- , 5 -! - " f- : - ? !;
.1 t.-l "
ua, a: tne pvri
" bf I ,niiK?xii6i;to; the
Ufiitcj States, liprn the fame rotation to Mexico
ihlt Mexico had borne to Sp.'dn fW raanyears
!j before Spain ucbi)vlld her widepenUence,
! w th this ImpArtkntditTcrvure that. before the
i Wncxa!i.i of 'iixas to II.Q U. States was con.
1 ulnniaied, Mexico herself, by a formal act of
her government'- had ackrU fW he m'c;
pSndence LfTe&sa. a na ion. ft is true, .hat
; In the act 'of recognition she prescribed a cpr
h :i:J:- .L,.:..i. U ha.-I rto tWcr or authority to
iXo el Kit '! a. .ho,.!,! not annex herself to j ourjarmy, with a vi
iXZlWr ;, hut thi could not detract in Jeff . we invade
tZ tSS fi. b region which Mexico j hal
hen nwI of her actual independence, j Upon
1 XhU pllinietateihent of fijrls, it is absurd for
' Mexiccf io allegif, as a pretext f.r commencing
' hoitiiit cs bgaiuft the U. Slates, that Texas is
bank ef tho RioGr.uide;
Jy, Congress passed an act f establishing eer
tilri doj5 routes," extending VcaJ of tho ; Neu
cesf The country; west of that river now con
stitute? a part of, one, of the Congressional dis
tricts of Texas, and is represented in the House
of Representatives; The 'senators from that
Stale vero chosen by a legislature in which the
couhlfy west of that river was represented. In
yiew of all these facts, it is; difficult to conceive
upon what ground t can, be maintained that, in
occupying the country west of the Neuces with
army, with a view solely to its security ana
i'U the territory oi Mexico.
been still more difficult to jug.
Uoon I tifyUhc Executive, whoso duty it is to see that
me laws ue laiiniuwy t?vuu-,w w
all these proceed insi?, boih of the Congress of
Texas and of the United States, he had assum-
i i a i. A ni i,m nr i - u iy lAit ii h ii'rn iia
till a part ul Mr territory1, ;..!.. .. 1. kt.X. m tifn. t-.r r.r rof.uincr
It..tlUtii nro ihnse wh . conceUmg all this ; 3 ei 'r : .L. ' , 7
i . . . i.. wtnri ibm lerrnorv nnn lis
J iA be true amh ihe 'croi n that the true wes. ''"" .. 7' T sT "f. n
! P Ue, 'nV:. T J : J.i- V..,..a lciQ t hab 'anU including Corpus Chnsti, as well
lliiair "l i t.-'i t -
f lowinirl Gen.iPaiedc thrDnh W 'tninwtef -
l war, issued orderi !to I tlleTSU jan!3n,craf .
; commanu on the -lxian frontier 191 rt "vi1k
bar naval force
ourarrriy, Iievelry means which witf, permits.-; S
To this, Gen. Paredes had been pleiJged to the , o
army ana people m Mexico Qunuwv ";
rcrolijiioh which i bad hrmight him into power.
On the: 19th of April, 1616, ten. rareoes aa.
dressed a letlfjr 4 jtho commander ni that fon
tier, in! whicli he stated to hip J! ufto pres.
ent date I supposb yoa at the head ;of that Val.
iant army, cither fighting already, tir preparing
fur the operations of a campaign ; and, suppos.
intr von already on the theatre off operations,
and With all the forces assembled, it is indispen
y' "fit "J
off cd to cu. Consul, gave a farorab
trt l questing, at, ijie same time that
liiiti jj,v,f""v"1'll"u.' 'a V" h una b-
gotiations should be pending. ; Upon the receipt
of this note! our naval force was! promptly with
drawn from; Vera iCruz. A MifiUter was im-
mediately appointed, and departed to Mexico.
Every thin; Iwre H promising aspect for a epee
dy and peaceful adjustment of alf oUr difficulties.
At the datC;df my annual message to Congress,
in December last, no doubi wasj entertained hut
that he would be received by tlje Mexican Go
vernroent, and the hope was cherished that 'all
cause of misunderstanding between the two.
counties would be speedily removed. In the
u.i i : ! i
sable that hoitilities be commenccid, yourself j confident hope that such would.be the result of
nndi that, .therefore, In
f-irer, we passe
our airny t' the east bank of the latter
lassedlhc Texan line, and invaded the
territoryf Mexico, a simple siaiememoi iaqis,
krjown to exist, vill concliiViveiy refute such ah
assumption. Texas, as cedtnl to the United
States by Franco in 1803, has been alvVays
LT claimctp cxleiwiuig west to tno mo uwuu
of .UlO'Uravo. Itus laci is eaiiiuiiaiicu ...
Authority f our most eminent statesmen at a pej
rlod wieln; the q lesiion was as well if not bet.
ter umlefstood than it is present. DuKng
Mr. Jeterson'andmiiustratlion, Messrs. Monroe
and Pibckney, v ho had leen snit on a special
mission to Madrid, charged among olhcr things,
with the adj'istn out of hoimdary between; the
Vfo countries, in a note addressed to the Spanish
Minister of Foreign AfTii, under date of the
iventy.righth of January, 11805, assert that the
boundaries of Iousiaua, as ceded to the United
States by Franc "are thif river Terdido on the
cjast, niiidi tho river Bravo on the' west;" and
they otldjthat 41 he facts and principles which
justify this conclusion are so satisfactory to our
government as to convince it that the United
states have not :i better right to ji he bland of
Kew Orleans, mder thejeessiori referrtd to,
than they have It the whole district of territory
y hich is alwve described"
tf! Down to tho conclusion of the Florida treaty,
)n February, 18 10, by which this territory was
Ceded o LSnain, ho United a'es asserted (ant
Viiaintafned their lerritorifll rights to this extent.
In the month of June, 1618, during Mr. Mon
oes ajhninistration, information having been
received that a number of foreign adventurers
Itad landed at Gclveston, with the avowed pur
pose of firming n settlement in that vicinity, a
peciaJ messenger was despatched by the gow
4rnment of the I nited States, with instructions,
from the Secreta y of State to warn them to del
list, should they l found there "or any other
tvlace tiorih of thd llio IJiavo, and within the ter-
. L!ii 1 l.J .1. TT..:..l C!.ki IT.. ; L
the remainder of Texas, against the threatened
Mexican invasion, i .
But Mexico herself has never placed the war
which she has waged upon the ground that our
army occupied thei intermediate territory be
tween the Nuces and the Rio Grande. Her re
futed pretension that Texas was not in flict an
independent State, but a rebellious province,
was obstinate!y;persevered in ; and her avow
ed purpose in commencing a war with the Uni
ted Stales was to reconquer Texas, and to re
store Mexican authority over the whole territo
ry not to the Neuces only but. to the Sabine.
InJview of the proclaimed menaces of Mexico
to this eflect, I deemed it my duty, as a measure
ofiprecaution and defence, to order our army to
occupy a position on our frontier as a military
pdst, from which our troops could best resist and
repel any attempted invasion which Mexico
inn the initiative against the enemy.
The movement of ourarmy totheilio Grande i
was made by j the commanding general under j
positive orders to abstain from all aggressive acts ,
towards Mexico, or Mexican citizen and to re- j
gard the relations between the two countries as j
peaceful, unless .Mexico should declare war, or j
commit acts of hostility indicative of a stat of j
war;! and these Orders be; faithfully executed, j
Whilst occupying his position on the east bank j
f ihfl Rif. Grande, within the limits! of Texas, j
i then recentlyjadmitted as one of the 'States of
our Union, the commanding iicneral bf the Mex
ican forces, who, in pursuance of the orders of
his government, bad collected a large army on
the opposite Miore of the Itio Grande, crossed
the river, invaded our territory, and commenced
hostilities by attacking our forces. j
Thus, after; all ihe injuries whichvie have re
ceived and' borne from Mexico, and after she
had insultingly rejected, a ministcrsent to her
on a mission bf peace, and whom ihe had so
lemnly agreed to receive, she consummated her
his mission, I informed Congress that I forbore
i it . . - i , (1 a '
ai mai lime io recommend saca ulterior mea-
sures of redress for the wrongs and injuries we
had so long borne, as it would have been proper
to make h aid no such negotiatibn been institut
ed." To my surprise and regret; the Mexican
Government though solemnly pledged to do so,
upon tHe arrival of our minister in Mexico, re
fused to receive and accredit him. When be
reached Vera Cruz, on the thirtieth of Novem
ber, 1845, he found that the aspect of affairs had
undergone an unhappy change. 1 be Govern
ment of Gene ml Herrera, who was at that lime
President of the Republic, was tottering to its
fall. General Paredes (a military leader) had
manttestedihis determination .to overthrow the
government of Herrera, by a military revolu
tion ; and one of the principal means which he
employed fo eflect his purpose, and render the
government ot Herrera odious to theTirmyanrl
people of Mexico, was by loudly condemning
its determination to receive a minister of peace
from the United State
Our army had occupied a' position at Corpus ! Texas by conquest. On the contrary, it
rnmmpnfinir hn nfiensivo war. and sbeddiniTthe
r - u -
blood of our citizens on our own sotl.
The United States never attempted to acquire
Christi, west of the Nuces, as early as August,
1845, without complaint from any quarter. Had
the Nuces been regarded as tho true western
boundary of Texas, that boundary had been
passed by our army many months before it ad
vanced to the Eastern bank of the Rio Grande.
In my annual message of December last I in
formed Congress that upon the invitation of both I their request Id this government- ; This gov
ernment, however, having, remained neutral be
tween Texas and Mexico during the war be
tween themarid considering it-ducf to the hon
or of our country, and oiin fair tamo among the
nations of the arth, thatVe should not tit this
peridd consent to annexation, nor until it should
be manifest to the whale world that ihe fe-con-quest
of Texas by Mexico was impossible, re
fused to accede to the overtures made by Texas.
On the twelfth! of April, 1844, and after more
to make it our duty to afford such protection and j than seven years had elapsed since Texas had
defence ; and that for that purpose our squadron ! established her independence, a treaty was con
had been ordered to the Guland our army to j eluded for the annexation of that Republic to
" to take a position between the Nuces and the j the United States, which was rejected iby the
del Norte," or Rio Grande, and to "repel any j Senate. Finally, on the first of March, 1845,
iiistrudeif, should they bo found in the country ! invasion of the Texjan territory which might be ! Congress passed a joint resolution forjannex-
the Congress and Convention of Texas, I had
deemed it proper to order a strong squadron to
the coasts of Mexico, and to concentrate an ef
ficient military force on the western frontier of
Texas, to protect and defend the inhabitants a
gainst the menaced invasion of Mexico. In
that message I informed Congress that the mo
ment tho terms of annexation offered by the
United States were accepted by Texas, the lat
ter became so far a part of our own country as
s, alleging that it was the
course of outrage against our "country by intention of Herrera, by a treaty with the Uni
-c'. i i'ii- .i .-.,IC!... :. i: I 1 r r
teu oiuius, iu uiMnt iiiut.' r me ie rruory oi 4iexico,
by ceding away the department of Texas. The
government ofllerrera is believed to have been
well disposed to a pacific adjustment of existing
difficulties ; but, probably alarmed for its own
security; apd! in order to ward offthe danger of
the revolutjon led by Paredes, violated its solemn
agreement, and refused to receive or accredit
our Minister ; and this, although informed that
he had been1 invested with full power to adjust
all questions in dispute between the two Gov.
ernments. i Among the frivolous pretexts for this
refusal, the principal one was, that our minister
early period after the people had achieved their
moepenaence, iney sougnx. io ue aniiexeuxo iue
United States. : At a general election in) Sep
tember, 18,36, they decided with great unanim
ity in favor of V annexation ;" and' in Novem
ber following llie Congress of the Republic au-
thoiized the appointment of a minister to bear
e) response, re- peace, that Paredes should net retain power in
Mexico. ! i
Cefire thai time there were symptoms of a
revolution fo Mexico, favored, as it was tinder
stood to be, by the more liberal party, and es
pecially by those who were opposed to foreign in
terference and to the monarchial form of gov.
ernment. banta Anna was then an exile in
Havana, having been expelled from power and
banished from his country by a revolution which
occurred in December, 1844 ; but it was known
that ho had still a coniiderablo party in his fa-
vor in ruexico. w was aiso equally well known
that;no vigilance which could be exerted by
our 'squadron wouia. in an probability, ', have i
preventea mm irom eneciing a landing some-1
where on the extensive gulf coast of Mexico, if
he desired to return to his country. He had
openly professed an entire change of policy ;!
had expressed his regret that he had subver-i
ted the federal constitution of 1824, and avowed!
that he was now in favor of its restoration. i
He had publicly declared his hostility, in the
strongest terms, to tho establishment of a monl
archy, and to European interference in the af
fairs of his country. Information to this efTeci
had been received, from sources believed to be
reliable, at the date of the recognition of tho
existence of the war by Congress, and was af
terwards fully conGrmed by the receipt of the
despatch of our consul in the city of Mexico,
with the accompanying-documents, which are
herewith transmitted. Resides, it was reason,
able to suppose that he must see the ruinous coii.
sequences to Mexico of a war with the United
States, and that it would bo his interest to fi.
vor peace, I
It wa3 nnder these circumstances and upon
these considerations that it was deemed expe
dient not! to obstruct his, return to Meiico.
should he i attempt to do so. Our. object wis
tho restoration of peace ; and with that view
no reason was perceived why we should take
part with (Paredes, and aid him, by means bf
our oiocicaae, in preventing the return of his
rival to Mexico. On the contrary, it was be
lieved that the intestine divisions which ordina
ry sagacity could not but anticipate as the fruit
of Santa Anna's return to Mexico, and his con
lost with Paredes, might strongly tend to pro
duce a disposition with both parties to restore
and preserve peace with the U. States. Pare
des was a soldier bv Profession, and a mrm.
Icct our frce r
Ry t!ie block a !
th enemy Lp. 1
Wei! may ti ¬
ll the energy ar. 1
these few rno: '! -our
dently rely for t:
and the defence
force, ready at i
tho comforts c f I.
tions of the cm: .
may ie lor the i
economical, as t!
the necessity eft;
my in time off
love their iru!;' : i
fend aud protc I :
Whilst the w ,ir
and successful ; ;
to arrest its evi!
ninth of May !!
be corhpromi.!. !
made Io Mcsic .
July last, to tor;. '
and honorable !
of August fo
to accept this
to the, decii"
had not gone! upon a special mission, confined archist in! principle. He had but recently be
to the question of Teras alone, leaving all the fore been; successful in a military revolution,
bad obtained power
outrages upon our flag and our citizens unre-
north of that rivef-, to make known to them 4f 'the
' ' '.I 1 I i I r r 1 .1
surprise wiiu wn enme rresiuuni nas seen pos-
I sesafioo thus taken, without authority from! the
I VnileJ (States, of a place within their territorial
limits, and upon which no lawful settlement can
bema'djn without their sanction." He was in
structed to call u )on them to " avow under what
national authority they profess to act," and to
give them duo warning " that the place is with
in the United Strtes, who will suffer no perma
nent scjttliemenl to bo made thetfe, under any au
thority other than their own.'r As late a the
$th Jujy 1842, the Secretary of the; United
States, in a note addressed to our minister in
Mexico, maintains that, by the Florida treaty of
i 1810, thej territory as far west as the Rio Grande
was oonhrmed o i bpain. in that note lie states
that, by the treaty of the twenty-second jof
February, 1819, between the United States and
iSpain, the Sabine was adopted as the lino of
oundary between the two powers. Up to that
erio4, n considerable colonization had; bejen
ffecteu in Texas ; but ihe territory between
ihe Sabino and the Rio Grande being confirm-
j eu to Spain ty tne treaty, applications ; were
Unade to that Power for grants of land, and such
grants, or permissions of settlement, were in
ji iact made by th r Spanish authorities in favor of
citizens of the Jutted States proposing to emi
I grate ioj Texas in numerous families, before the
Ideclaratien of indepeiulence by Mexico."
j . TlU Texas v hich was ceded to Spain by the
.Florida treaty t C S0, embraced all the coun-
try nov claimeilby the Slate of Texas, between
Uthe Neuces nnt the Rio (Irande. Tho repub-
,lic of Texas always claimed this river as her
attempted by the Mexican forces." ing her to the united States, upon certain pre
It was deemed proper to issue this order, be- i Iuninary conditions to which her assent was
cause, soon atter U I 1 resident oi lexas, in :
April, 1845, had issued his proclamation con- ;
vening the Congress of that republic, for the
purpose of submitting to that body the terms of
annexation proposed by the United States, the
required. The solemnities which character
ized the deliberations and conduct of the Gov
ernment and people of Texas, on the deeply in
teresting questions presented by these resolu
tions, are known to the world. THe Congress,
government of Mexico made serious threats of Executive, and the people of Texas, irt a con-
invading the Texian territory. These threats I vention elected for that purpose, accepted with
great unanimity the projwosed terms of Annexa
tion : and thus consummated on her part the
became more apparent, in the progress of the
question, that the people ot l exas would decide
in favor of accepting the terms of annexation ;
and, finally, they had assumed such a formida
ble character, as induced both the Congress and
Convention of Texas to request tbat a military
force should be sent by the United States into
her territory for the purpose of protecting and
defending her against the threatened inva
sion. It would have been a violation of jjood
faith towards the people of Texas to have re
fused to afford the aid which they desired
great act of restoring to, our fe
gainst a threatened invasion, to which they had i ffression, the most uniust
vast territory which had been ceded to Spain
by the I londa treaty more than a quarter of a
century before. !
After the joint resolution for. tho annexation
of Texas to tho United States had been passed
by our Congress, the Mexican j Minister at
Washington addressed a note to the Secretary
of State, bearing date, on the sixth of i March,
1845, protesting against it as "an act
been exposed by their free determination t an- j recorded in the annals of modern histojry'; name
nex themselves to our Union, in compliance : ly, that of despoiling a friendly nation like Mcx-
with the overture made to them by the joint re-
solution of our Congress. I
Accordingly, a portion of the army was order- ;
ed to advance into Texas. Corpus Christi was
the position selected by Gen. Taylor. He en
camped at that place in August, 1815, and the !
army remained in that position until the elev- j
enth of March, 184G, when it-moved westward, j
and on the 28th of that month reached the east
bank of the Rio Grande opposite to Matamor
as. This movement was made in pursuance of :
orders from the W ar Department, issued on the
twestern bound-jry, and in her treaty made with thirteenth of January, 1840.' Before these or-
(Santa Anna in May, 183(3, ho recognized it as ders were issued, the despatch of our minister
tjsuch. By the constitution which Texas adopt- in Mexico,transmittingthe decisionof the Coun
i jVd in March, lf'30, senatorial and reprcsenta- cil of Government of Mexico, advising that he
jl; tivo districts were organized extending west of; should not be received, and also the despatch of
j,l he Neuces. he' Congress ot lexas, on the i our Consul residing in the c;ty of Mexico the
i il!niiflntli fif I)ifrpmliif. 1 W.'U! nnael ,inrt i fnrmpr hnnrinrp Hutu nn lki
i ueimo :ne uc unuanes ot ijic republic ot l ex- j lauer on tne eigriteenth ot December, lo45, co
as," in which they declarel the Rio Grande pies of both of which accompanied my message
from its mouth to its source to be their bounda- j to Congress of the eleventh of May last were
ry, and by tho s:iid act they extended their !" civ- ; received at the Department of State. These
if and political jurisdiction" over tho country communications rendered it highly probable, if
hp to I hat bounJary. During a period 'bf more ! not absolutely certain, that our minister would
than nine yeara, which intervened between the not be received by the Government of General
adoption ot her constitution and her annexation I Herrera. It was also weil known that but lit
as one jof the States of the Union, Texas assert
ed and exercised many acts of sovereignty and
jurisdiction over. the territory and inhabitants
west of the ISeuces. She organized and de
fined llio limits of counties extending to thej Rio
Gram e. She established courts of justice and
and e tended bet judicial system over the terri
tory. JSheV established a lantl oflice, and Issued
numc rOuVgranta for land.within its limits. A sen
ator and representative residing in it were! elec
ico, of a considerable portion of her territory ;
and protesting against the resolution of annex-
ation as being an act, " whereby the province i
of Texas, an integral portion of the Mexican j
territory, is agreed and admitted into the Amer- j
can Union ;'and he announced that, as aeon- i
sequence, his mission to the United; States had ;
terminated, -and demanded his passpjorts, which :
were granted. It was upon the absurd pretext, '
made -by Mexico, (herself indebted for her in- ;
dependence! to a successful! revblfion,) that j
the republic bf Texas still continued to be, not- j
withstanding all that had passed, a province of!
Mexico, that this step was taken by; the Mex-
ican minister. !
dressed. The Mexican Government well knew
; that both our national honor and the protection
j duo to our citizens imperatively required that
l the two questions of boundary and indemnity
j should be treated of together, as naturally and
inseparably blended, and they ought to have seen
j that this cburse was best calculated to enable
j the United Stales to extend to them the most
liberal justice. On the thirtieth of December,
1845, General Herrera resigned the Presiden
j cy, and yielded up the Government to General
i Paredes without a struggle. Thus a revolution
I was accomplished solely by the army command.
; ed by Paredes, and the supreme power in Mexi
J co passed into the hands of a military usurper,
i who was known to be bitterly hostile to the U.
Although the prospect of a pacific adjustment
with the new government was unpromising,
j from the known hostility of its head to the Uni
, ted States, yet, determined that nothing should
be lett undone on our part to restore friendly
relations between the two countries, our min
ister was instructed to present his credentials
to the new government, and ask to' be accredi
ted by it in the diplomatic character in which
he had been commissioned. These instruc
tions he executed by his note of the first o( .March,
1846, addressed to the Mexican Minister of
Foreign affairs, but his request was insultingly
refused by that minister in h'i3 answer of the
twelfth of the same month. No alternative re
mained for our minister but to demand his pass
ports, and return to the United States.
Thus was the extraordinary spectacle presen
ted to the: civilized world, of a government, in
violation of its own express agreement, having
twice rejected a minister of peace, invested
with full powers to adjust all the existing differ
ences between the two countries in a manner
just and honorable to both. I am not aware
that modern history presents a parallel case,
in which,! in-time of peace, one nation has re
fused even to hear propositions from another
for terminating existing difficulties between
Scarcely a hope of adjusting our difficulties
even at a remote day, or of preserving peace
with Mexico could be cherished while Paredes
remained at the head of the government He
Every honorable effort lias been used by me had acquired the supreme power by a military
to avoid the war which followed, but all have revolution, and upon the most solemn pledges
proved vain. ; All our attempts j to preserve , to wage war against the United States, and to
peace, havo;!been met by insult and; reiistence re-conquer Texas, which he claimed as a revol
on the part of Mexico. My efforts to this e.nd ted province of Mexico. He had denounced as
the. Congress of the republic, and served
;j as such bcforelthcact of annexation took nlace.
i In both the Congress, and the Convention of
tie hope could be entertained of a different re
sult from Gen. Paredes, in case the revolution
ary movement which he was prosecuting should
prove successful, as was highly probable. The
partisan. of Paredes, as our minister in the des
patch referred to states, breathed the fiercest
hostility against the United States, denounced
commencedin the note of the Secretary ofState
of the tenth of March, 1845, an answer1 to that
of the Mexican minister. Whilst; declining to
reopen a discussion which had already been
exhausted, and proving again what was known
to the whol world, thatjTexas had long since
achieved her independence, the Secretary of
State expressed the regret ot this government
guilty of treason all those Mexicans who
sidered Texas as no longer c6nstifuting a
of the territory of Mexico, and who wcrefiiend-
ly to the cause of peace. The duration of the
war which he waged against tho United States
was indefinite because the end which he pro
posed, ot the reconquest ol lexas, was
I . a ,Vi ik l 1 . V. 4 T I WW
uj Milieu ue uhu uoiamea power. lie was
sworn enemy of the U. States, with which ho
hacf involved his country in the existing tvar.-l
Santa Anna had been expelled from power y
the army, was known to be in open hostility to
Paredes and publicly pledged against foreign
intervention and the restoration of monarchy in
Mexico. In view of these facts and circum
stances it was, that, when orders were issued
to the commander of our naval forces in the
Gulf, on the fifteenth day of May last, only two
days alter the existence ol the war had "been
recognised by Congress, to place the coasts' of
Mexico under blockade, he was directed not to
obstruct tho passage of Santa Anna to Mexico.
A revolution took place in Mexico in hc
early part of August following, by which ihe
power of Paredes was overthrown, and he has
since been banished from the country, and is
now in exile. Shortly afterwards, Santa An
na returned. It remains to be seen whether
ma return may not prove to ie favorable io a
pacific adjustment of the existing difficulties, it
being manifestly his interest not to pcrsevjere
in the prosecution of a war commenced by
Paredes, to accomplish a purpose so absurd as
the reconquest of Texas to the Sabine. Had
Paredes remained in power, it is morally per
tain that any pacific adjustment would have
been hopeless. j
Upon rhe commencement of hostilities by
Mexico against the United States, the indig
nant spirit of the nation was at once aroui.ed.
Congress promptly responded to ihe expecta
tions of the country, and, by the act of the t dr
tcenth of May last, recognised the fact that war
existed, by the act of Mexico, between tho U
nited States and tliat republic, and granted the
means necessary for its rigorous prosecution.
Being involved in a war thus commenced by
Mexico, and for the justice of which on our part
we may confidently appeal to the wholo wOrld,
I resolved to prosecute it with the utmost vigor.
Accordingly, the ports of Mexico on the Gulf
and on the Pacific have lieen placed under
blockade, and her territory invaded at several
important points. 1 he reports from the De
partments of War and the Navy will inform
you more in detail of the measures adopted in
A L I I . I '
me emergency in wnicii our country was plac
ed, and of the gratifying results which have
been accomplished. '
The various columns of the army have per
formed their duty under great disadvantaj jes,
with the most distinguished skill and courage.
The victories of Palo Alto and Resaca dc la
Palma, and of Monterey, won againtt grcitly
superior numbers, and against most decjded
advantages in other respects on the part of the
enemy, were brilliant in their execution, and
entitle our brave officers and soldiers to the
grateft'ul thanks of their country. The na ion
deplores the loss of the brave officers and men
who have gallantly fallen while vindicating hnd
l . :
assemh.cd in ti
I communicate I
letter If tho i r
open riegciiau ; .
Secretary of St .
Tho" war will s
vigor, 'as the 1.:
is hoped that t!. i
gress, to which
ferrcd may" rc
peace j Vi'ith ;
unreasonable, c :
it is the part
ergy of our mi!
is maae Know n.
portant to hr ! ; :
provinces which '
live treaty cf r -
and ratified by t
The war Las
conquest ; but 1 1 .
ico, it has ben'
try, and will I
with a view to '
thereby secure t
es of 'the war, i -citizens,
who . ;
gainst Mexico, i
By, the laws :
is subject to
ini;5 ins innw.irj
either a treaty
withdraw fr rn
being ncceai i .
duty iof the c
.t ? i . '
der and the rLV"
has been excrci
our military a
tablishment c f i
of the conqior
lating them as j
stitulions of o;r
of New Me.iie :.
any luriner rr
have thus, f; :.
according to l!
It may be j rr-
these imporlat t
quatfe apprcj-ri .
session and at.;
. Iear the c! ,
sonsj commuiii ;
important, a a
peate with Mo
be appropriate 1
Executive, sm i
unon two tornv
tration of Pre-!
On the '2C: hi
posal of the Pn .
It yas at that ti
be applied a? r.
might be pai 1 ,'
Feb., 160G, t!. i
appropriated v. .
the. proposed negotiation as treason, and openly ! est and most friendly relations between the sis- , openly advocated the establishment of a monar-
called upon the troops and the people to put
down the Government of Herrera by force. The
reconquest of Texas and war with tho United
States were openly threatened. These 'were
the circumstances existing when it was deem
of Gen. Taylor to advance to the western fron-
Texasj which i ave their assent to the , terms of ed proper to order the army under the command
uiir iin io iLe United btates, proposed by our
Congress, wre renrvsnf.iiivi4 rMiilmir .f ,.r
' i I ; 4l k w . ji
I "I? 7 lV' T?.look P"1 in "'0 l ofaunel.
V . . V1 Ine twenty-ninth of De-
ceincr. 18 15, was admitted as one of the States
rfTFnion- i'rat the Congress of the Uni
ted fctafruMierstood the State of Texas which
they dmtted into the Union to extend beyond
t :U 7 "rrareni irom me tact, that on
theMrty.firstjrf December, 1845, only two days
r ariehe act of admission, they passed a law to
estaMbli a jUoction district in the State of
vx yUieh they created a port ofdeliv.
Cfy Hl Coipul Christi. situated west of ih'o Neu-
tier of Texas, and occupy a position on or near 1 vet, waving all ceremony, I embraced the ear
the Rio Grande. lie'st favorable opportunity " to ascertain from
The apprehensions of a contemplated Mexi- l-he Mexican government whether tbey would
can invasion have been since fully Justified bv receive an Envoy from the United States en-
1 . IM J r mm . (Kiic-fan ivtt'n fiiil nnttii fi oiiiic?f j-nll : n ik mine.
t-i .i i i i A i .-v - . M i. : a T i . i i
less, liesiaes, mere was good reason to be- ueicllulllo uicir country s rights ana nonor.
that Mexico should have taken offence; at the lieve, Ironi all his conduct, that it was his mten- ; It is a- subject of pride and satisfaction that
resolution of annexation passed by! Cbngress, tion to convert the republic of Mexico into mon- , our volunteer citizen soldiers, who so promptly
and gave assurance that our ". most strenuous archy, and to call a foreign, European prince ; responded to their country's call, with an epe-
eflbrts shall! be devoted fo the amicable! adjust- lo the throne. Preparatory to this end, he had, ' rience Of the discipline of a camp of only a jfew
ment of every cause of complaint! between the during his short rule destroyed the liberty ol the i weeks, have borne their part in the hard fought
, i . .i Lr : ...J- .: : r : l .. ...u:i 1 1 , . 1 i
governments, ana 10 me.i cumvauon w ui kiuu- . press, loinatuig iuai pviuuu ui ii umj wmcn , oame 01 .uonierey wun a constancy and cour
age equal to that of veteran troops, and worthy
of the highest admiration. The privationt of
long marches through the enemy's country, and
through a wilderness, have been borns without
a murmur. Ry rapid movements the proviece
of New Mexico, with Santa Fe, its capital, has
been captured without bloodshed. The nivy
has co-operated with the army, and rendejed
important services : if not so brilliant, it h be
cause the enemy had no force to meet Ihenvon
their own element, and because of the defences
That I have acted in the spirit! of this assur
ance, will appear from the events Which have
since occured. Notwithstanding Mexico had
abruptly terminated all diplomatic intercourse
with the United States, and ought, therefore to
have been the first t ask for its resumption,
- I i - 1 - r - SfH. IIU iCU
Iwing jhc same point at which the Tet
1 1 nlr the laws of thati repub
badWrrJvTated, and directed lhat;H sur
e) or to c.lUtthe rcvenuo should be appoint,
edjor that phrt hy PrPSid4,t by andl with
? .te?IB ' natd and confirm.
..Jr TrL rUMWen incc in the.
peifunnancHof bisdnti,. in j Jr.t
. . 1 ! 4. : . "iuicC litis UI iue
rerH,bhc of lexas, and of our Confess! nrecc
ded the orders for the advance
uu RIIIIJ IO
the- event. Ihe determination of
rush into hostilities with the United States was
afterwards manifested from the whole tenor of
the note of the Mexican Minister of Foreign Af
fairatn our minister, bearing date on the 12th
of March, 184G. Paredes had then revolution
izedthe government, and his minister, after re
ferring to the resolution for the annexation pf
Texas which had been adopted by our Congress
in March,1845, proceeds to declare! that "a
tact such as this, or, to speak with greater exact
ness, so notable an act of usurpation, created an
imperious necessity that Mexico, for her own
honor, should repel it with proper firmness and
dignity. The supreme government had before
hand declared that it would look upon such an
act as a casu bcllf; and, as a consequence i of
this declaration, negotiation was, by its very na
lure, at an end, and war was h only recourse
of the Mexican government.' ; ,
It appears, also,' that, oh the 1th of " April job
jions in dilpute between the two governments."
In September, 1845, I believed the! propitious
moment for such an overture had arrived. Tex
as, by the enthusiastic and almost innimous
will of ber people, had pronounced in avor of
annexations Mexico herself had agreed to ac
knowledge! the independence of Tea as,; subject
toa condition, it is true, which she had jno right
i to impose land no power to enforce. The last
! 1? . : .C-? 'C- l 1 . 1 1 '. i Lilt
lingering hope ot lexico, u sne uii couia nave
retained any, that Tekas would ever again be
come one f her provinces, must haveleen a
bandoned.i i 1 - -i j
; The Consul of the United States at the city
tif Mexico j was! therefore instructed by (he SecT
retaryof S,tate ou the l&th of September, 1845,
to make the inquiry of the Mexican Government.
The inquiry was made,! and on the fifteenth of
October; 1845, the Minister of Foreign Affairs
chy. Ihe better to secure the success of his
ultimate designs, he had, by an arbitrary de
cree, convoked a Congress not to be elected
by the free voice of the people, but to be chos
en in a manner to make them subservient to his
will, and to give him absolute control over their
Under all these circumstances, it was belie
ved that any revolution in Mexico, founded up
on opposition to the ambitious projects of Pa-
redes, would tend to promote the cause of peace ! wnicn nature has interposed in the difficulties
as well as prevent any attempted European in- ' f lhe navigation on the .Mexican coast. Our
lenerencu mi uic au.nrs, i me ,nrm American "iuu,u" unc, wun me co-operauon
continent both objects of deep interest to the
United States. Any such foreign interference
if attempted, must have been resisted by the
U. States. My views upon that subject were
fully communicated to Congress in my last an
nual message. In any event, it was certain
ot a gallant oiheer of the army, and a small
force hastily collected in that dis-tant country,
have acquired bloodless possession of the Cal
iforrfias, and the American flag has been raised
at every important point in that province. I
I congratulate you on the success which has
were made to f
means to enaL!
important objoc t
HTiTtfrTi? f wit"?
arisen in whic'
king them car:
that, the mca?u:
sionl met with ti
hies in both 1
much to be re-:
lawj The rcn
commend the r .
and I again 'v.
and bo mt r.oc
ry; shou'd it I
t.Jl . . !
wno:e or in pit
er public e.
Porto Rico to j
Unifed Slates ;
tion of the S:
article of our tr
of del., 170'j, t;
or letters of m i
the bther s!,i
011 Wa3 rli;
er-i ! r
U . 1 ... L - , ., . fi .
,, ai uu u cr a ine. government ui , thus attended our military and naval orvnii.
Mexico wn.ci. wQu.u deprive Paredes of power . In le tban 8RVCn monAf aft M
could be; for the worse so far as the United : mence1 hosliIitleSf at a time 8C,ecled CJP
ST wC8, CnCerknod' Wh,le l 7M.hfy! Self' we havc lakpn session of mapr
probable that any change must be tor the bet- j pr;nc;Dal . . . f
t inwM. I 1 . i
""4Uluf army, ana acquired militarv DOSea.
This was the state of affairs existing when
Congress, on the thirtieth of May last, recog.
nised the existence of the war which had been
commenced by the government of. Paredes;
and it became atij object of much importance
with a vjew tq a speedy settlement of our.diffi
culties aud the- restoration of an honorable
? n . aT .
mousoi me Mexican provinces of New Mexico,
New lon, Coahuilla, Tamaulipas, and the
Cal.fornias. a territory larger in extent than
that embraced in the original thirteen Slates
of the Union, inhabited by a considerable pop.
illation, land much of ii more than a thousald
miles Irpta the points at which we had to cqI-
mittdd from t!.i! ;
and Porto Ric i t;
ting :ny atfemr
traiiilt t!ic lT. : i
fully 'satiolu-J t'iut :
it aswela in ; ::
impows on tjsem.
men of Htate tl.-it
ITtTana blank c-r
lifkrales of nat m'
Ireti)t heztl of ;!.
so, reason m c; ; -
brrn'trari-irU'e 1 t
lliesc" pajvrP, i:i t'r
A the jirei;:r.:.: .
ized pationi f r c
tlifir co.ij'jrt a;
these couj;r.is ; . : :
i " . j
: i -'ir.