth part ot what it was. So the main
iweive yarus sol it, ano inej euecr. 0.1 ine ! resuu an uie i;iioranu cipnerinoi ine
infamous minimums had been that every i chairman ofthe Committee of Ways and
poor inan in the country cob Id. now get a Means imd been to furnish to tlie .whole
beter article j for six and a quarter cents, country official demonstration that' prices
Tpat Kvas thej way the pebpje were taxed ; bad been reduced by la protective tariff to '
arikl jOppresseld bythe protective system : I one-foufth or one-fifth of what jheyj had'
aral'this w;islthe manner in which the j been in 181G. Take k plain illustration :
"fjobr man" vns ground down to the dust j theC tariff imposed a duty of four cents per
to benefit, his fich monopolist! The Spc-' pound on naiU ; the price of nails in 1810
reiary persuaded this popr; iman that X$t had been 10 cents pet pound ; sp that the
was taxed eighty-two per cent, more than duty was then 25 per cent, on the price :
thf ri(bh man, jt his. was quite insufferable, j bul the; same duty, we are told in this re
yet hp paid only six cents for what for- -j port, is 100 per cent. 5 and bow fol : Be
mrlyj cost him thirty-six ceats, and of an cause the price had fallen from sixteen
inferior qualify at that. On that thirty- cents tpfour cents per pound. (Very op-
six cents protection laid a duty of nine pressivic on the 4 poor man," who has thus
cell tsj which was but twenty-five percent.!; now to pay 100 per cent, on nails j Theex
ad valorem. !; j planation of all . this was perfectly plain
rhcse dreadful minimurps had, in their and easy. The effect of compehtiop and
practical consequences, given the farmers of American industry, had increased) the
a jmarket, given their cliildren employ- supply, and by, an increased supply; ill this
mew.; maue ineir came -prouiaoie, inn u m an uiuer cases, nau reuuceu ine price
beyond that and,' a? u :
within tlie; revenue Maii'l.tr i. ,
dutie the revenue is diinin.: 1
the act cetses Iii have f r it'V
of money jto support : Gqverutn
tectioti inercly.'V v
Here" was the, rule lwbitli v
to he! laid. Tlie 'nnmietit mi;
maniifaciiirrr bad snecerdi
bur ov;n 'inarkef.' and beatv J
his business.'lhat wo phi I'm
Tlie duty Was too high
Lno longer; a revenue 1
uutv. and 11 must ion
As the American fiiriuhd ,
the cbuntVyi7fWi fbfegiil jr h
impirted4 niyenue wjuil'd b u
a i'm I the tTiity must cojnedown;
the ritle. I And nowlIV r. S. vm:
der such t Vtile a!! hi what ii
sensejs wiliifd. Vest; a jilcdlar in
tori's? What! was the iro-i ;
tor ri ver
iity but :
iwlitb Itc 4 i
L . 1 :
niitv'fn.finmu nn tu llm
r"7 . 1. . ivmji Y'y vvi' j titiji
oestioti fairly a n fjjwnly, and at once to
jive .drstijiict 'leVif1)rij'ioii of their views.
It bad bebj inth jpied by a ci'iltleipan
from5 A Uba Wa. over! fw swi v. V r.Pa vne.).
;that'jh -report frorrtltlie Secretary of jthe;
l.Treasary-W am(st pvxf raonlinary dbcii-i';'rneni-
Exirpbrdintiry I it certainly was.
f siifnii n y p b vy i a 1 hi 1 vi ry e x t r a o r d i 1 ih ry
doctrines oia; it contain, Mr. . eontfur-
"retl verV heHily mtltTltlip gpntj.emati.iii
tijon mucn; ui avnnt pie riausant. : 1 he re-
oeediiiss." Jefferson's Annual Messagr.
vatioti relating to the inspection laws. This au
uttienf selling forth q(c-
tripes in political rcotloiiuf' sbcb an nelvi r
I tborized oftil
' pasit ions, tin
M'ep profiiuljrated by tiv hij-
!iT! 01; bMernuient, and the
rf psHimid. wei e sijch as Ud.
Rebuilt vf; It Was therefore
i 1 ii 1 1 1 1 ".1
inn nigniy otiiiatprv
that jit should ijive as nrornot
"Tfcrt ituation jnto ' which we - bkve lon I ihi,riu- halving tl,ii, l.ii, ..Ia t.. tK
f.rced has impelled us apply a porp-m fr Slates, the right to exercise it tor the purpose of
mdtryj and capital to ; national manuHiCtures j protec,i( does notL,U.in them; and, conse.
and jmpjovement. The extent of envirion tquently, if it be not jessed hy the General
u daily locreasiri. and little doubt repiaiiis that ' (Jovenunent. it mast bn extinct. Our political
the establishments tormrd and n.rmi.ig wil,un. ! lom WUM ,h,ls pre,uthe anomaly of apeo
der the auspices of cheaper materials and sub. j p!e tiippeii ofthe ri-ht tor' filter their own in
sirfteneethe treed tn ot lalor tjom taxatiri with ,(j!itrv, and to eounteract the most selfish and
us. ana 01 pro.eawg autiesan prohibit tonfi le. (destructive p.licy which inight be adopted by
come lrm'inent ''--.7',r.crin piahfh AhnnnI I i ... .1 r .. i 1 -.1
. , 1 ; - -Jf e ""
jIcSfixe. p i, -
H' theref re, wo now ijainst domestic
miniifibturesjf mu.st be fir redei.n uj eillrr to
' d pepileiiee up.m ithat ii iiioii, or be c' '-h in
tkint, an I lira like Itgtist in 7qv an I
ant y rtfU l to s.uj th ' am n ' pne of fh -;?.? Ec
t.ireijrn nations. This surelV cannot be the
case : this indisoensitlile oiwer. thus surrendiji -
j ,Vy - l Jo MU1 llily IIUIU 111 J l III llll II III" " f'V llllb J fllU IV4 1
dqst.ry.and had brought down the price of. ed the whole, neighborhood prosperous by
the poor man's clothing friom thirty-six cts. j the increased de.mand for all the produc-
afyarui uown-h-down (town, as tne sys- lions 01 me iarmers.
rtepiroceeded, till at last it gave it to him
at. six; Cents a yard. Now the Secretary
creyl out. that the duty on these cottons
ws a hundred and fifty tper cent, ad va
v(ieiii f I'ji nor pious ! Horrid I And why?
T le duty had pot changed: but the price
b?: d;. j As the price went down the duty
went up. At thirty-six cents per yard,
niji cent's duty would be twenty-five per
ed ty the States, mast be within the scope of au
thority on the subject expressly delegated to
Confess. In this eticlusion I am confirmed.
;u well lv the ojiinion of Presidents Washing.
tri, Jeff'ron. Madison, aiid Monroe, who have
Mr. S. thanked the chairman of the
Committee of Ways and 'Means for his
document ; it. had furnished to hm apd to
the country undeniable proof, from the
highest authority, to what an extent pri
ces had been reduced; insomuch1 that the
duty ou one article, though reasonable at
firt, bad now risen to three hundred and
eighty-nine per cent; ad valorem, brought
r What! wa
him lr Tjie motnent
and enterprise. hrh
ting the better. of his
down with th-dutv.
a batter,' bv makingt)et!
or sbpes,! bail girt "possession xif i
the eve of thin frc e-Irlule s s :
feneo! on pirn like a! vjuhme. 'I
tary found he yas dopig too w
duty inuslbe riducei to let in t!
er. Sucl was the;'plan of thiv .
t rat ion. ' ffhe jrieehatiic, ilhidiu
tection tljus diminp4 ed, ittul !.
otherj resklurce but hh buinrs
on to work longer an 1 harib-r t!
and whep. by workii g ml oi ;
had Contrived to gel ver thi
01 nis; pyn overHmepT, anu in-:
together' Ii little profit, tie sanw
would; repeat the process: the!;
be evidently too big! !dovn ,
The poor man" would now ta!
d re n ;from school and bring -tlie::
shop.; j Tljey tm wpuld now v. .
the mairljimself worked harder
er. JJut what : ivOuld be the i
would only bring bin under th
ry;s rjuje ; jtlie duty must be aru
and Still o on io: be hoWenfil, i.
more, till it4ast this jfree-boi n ,
must be s round down bv the acl
own Goyriime.nt toj the ileiri
wretched conditioii b f ,nA Ehu'.i
or a Uiiss an serf, j The mfin-i
ricau lalxirer jsucceeded
i'if.'jf. ; and six bents a yard, the duly would , about solely by the reduction of the price.
uwvanu wijuAya!-ri ct uisiiuei iy ayow
M in tjie ecretary,siii'p()it,w;is that the
protecli ve pplipy v; s hm'ttnritut.Unvtlt :i ml
if $o. there must be jfinj end of it.
lrikncetUiught i.VA U m tvif azures- prz ac, repeatetfly recommeqded this right under
bb one bundred an(t fifty l)er cent. : and if
thfr- price descended to one cent a yard,
tben the duty would be nine hundred per
cW,nt. ! Thpoor man robbed, plundered,
atiil oppressed by a duty o
p as iKinsible of its views and
ue prepiii-ek Mr. S. propos-
; edto dmwtfbrth lb view; and to'publiciex-
arnjtinionrf it ,as jln ii-f' a inatiuer as he
. jThb'ifirsf jjictiie wihich he siiouhl im
tl','and whitih V;b(-iltst distinct IV avow-
cretary raip Lexpri'ksly that the taiiif of
Wll i'tu ikn !.. i3 f ii.l iiii!h..i I. v..
V - tf 1. I l J I 1 III ! Mlll'l ,
(lorhjtHnt.anjl opprt'dijive. and :o clearly
via conflict with- thil fViHditmental oriiici-
These were Ids eijWess words, that th5
tariff of. 18 12; yjis dlpirly in etmtrict wfi : li
ue limdrtpientul prlliciples of the Consti
tution; and h'e h'.td Ip fdn an argum -nf to
prove tti is. Hp jqujtejji' the Constitof ton.
ndthen argued, fy jwjl h' inference, tfeat
tlie power to jay a diiv for protection was
not in this GoiernmUVj. ill "is report sa ,s :
-"Aparnai ana a wraipronioiiion are alike
n tuJafion of Jhc trut object of th". taxing pow
r.Tliy only differ in egree and not in pein
cip!r.. -If vho revenue lir lit may be exceeded
' f per ccnth itjinay bo exceeded one hundied.
If it miy Ik) exceeded upjii any one article, it
mj Lo exceeded on all ; and there i no es-'
Ce4rom this conclusion! but in contending that
Congress may jay duties inp all artich s so hih
ata collect no revenuCi and operate as a1 total
-prohibition. . i . 1 i ' '
"The Constitution declares that all bills for
Rising reve-nue shall prijpnate in the House of
Rfpregcntatives.'v A tariiithill, it is conceded,
Cto only ttigiuiatc in the j House, because it is
' Ml In raisin s. rcrcttiiei
confji'f.V' Jffi'rsrnCs hz-tcf fo Ifjnj. illtWi.'i,
fi-j, Iikp'.on, 1810.1 -. -' ;i
Would jrentlenjjen sjiytltat Go. Wfash
ingfotj .pnd Tho:Ti3i4 JeflersoirTlKpl united
in rjcomrnendiug a violation -of thaj isa
cred instrument khi'cb their own llnds
had: formed ( Add how was it with lre
sident Madison 'hat pure u istdlid jp tf
riotand most sagacious and incofrujiUble
sta'ehtiian what did Iim think aour4be
nptiter?; In no less tliatV-jfour exeeiive
eonimuuie ttions. (woof them annual n s
sages and two of them 'special belhad
united Ins -'Voice to recommend the eiicou-
nki ntcessfrith otrM lepfalcnceas pur ; tUft c.,u,tituiion. ai bv the uniform j7actice of lr;cnt- simply because he gets a y;ml
the inanufacrurer run tit) 'the price to t hip-
rsix ceitts agam, and tl
v')ures--, ine -oaiaiu.'a ac-quiescence i.i ine
Stales, apt! the general understanding of the
p op'e." Juki i ns seem I annual 'Massage,
Yet now' Congress was to learn for the
fipst time by Executive instruction that
they possessed no conslitntional power to
-protect our own home industry -mo power
to countervail the injurious nhgulati onsqf
fi,her -euiufries po:poWir to project- the
labor of our own citizens- from the-de--st
ructiop wbiclkiinist be brought upon ir
by an unrestricted, competition with the
pauper, labor, of Liirwpe ; but our own
hardy .sonsof toil must be; impoverished
all pver;the jrluty of
Mr. S. defied escape from this ppsition.
Let any gentlemen , take the report and
examine ir, and the more they examined,
the more they Would be convinced that
this was a true explanation of the whole
matter. Yet this was held forth for the
purpose of exciting alarm ; it furnished a
topic for popular declamation ;; it niigbt
the oppression is '.persuade the, poor man that hiv was
i i ii,-- i i .
nine cents a vara gieaiiv oppressed, oecause nr paiu a lax
two hundred per cent, on his window
in and put
alls instiintly t tiveuv-ive per cent., a f
nioderatei revenn; dutv- I TVo inrn. pnm. irlass : and he-oerhans would not under-
plaint; these lVieivds of lie poor man" 'stand that if glass fell to a dollar a box,
are ;perfeclly satisfied. j; , he would Jitt taxed four hundred per i'nt.,
jSucb was the jnacticnl operation of or if by any improvement in the manufac
tbese odious minitnums which bad reduc- I ture he'sbould be enabled to get his glass
ed the poor : man's eOtfpn goods from at fifty cen's a box why then bo wouhl
t Wenly-fiye and thirty cens per -yard to! Ie paying the enormous unheard of tax of
six and eight cents. Yet this was 'i he svs- ! eight hundred per rait. This same "poor
1 ..:..-,-.: .
ragemept and prpteetion by legislation of j and gropnd down so, long aa tbe wretched
our idome-stic manufactures!: I ! beggars under a foreign Government were
".Tlui ; revision of our eoinme)-cial b
U au apt thRm to the arrtnrin mi which ti:i;
laws proper ! compelled by their necessities to labor at
lich hjs ta- i lower rates than Ireeborn i Americans.
ke pUce; with Great Britain, will doubtless en. ! Such was the doctrines distinct ly promul-g-ige
the '.e a rlv nttenlion of C ingress! lt will gated hy the President in (the Message,-
o- wormy ai inesame nine or ingfjusi ana pro. i and especially ny Ins secretary ot tlie
videlit vnm, to mako siu h further alterations jn t Treasury. WelT might they be called ex-
uie whs s win inirc effect urn i if. yro.eci
fer the several branches
have been recently,
lau liduV exertion f
c i: -1 1 f tl no i onn
tem which must be givenup; this was
the operation which was so oppressive and
siUncoiistitutit)iial i.t it -jurist be suffer
ed jc exist no longer upon our statute
book ! The duty was to be taken off the
foreign goods, and put. upon American
manufactures; such was; the doctrine of
tins; report, t
Mr. JOHNSON, of Tennessee, here a-
gain asked Mi. Stewart, if the tariff" bro't
1 reciMumend atso, as a morC effectual isafe.
gnabl and as an encnurasemenfclo our growing
vernmertt had no power to protect them?
That was the doctrine there was no e-
vadingit; and Mr. S. desired to know
imiiii Arif rrfa I Vk k I it. -.1 tt . .liif iu.o ' All Ittl-
i i- . . .i ; i f I whether this committee were nrenareft lr
That is the-only
.proper object of such d h If. A tariff Is a bill
'jay ami collect taxei.' It is a bill tor raising
Kffnue; and whenever ill departs from that o
J?ct, in vtuic or in part either by lo!aUt partial
i"""i"iuorv, tt violates inc purpose oj the granted
ports which are to expire atthf end of ompiyear :
alier face with ureal tSntam.aie prolongl to
the nd of two years after thatevent'.tfaJi
sosi Special Message, May 3:Sl.
M put.tji.ere is no subject whih can nterjwith
greater force and mrit iiit( the! de lib? ratios of
Con;ress than a consideratiortfof ! thet mqOs to
presiervc tind promote the maripfactures hich
have spning into existence, an( attained unpar
alleled maturity throughut the United jStates
during the picric k1 ofthe European war-s. ; p'his
sourcR of fnational independence- andwdath I
irii'o it iVio imnfcis nf tlvip-i:anotifin ?
fV IW 11111 fJ V l llll-ll ik'lllJVIIVII .
This, however, was but one of tlie ex
traordinary doctrines in this most extraor
dinary production. It contained others
equally strange, equally new, equally per
nicious in tendency, equal )y j dest ructi ve' in
Thus he hejbj explicitly that a duty which
erit but one per cebtl beyond the re'vej-
anxiously recommend to the prorppt and constant
guardianship of Congress.'' Madison's Special
Message February 15, 115. j ! L U
In Mri-Madison's seventh message he
tvt m a i;i n t,.bL U tL : tection of our home
.n 1 . .... .i:Jl fcLi ; tic manufactures. Mr
oi ine. coram uce ov iTaumiii ijoiiu uie.e.
, c fsantlara was Junconstitutional, atKjl documents to any extent : but gentleipen
.t it: Congress miglit addf but one per j would ardly maintain .that) Jk'mesaldi-:
'.td the airnountlof duty I'pessary (o)r son -idid!. not understand tbp Constitittion
Avenue; it -might .add .a hundred percent.; at leashs well as Robert iWalkecL He
N that if jii might! impose such duty on might himself be called ihei father bf1 the
one article; it mi ghtj with eqhal right im- j Constitution, and yet he publicly apd ofi
Nett upon nit "other articles whatever. - cially recommended on tourj different oc-
wpole prpceedingJwtietlH r in asma- ! casipns that very policy which tlie present mail and bis friends held the doctrine thai
'rofngren,!- degrcjej, j he Secret ai-y maip- ! Secretary of the Treasury pronounci:l to ! the consumer alyayS paid Mie duty, ant
jained to be directly nliaitistbe Consthu-1 be ip open conflict with the) Constitution. tht Secretary told thp natiop that the pooi
pnand an act whttjh transcended, the j An .Executive message Was here! re- -man was taxed jdghiyjtvvoj per cent, or
vtt of Congress tjO rjerlorm. Tat was
- cbrine ofihe repbrt. Was 'it a doc-
and had spstafined wages and agriculfur
aK produce b) creating an; increased de
mand lor both. If the gentleman could
practical operation. Would the people uIflte price, it; would all be plain!
believe it This document from the Se- i , intnt t.. hud h..n ,nntm.
.; cretary recommended the imposition of an I Vfh:n fhlL feirines nut forth bv the Se-
t n 1 " t T T J J .
: Ui iCTMii Y iti tJi- I t 'ui i. iiv; j(iu u n;i itu tu
man oi the .'cretary sometimes, wanted
to buy a lew nails, and the Secretary a
larrned him by the intelligence that nails
were taxed a hundred per cent.; on their
value. So they were ; but what did he
pay for them ? He used to pay sixteen
cents a pound, but this wicked oppressive
tariif bad brought them down to four cts.
Now, who did not siee that if a specific
duty of four cents a pound on nails amoun-
hundned per cent., should
flit down to a cent a pound,
be four hundred j per cent.
Mr. STEWiART replied Ithat such was What an oppression tb get nails at a pen-
not the fact. iO.her goods r not manufac-; ny a pound .' Surely the poor man,' was
lured here, silks, velvets, &c, had not de- ! likely to be Utterly crushed and ;ruiued.
clined in the same ratio, nor had wages Mr. S. saidjhe had wished to point out
oi:agricuInral produce ; .because the pro- some olber of thelextraordinary doctrines
te3tive tariff had increased the. supply of! contained in this paper of the Secretarv,
.1 .. . .. it....- . : t . . r ' ... ... :
uooh'siic goous oy increasing compeiuion, ; and there was one M hich would startle
in shutting out lore
WThat sor of a rule-was this I
would one suppose; it to- be nr.
the American manufuclurer. or
pean ?.; (Cle-arly it was ;t rule f
efit of tllejforejigner. Ancl cou! !
pendent and intelligent Ann ri'
to liVe undersell a rule Th
the Amercai-rises to bis feet, in
gle witli IpreigiiersfVrthe -Aiih s:
ket, lie tsjo bejknocl ed ihiwn b-
ecuie 4'ie'and witkcd tcrr I
cretary ' Val!ijr. f hiugb
was ;i hei rl Amrrictiii swlt in. M ;
sisted jt Vasa Ikilib
such; a system as Sir
have rt'eonimehded. could be K ,
through ifii'sident Pjt'k jashis tu
practical,; its uniyeral opei at i
lie what he had just iow dt -ci i
would lb tj lIpuse,ehdorse a
f h is 'I This, wp.fjbe llir-lamt d
system,T ilowfor ihejtirst tirie j
Ut Uy an Aiilerican fiscal oil
how! this! tender-hearted Seen
excise on American tnanufactures-
take the duties ofrBr.tish goods, and put . a ,able wHich had been reported to the ! can industry ; it was o take
on t he nt'ricanj i I Htiuse last session by the I Committee of from foreign manufactures, ;
Tlf Til II iVSlflX! r Tonti(iccin horn o , 7 i I A T 1 .. i . I- r . l 7 tr i -
xixi. wi-iv.. m. ..,,-v., uv-.v ; yay s anu iueans, ior ine purpose oi snow
gain interposed, land, as the gentleman j ing jhe enormous tax which was imposed
...... . . v . i i a rw ..nr. t . a i . .iir w r n.n " '
the country ; it was Covered up in cau
tious language, but when this veil ; was
drawn aside, and the truth exposed, he
again warned gentlemen that it would
startle the country. This free-trade Se
cretary had recommended ian excise' on
American manufactures. fes, that was
the protection he had provided for Ameri-
off the duty
aud i put it on
our own, near him :
L . 7 J i i " ' m m i '
gre.lt that he would or
lrimr 1 1 1 1 1 1 i
a . ... I .I'll 111' ,'4IVI tljll llllll ,
level wiili tbiiliritish paupeis !
ne iniprovemeiits in
tnsportatioix was corn;
i i ir . i' ' i . i
Take off the dutvai
Si hdei I
cost pf tn
ish workshops wouhl be brbuu!
door. SupKsehese )Jritih lal;
in Alexandria j wofkiiig at tweut
was any ipan'so blind as not t;
t bey ;mustspon hrrak down t ho
of Washipgton ? lTh enqdos
soon jbegiii to-talk 4o ;t hem in a
ligible Jauguage.; L -jMy coin;
Alexpndrii get Jalwr for twenty-,
a daV. and vou must take : th -
quit.; iNqw, .where,
whether the distance
or a little (ess.? ; .The,
ol the system would
And this was the Juessed syt( i
tr.ade! The workmen of K;.
France coildwork jcheaper t
and free-trlidi? doctrip held t h
buy whereverj we cobld buy !
Dowp wept the duty, infcat:
goods, out went American n
out and tout it went till we h
money io senu. anu tne pro i.
-..fit ' i'
wjts the !;
was a lit:!
I ' ii i . t 1
him another question
who paid t- And if all were protected a
like, what benefit was there in the protec
I 41 In a r on if In Off with iLtcn n r ! n r-1 rl a If ia
jjiyiufMs.fiii:Oi minimums; oui wnen me. i ii:..,wi ,i,at ;u L i.i: .. . 1 .. .' 7. .
industry and domes-., Secretary, by! the assistance ofthe honor- : Yul "-
T desired to -ivk' kl 1 k . ' u'i n r ' uoolr""' r -f .... i IS (Was tie IlleiSStOg WliJCi
. j. pe&iua to ask . abla chairman of the Conimtttee of v ays tinom rt.v.in.1,. rtotitaa ..r-my..t..,iA. .vkAtimr . u. ' . ?. . .
.1 When .he Gov-i mul Mwlni A.as prpparini vvWl
a. : . i . - . ' . . t . . o i ' i - : rwor ttim mi i i in iwiw lit v
riUWU III '1 ri I I I 'I f ! I I rUL' I . I I. I . A I ' I mrvr m w B W m w m m awv -
i.iiov. iuui.uiuviui, Uqp my pains mis document, tie seemed abroad- i .
Mr. STEWART resumed. The gentle
n asked him who ppid ? The gentfe-
mouiu the House express its cpneunence
sentiments T, Ho trusted not. The
Olllft WMiYtrMritiwsir- iiirlmoit AVllM
PTOtectix'e noltey Itkconsfititfional !
Hi alll those stattpieii vyjm had goti
we uvhild been oi en violators of th
ton4ttfL' Li-Li . .2 ir i
to forget tip at be was attheisamp moment
furnishing, mathematical proof of the ex
act extent to;which protection bad reduc
ed priccsT" B' converting specilic into ad
valorem duties, the duty runs up precise
ly. as the price runs down ; so. by showing
an increased rate of tluty, iihe gentlemen
have only hawn reduced prices.
The duty is fixed, and eiruinot vary.
Th; ad ViAitreiii duties are always the
same. Nonej were imposed by the tariff'
oi" 1812 above 50 per cent. How, then.
i'. of; 'ihwr-bopntry. Had not
agln. in the strongest sind most ecriphktic
language, iirged upon Congress the pro-!
priefy of protecting domestic manu ac-i
lure's. ' He then came to the messages of
i Gen, Jackson a name whieh.lhe; should
Let mecHanicsand manufacturers hear
thiat. iEvefy American artisan should
hear it, The duty Was to he on articles.
&.(?., whether grownj produced, or manu
factured 7c home or abroad." Here was
art American Secretary! distinctly recom
mending to levy the high rate of revenue
dipifr.s on goods manufactured at home.
Wh it Was this but an excise ? What else
wps ap excise than a tax on the manu
factured goods of this country ? S Yet this
was the Secretary's recommendation.
How would American manufactures like
'in - -- - i I i
An Executive message Was here! re- man was taxed ighty-two per cent, on
ceived4from the President thrpiighjthe cotton goods overt he rich rrian lesthis
hands'pf Mr. Walker, his private? Sebre- poor man seemed a special favorite of the
turvH M : ! H'f; I l.n-ir:li!p Sprrptjirv.i He had introdiierl
Mr.aS. next referred to thkmeskage of him ten times in tlie course! of two para-; does the President, in his message, get du
Preirdent Afnnrm -tvlm hn.l fcr I nA crrnh nf the refWf. His kvmnathv Was ' tis of 20J pet cent. ? Th IS can only be
greatly excited that this unhappy poor ; uonr y cozening ,.,. uuunimu Both in the message and in the report
7 . 1 . Iiil H..I f 4-. I I WJlI i.lMtrllL I I 111 lt-?S - IV Hi ll I LJ ID UUIIT.. .1 '
man was ia.t i our nuuuiru mu in .j T - ,1 ,1- . ...
per cent, on bis cotton shirtj because there a high duty only shows a low price.. It
was a specific duty Jon imported cotton the duty is 2Q'J per cent., the price must
l-,-,f nine, ce.its'a! vard. i Now. if this bp one-fourih only of the duty. Thus we
specific duty of iliipe cents amounted to a are Md that glass pays the eiiormous du-
' . .. .1 I i I i . ' I . . .' . 4' iinA ..a. . ,...,1 U.K.- t IL.n.iti.-.i
ad Valorem. 7,, W tnn. , emu v.i ; u'
the duty is 184 :per box. ancj the price .2
per box ; but it the-glas went down to
just a nundred and fiftv SI per box th duty would be 400 per
..Utl, : ..itl. .i'.r.,'.l cent. Thus we are told bv the Secretary
He brought in r the pinir ni;n
in two parigrapiis ! 1 lint lit
be very nptfto ojierate like th;
tain hear once rhad for a
1 n 1 1 n h "I
lugged him to
m ' ii 'J i J j i - it
iur. " nai sepn .vjr,. wauu
nou need .ibr t he Presid e n c y.
charitable , bbsi
that Mr.?Wdker; wa$ I
.m 7i-i'-.... 1 1-
cauuniii;i - it
- .,li-Vfrw..j:i..ve ' ' ..J.;. ...:rri L : .. u...:iil. .. i . ' Lin ' .
. ') 'iiviui v; imioh-uii - i.ii m lu-i-ii suppose, wouio sun tot ve some small iijea
VlStinoil... 7 7 I ; ' ! t -f i - '. -' . ' - ! ' .' ' 'i . . 4 . 1-. ' .
. n:cu;uuieiioTu iu uuiins -ui
.V''i down to and
Ai-e .f - " ?Tnili!enien would refer to tinci and open contradiction the opinions ; nine cents was
urst inv.l u tl... I..' .1 :....:..:....' .. .i ' .fi.:.,-.. l.'kij, j...
the Administration had given its; own de-
fitiition-.of what, accordiqg to its under
standing, was a revenueisfandard of duty;
and this was, the language of the Presi-
d to ' Congress1. bv. stii (4 of authority, at least w)th!' those vho hundred ami fiftjy 'per cer.h ad valorcm. l ty-,
ptive, frotn ; Vash I otice! professed themselves pre-erninejitly that fixed the pjice pf jthe cotton to the 1 'bp
including Andrexl' j his fiiends. Mr. S. would iplaccl in llis- "poor nrfan? at . (ut six cents a yardjfor j-.pff
depl's message :
aMUiu 10'llie : ast communications OI . Iim l.l lie lh nresent b.xecutlt e anil his e- , rter eent. on six
tent; -Washington,, they, could per-j cretary of the Treasury, as coptaineif iri ; A
tU e ho had listuictly recommende
f nnnl ..... . I i . I
dm- I OI BUCa a popcy as among i ne
-,."rs fii i ii . l.:.. .. l . j
T. vv,,orvps. licruurc ins wonis ;
. . - "Hl.lUIHIl IVUI.II
W:h Hd manufactures, bu all vrover means.
flU ni I . . ' . . ! " - . . . 1J
.; i HVli i trust, need 'recommendation j but 1
the message of the; one, and the report of iinao
. 1 ? . . ' .- " , I . .. L ' t rll . J . . I
the other, and. the opinions ot vnopwi Ami
S - !
contained in his Executive! other
Gonirress. H had already
presented the.doctrines of the eiist jog d-j
minusirauon, as mey were seinuouie u
- - I ! i -- 4. I a Ma m A 1 tllA Jaf T M I'FITl '11 tl I IkU
ofthe horridtax was. haft his -poor oi-iov nn.j .,uu v...m ....... . ... , gl
f i i . t - -. r ft.. T al ak a . . . . !l I ..a s r 1 o m n
n got a good shirt, afsixpehcea yard, summing oi; vays auu wr.. v. K hig
Mr. S. wopld le I the gentleman an-i PpopP Pil,u ,n 'V 'VT. ' ! the;
it.;W rWhnn t h overt mot iibomiiifi- ml lions, ot u men out twenty-seven went
The precise paint in the; ascending scale
of itlntiea at which it is asctlrtjained frrn expe
rieiiee that the revenue is greatest, is the m ix
irnim rate )f duty which caii be laid fr the
j bona fide ptirpse of ciilectiug m'ney fr the
J)le mini mums, which so e xciteij the wrat h
the Secret arvj, had hrst oeen introduced
1816 by Yilliam Lowndes one of ihe
to heiGoyerrimentj ahd:;hf1-seven to the
mkridiact iirtrs ; and he gave a list of six-
I jf if seventy; Sarticles on vbJch tbe duty
- ? 1 ' r '7 !' :7 ; v-"fV;?MLft 77.4, - 7 . .
ippiirt oTGiiverninpnt, To! rane the dutien
her than that point, and thereby; diminish
amount collected, is to levy them lor i pro-
tection; merely aiid not f r revenue j As long,
then, as Congress may gradually increase the
rate of duty on a given article, and the revenue
U increased by such increase; of dutjry they arc
s .- '
em miir i t
poor irnuiss j
posedi a ivise nl.an, for Ins
soon piake 4lb the people j
he would gp in by iadclamatit
merrimem.j; ! i.j
The Scrtarys sys
ly be turheii a plantp
men." Iucfj, would be its prar
and there wpuhl lie no escaj i
the gentleman Irom "Ajaham a ( '
examine tliej report': long as !
and see if hj couhl nri-iki? any
ont of it. And iiow Mr. S. v.
members of his corniiiittee j-.s.
trymen generally whether tl.- .
such a fdaa would not In: re;
passing a Iav- that henceforth
capital , should be invested i::
tures? It was in tbp nature
be forehand, land i t ra n in t!.'
Gentlemenlyou may 'invest y
in such way as you
1 -t -
1 t.V.;" '"7 ' 7 77-'Ht7 'J.;-
' - -