y. t . . . . -;. , - ) i ; ' . , g
' iiAn few. Two Dor.LAM-payabl in
?$ JvM dftoce.Two dollars
,8J injiel at $1 fuiilhe first, and 25 cts
i,T I ...hifdieni Irwe rtion. Court orders cnarea
V'T2r than 'thwr rate... A IHwral dedae'
0 fr J.'tW'wba odvr'ttise by the year,
.n thi EJitora roust fee postpaid.
pgcE; WITH MEXICO.
1 Bl! ALBERT CALUTL
V ,v : v ; i I
Vjlj Term; jf Peace.
Hire said that the unfounded claim of Tex.
wibe territory between the Nueces and the
iiiherd cjin c! no j doubt. For if, relhi.
ititi" ihd spirit! of rniljtarj conquest, nothing
Lift reUnited jbut the indemnities due to
-citizrnsj the UnHed States have only toac-
vjittbc terms ;wfitcii nave uccn oiiercu uy me
..Ir in (Jovernroetit. It consents to yield a
'ritory v degree oijiawtmi or near doii
Vi in . ureaum, nnu eeuuug irow ii:w
s It i'
California lying between the Sierra Nevada
J the laciiic, ana inciuamg me port oi oan
r-tucfcco, 4-cejna,iniy worm mucn more man
Jirnount of indemnities justly due to our cil-
vlS it it ohfy in order to satisfy those claims
jiita accestibn ot territory may become ne-
Mi not believed that the Executive will fa.
-nfih wild iggeslions of subjugation or an-
.iiiHn ot tne whole ol Mexico, or ot any ot
i nterior provinces .no, n i unaerstana tno
' 1 U U 1 1 A LVt V H AY W AV A J 11 i A Wi -v
U M m LI vl ;nv Ti;M y J XHM WW M I U ; HI " iW AU v
- ' I l L " ' 1
RiEr ji check rroar alv you
Do THIS, Axi LlBEUTY IS SAFS."
NUMBER 30, OF VOLUME IV.
SALISBURY, N. C., THURSDAY, JANUARY 27, 1848
hands by occupying defensively, with our
military force, a portion of the Mexican
territory. Which vv miorVit Aoom amnio Tap
.t LT.fcC&ffife Hamnlty : and, in the nt, because 3
rK""s- " f believed that it was I
(Although the greater
UCtf V ill" V I
f . t. T . M.i il n tif.rl t. I ilia njirllnn
.H t(i I"" gillie wm iiiifos, J " ("iiii'iii
simple terrrrs, (hoi thich will only provide for
the adjustment of the Texas bomrdary and for
the payment of thd itidemnities due to ofir m.
appear fo me the mo$t eligible. For that pur.
pose 1 may be permitted to wish, that the Idis.
enssfon of the terms should not be etn.
barraosed by the introduction ol any other niat.
ter. There are other considerations, highly
important, and not?foeign to the great question
f an extension of territory, but which may.
without any inconvenience or commitment, be
postponed, and should not be permitted to im
pede the immediate termination of this lament,
able war, " i " I
I have gone farther than I intended. It is
said that a rallying! point is wanted by the
friends of peace. Let them on ite, boldly ex
press their opinions and use their utmost en.
deavors in promoting nn immediate termination
of the war. For tie people, no other banner is
necessary. Rut their Representatives in Con.
gress assembled, afe itlone Cornpetent lo ascer
tain, alone vested with the legitimate power of
deciding what course should be pursued at this
.fjDioflered bjr Mr. TrUt, thero was no inten. J momentous crisis, What are the best means lor
r . . i.' i . i . t i . . .7.3.
j to include, wit b?n the cessions required,
province op iew ;iexico. inn me ae-
mjof botn Ulu ana inv uaiitornia, or ot a
jfoast of more than 1300 miles in length
4i239 to 42 is ex
t The Penihstila
carrying into efiec their own views, whatever
these may be. We may wait with hope and
confidence the result bf their deliberations.
ravairant and urinecessa.
is 'Ailogcthcr worthless,
nd there is nothing worth contending for south
4 San Diego, 6r alwut lat 32
In saying inai, 11. conquest is not me onject
1 rhe war and if ihq pretended claim of Tex-
j'otbe Rio ilelNorte, ahftll be abandoned, there
unot be any insuperable obstacle to the re.
Lrttion of peace, it is by no means intended
that the terms he retotore, proposed by
licriparty are at this lime proper. And I ap.
-hend that the different views of the subject
'fitained by those who sincerely desire a
yfdy and just peace, may create some diffi.
i'l.'s There are some important considera-
ml wnicn may uvcuine uie sunjeci 01 suuse.
nt arrangement. I For the present, nothing
iore U strictly required than, to adopt the prin-
a!uf $ talus ante 6c urn, or, in other words
T , .1 J it . . . . 1 .
imcuaie me niexican territory, ana to pro-
uie for the payment ot the indemnities due to
if .citizens. fHie scruples of those who ob
d to any cession what oyer of territory, except
4 terms unacceptable to the Southern States,
:'jhlhe removed by a-provision, that would
a.) pledge a territory sutucient lor the pur
if, and leave it In posaeasion of the United
'afes until (he indemnities had been fully
M ! i-'i f: j .
M'nre I to listen to exclusively to my own
'Tings and opinions, 1 1 would say, that if the
pnions bich t have attempted to estab-
!j are-c()rrec-if l nm not mistaken in my
tccrc' ciinvid! ion that the war was unprovoked
ube Mexicajni, and has been one ot iniquit.
, irressioq: njpur part, jt necessarily fol
n tb:it, according to the dictates, of justice,
c I'nitetl Staies are bound to indemnify them
r tav'wjj invaded their territory, bombarded
ir lowns, and inflicted all the miseries of
or on 1 people who were fighting in defence
(their oVn homes. ; If all this be true, the
VitedT Stales! woluld give but an inadequate
nfuatioti for I he ibjuries they have inflic
-a, Djasiuming nc 'payment 01 mc inaemni
njustlv due to their own citizens. Even if
ft'ir purchase) of lerritpry should be convenient
a bgfa parties, it; would be far preferable to
tltnoflft it fur tlip nrpVputlimniiir nfhir r:i.
, - 'ft i l iT"' n
order that it should not have the ap
Wnce ofjibe,irig iinped on Mexico. There
nljoiome import ant considerations to which
wy jw4 be. improper to call at this time the
ieaitenti'oh - j ' '
OuriHinulation may at this time bo assumed as
raclhing amuniing Ui twenty millions. Al-
lhtho rate ot natural increase has already
teuenMdlrom thirty.thr?e lo about thirty
keen, inleb ye?ars, ihe deficiency has been
j aVill probably continue for a while, to bo
penaied by the prodigious increase of im-
htfvion frorrt foreign countries. An increase
'liiirty per CU would add to our population
ht millions ThMert, and more than eleven mill.
i in twenty years. jThat the fertile unculti
udland. within the limits of the States admit.
Iof. immediately admissible in the Union,
Ml sustain threeTtimes that number indubi.
we. But the indomitable energy, the loco.
iro propcitsities and, alt the habits of the
Uri of new countries are such, that even
united efforts 'of both Governments can or
'3 pretent their occupying; within twenty if
"taithin.fejri Wars, every district, as far as
Pacific, and whether within the limits of
Coiled Siktei t,t jMexico, which shall not
previously heen Actually and bona Jide
ed and s'ettjed by others. It may be said
ihis is justifiable I b Natural Law; that,
"the same eaion, which sets aside the right
jcovery, tf not folloTwed by actual occupa.
v . Vnhtn a! reasonable time the riffhts of
4ln and Mlxtdo havQ heen forfeited by their
leotorrioaUUty, during a period of three
aarea years, to colonize a country, which,
5'tng the wholi of that'neriod. ihev held' un.
- hpuied by anir other foreign nation. And it
' IV? perhapfrW observed that, hurl the f.nv.
nent of the1; United States waited for the op.
wa 01 natural ana irrcsisiinie causes, these
would have given them, without a war.
''an they want at this moment.
However filaujsiole all this may appear, it is
Khelets certain, that it will be an aconi.
Jja, of territoijy for the benefit of the people
Uoited'Sutea, and in violation of solemn
7T,e. Nut ohly .col isions'must be avoided,
renewal of another illicit annfV:ii inn
r v.cu,eu . uvu ine wo countries must cool.
Ihave tried in this! essay, to confine myself
to the questions at issue between the United
States andxMexicO. S Whether the Executive
has, in any respefct, exceeded his legitimate
power; whether he is, for any of his acts, Ha.
bfe to animadversion,? are questions which do
not concern Mexico.
There are certainly some doubtful assump.
t ions of power, and some points on which ex.
planations are necessary.; The most impor
tant is tlie reason which may have induced the
President, when he considered the war as ne
cessary and almost unavoidable, not to commu
nicate to Congress, which was all that time in
session, the important steps he had taken tillaf.
ter hostilities, and Indeed actual war had taken
place. The substitution, for war contributions, of
an arbitrary and varying Tariff, appears to me to
be of a doubtful nature;; and it is hoped that the
subject will attract; the early attention of Con.
cress. I am also clearly of opinion that
the provisions of the law respecting volunteers
which authorize them to elect their officers, is
a direct violation of the constitution of the Uni-
ted States, which recognize no other land force
than'the army and militia, and which vests in
the President and Senate the, exclusive power
of appointing all the officers of the United
States, whose appointments are not otherwise
provided for in the constitution itself. With
respect to precedeetsrefer to the act of July 6,
1812, chap. 461. (rxxxviii) enacted with dueJ
deliberation, and which repeals, in that respect
the act on same subject of February 6, 1812.
1 notu irmi me
t 1 frtlon Jfrritorypot actually: settled by
1 It Scni' l"l' no real utility to them,
Ulvnpoteo to ceue, must be acquir-
ite.uaireiv "ented to, and for k rea.
SPEECH 0 J MR. CALHOUN,
1 OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
On his Resoluliehs in reference to the Wa
j'. ; witty Mexico, January 4, 1848.
Absolved, That to conquer Mexico and to
ho!d4t, e?thier as afnjrJjYjnce or to incorporate it
in the Union; would ?be" inconsistent with the
avowed object for Which the war has been pros
ecuted ; a departure from the settled policy o
the Government ; in conflict with, its charactei
and genius ; and ih the end, subversive of our
free and popular institutions.
Resolved, That! no! line of policy in the fur
ther prosecution ot the war should be adopted
which may lead to consequences so disastrous.
Mr. CALHOUN; said : in offering, Sen
ators, these resolutions for your consider
ation, I am governed by the reasons which
induced me to oppose the war; and by
which I have beien governed since it was
sanctioned by Congress. In alluding to
my opposition tcjj the war, I do not intend
to touch on the treasons which governed
me on that occasion, further than is ne
cessary to explain 1 my motives upon the
present. ! j
I then opposed the war, not only be
cause it might haye been easily avoided ;
not only because tjhe President had no au
thority to order k jaf t of the disputed ter
ritory in possession of the Mexicans to be
occupied by our; troops ; not only because
1 believed the hljegations upon which
Congress sanctioned the war untrue, but
from high considerations of policy ; be
cause I believed if would lead to many
and serious evils! to tho country, and great
ly endanger its free institutions. But, af
ter the war wast declared, by authority of
the Government, I acquiesced mt what J
could not pre!vertand which it was im
possible for me jo arrest ; andT then; felt
it to be my duty; to limit my efforts to giv
ing such directi W to the war as would,
as far as possible j prevent the evils and
danger with which it threatened the coun
try and its institutions, j For this purpose,
at the last session, I suggested to the Sen
ate the policy of adopting a defensive
line, and for the same purpose i now offer
these resolutions This, and this only, is
the motive which governs me on this oc
casion. I am itioyed by no personal or
party considerations. My object is nei
ther to sustain the Executive nor to
strengthen the opposition, but simply to
discharge an important duty to the coun
try. In doing s6,jt shall express my opin
ion on all Doinisi with the freedom and
boldness which becomes an independent
Senator, who hsSpothing to ask from the
1 Cu P . i""Mnne 1 nui mm is
I Vu 1, -w cM",on 01 a propetnnai
K7. lfe U51 wu t'll peace shall
Jry fee ings shall have subsi.
rW l, ohiy object is Peace, a
" ll w L i """""'wnoi'tcrriiory, Dul
- .l PV ! ufficiently necessary for
M ins M.t " . ... -
V71 nJfci in view. The most
do it with all thefjdecorum, which lis due
to the UhieF Maistrate of the Union. U
I suggested a-defensive line because, in
the first. placeJl believed that the, only
certain mode of terminating the war sue
ccssfully was to stke indemnity inourowr
the only way ve
could avoid the greaf danger to our in
stitutions against which these resolutions
are intended to guard. The President
took a different view. He recommended
a vigorous prosecution of the war not
for conquest that was emphatically dis
avowed but for the purpose of conquerp
ing peace that is, to compel Mexico t0
sign a treaty ceding sufficient territory to
indemnity to claims of our citizens ana
of the country for the expenses of the
war. 1 could not approve of this policy.
I opposed it, among other reasons, be
cause I believed there was no certainty
that the object intended to be effected
would be accomplished, let the war be
ever so successful. Congress thought dif
ferently, and granted simple provisions, in
men and money, for carrying out the poli
cy recommended by the President, jlthas
now been fully tested under the most fa
vorable circumstances. It has been as
successful as the most sanguine hone of
he Executive could have anticipated.
Victory after victory followed in rapid
succession, without a single reverse. i-
Santa Anna repelled and defeated with
all his forces atBuena Vista Vera Cruz,
with its castle, captured the heights of
Cerro Gorda triumphantly carried Jai-
lappa, rerote, and ruebla occupied- and
after many triumphant victories under the
walls of Mexico, its gates opened to us, and
put us in possession of the Capital. Btit
what has all these splendid achievments
accomplished ? Has the avowed object
of the war been attained ? Have we con
quered peace ? Have we compelled Mex
ico to sign a treaty T Have we obtained
indemnity? No. Not a single object con
templated by the campaign has been ef
fected ; and what is worse, our difficul
ties are greater now than they were at
the commencement, and the objects sought
more difficult to be accomplished. To
what is this complete failure to be attri
buted ? Not to our army. . It has done
all that skill and gallantry could accom
plish. It is to be attributed to the policy
pursued. The Executive Aimed at in
demnity in a wrong way. Instead ; of ta
king it into our own hands, when we had
territory in our possession, ample to cover
the claims of our citizens and the expen
ses of the war, he sought it indirectly
through a treaty with Mexico. He thus
put it out of our own power, and under
the control of Mexico, to say whether we
should have indemnity or not, and there
by enabled her to defeat the whole obiect
of the campaign by simply refusing to
treat with us. Owing to this mistaken
policy, after a most successful and brill
iant campaign, involving an expenditure
not less, probably, than forty millions of
dollars, and the sacrifice, by the sword and
by disease, of many valuable lives, pro
bably not less than six or seven thousand,
nothing is left but the glory which our ar
my has acquired.
But as an apology for all this, it is in
sisted that the maintenance of a defensive
line would have involved as great a sac
rifice as the campaign itself. The; Presi
dent and the Secretary of War have as
signed many reasons for entertaining this
opinion. I have examined them, with
care. This is not the proper occasion to
discuss them, but I must say, with all due
deference, they are, to my mind, utterly
fallacious ; and to satisfy your minds that
such is the case, I will place the subject
in a single point of view.
The line proposed by me, to which I
suppose their reasons were intended to be
applied, would be covered In its whole ex
tent, from the Pacific oean to the Passo
del Norte, on the llio Grande, by the Gulf
of California and the wilderness peopled
by hostile tribes of Indians, through which
no Mexican force, could; penetrate; For
its entire occupancy and defence, nothing
would be required but a few small ves
sels of war stationed in the Gulf, and a
single regiment to keep down any resist
ance from the few inhabitants within.
From the Passo del Norte to the mouth
of the river, a distance pf a few hundred
miles, a single fact will I show what little
force will be necessary to its defence, j II
was a frontier between Texas and Mexi
co, when the former had but an inconsid
erable population not more than an hun
dred and fifty thousand j at the utmost, at
any time with no standing army, and
but very few irregular troops; yet for
several years she maintained this line
without any, except slight occasional in
trusion from Mexico, and that too when
Mexico was far more consolidated in her
power, and when revolutions were not so
frequent, and her money resources were
far greater than at present. If, then, Tex
as alone, under such circumstances, could
defend that frontier for so long a period,
can any man believe that now,when she
is backed by the whole of the United
States, now that Mexico is exhaustedde
feated, and prostrated I repeat, can iny
mnn believe that it would involve asgreat
a sacrifice to us of mn and money, to de
fend that frontier, as; did the last cam
paign ? No. 1 hazard nothing in assert
ing, that, to defend it for an indefinite pe
riod, would have required a less sum than
the interest on the money spent in the
campaign, and fewer men than were sac
rified in carrying it on.
So much for the past. ye now come
to the commencement of another cam
paign, and the. question recurs, what shall
be done ? The President, in his message, j ed noic lhan it was then ; innuYif ii'tebould
recommends the same line; ot policy a
the priesthood, who
residue, for the most pan, arc! th
of the haciendas, the 1
! he country, but they are without
anu- destitute of-the means ot
such a government. But if it we
blc to establish such a govt ri;:
could not stand without, the pre :
our army. It would fall as soon
It it be determined to have r. I
would' be a far preferable cour?e,
pears to me, to abstain from at!;:
; "icuuiii: uie uovernmeni now
vowed object for the vigorous prosecution n- "and to treat with it, i;
of tho. wr t ie d:u..i;. 11 Le capable of forming a treat
...... , .j -v 'am yi intljr, oil.- :, i ... ,
.i .1 .. . j . . ' 11 COllliI maintain nnn prronin 1
... ...... v.kVUtLi V
vigorous prosecution of the iwar not for
conquest, that is again emphatically dis
avowed ; not to blot Mexico out of the list
of nations: no, he desires td see her
fail to be realized, it will leave ourkffairs , ?
r worse condition than they are at sHtionn ;.i k 7 I V
n't . .1 ?1 . ! saiions With Ihose wrm hnvn li,
in a la
present. That object, as has bceniktated,
is to obtain ah honorable ! jtreay ; one
which, to use the lansrraire of ihalPrpsi-
independent and floari.shing community, ; dent, will give indemnity fori the past and
and assigns strong reasons for it ; but to ; security for the future that is, aNtreaty
I II 1T 1 ! . . . : 1'.
ooiain an Honorable peace. ! we near no wnicn win give us a cession of territory
p t . . 1 . . . i -. .
Miuir ui cwnuuer ne neace. dui 1 ores me not 0111 v eauai ro nnr nrpni ripmnM nr
iw. t, u li .l : :.. ... ,....!!.. uc repecteu w
nirtc uc uiKiius ny an nonorauie peace me 1 uiucinimy, uui equal lo the additional de- ' drawn Such I
same thing ; that is, to compel Mexico to j mand : equal to ihe entire expenses to be ; 0f intellieent o
viuuii. u ouinvliin I " w w . . w . w.,vL4lllJ!- ii rj t" l 1 1 1 1 1 M I ITja . it 1 1 U lk;. .1 . . L
irifiiaiu mat LU
of her territory, as an indemnity for the j a guaranty Jrom the Government of Mex
expenses of the war, and for the claims of ico for its faithful execution. NoV, Sen
our citizens. ! ators, I hold that, whether. th war Is sur
bet her the. war Issue- , k., .u r
T U.. i.. I .r,i , .. . 11 , ; "j et;utiv
..r,c cAamnicu, wiiucure.uiegrouiius , -iui ur uusuuueiui, mere is not only nnd that vv khnnbl ho oomnr l!
..!! II. A , -
ico ; but from all that I can he;
be doubled whether we have r.,: .
pushed what is catted a vigorou
cution'of the war.sofarasnotto I
cient power and influence in the
ment to enter into a treaty Avhic
hen our lorers .-.
know to be thr
fficers. They c
c existing: Govcr-
Queretaro, if it should enter into ;
in cuuiormuy wun .me views c
e, would be ovt
n .nl.i.i. ii n ?.i . : . . i i. . ...fj
w.i.c.1 me iieMueni renews nis recom- ..o ceriamiy mat mis ooject, will be ac- , fend that nortion of win.
mendation and am again compelled to j compl.shed, but almost acrerfaintyi hat it ' quire for indemnity, dcfcnsivrlv.'
dissent. Ih?re are many and powerful will not be. If the war be unsuccessful; compelled to return and renew t
icasonjs, more so, even, man tnose mat n our arms snouiu oe Dallied, as l trust cution of the war. If such is i
existed at the commencement of the last 1 and believe they will not be ; but il, from " , ,
campaign, to justify my dissent. The j any unfortunate accident, such should be no' v'X&tulhlX
sacrifice in money will be vastly greater. ! the case, it is clear that we shall rjot be i Sn of
There is a bill for ten additional regiments i able to negotiata,a treaty that will ac I ex'Zc to XlZnZrZ'Z0 T
now before the Senate, and another for i complish the object intended. On tlie con- Jut ions are intended to cuard
twenty regiments of volunteers has been ; trary, if the war should be successful, it ; that it reauiresirrpatrWrnt; .nTi'
reported, authorizing in all the raising of is almost equally certain .hat. I that i actioo ,"1
an additional force ot something upwards; case, the avowed object fori prosecutinc n . c i ..- -
of thirty thousand. This, in addition to ! the war vigorously will hot! be abcom- l. "TS Pi of tl.
that a readv authorized bv Uw K. i nlibl I ;l ' i- k:it- J i t l ,,,uai C,I1C w !0,cIn" Pro,e&1' a' i,u
. i r '"" piesentatives of
Mexico, of not much, if any, less than se
venty thousand men, and will raise the
expenses of the campaign to probably not
less than sixty millions of dollars.
To meet so large an expenditure, would
involve, in the present and nrosneetive ! cut
condition of the money market, it is to be
apprehended, not a little embarrassment.
Last year money was abundant, and easi
ly obtained. An unfortunate famine in
Europe created a great demand for our
agricultural products. That turned the
balance j)f trade greatly in our favor, and
specie poured into the country with a
strong and steady current. No consider
able portion of it passed into the Treasury,
through the duties, which kept it full, in
niPSPIktntlVP if n Slnl gsY I Vie I . :
maintain that the more successful the war j pledging protection lo any Govern.'
. ' ' "j iv, w- iisncu ui .ufiico unaer our counter, i
jtti. avowed to be accomplished Will be couragement. It would inevitably
defeated, while the objects disaovved thrown as soon as our forces are v
would as certainly be accomplishejj. and we would be compelled, in f..'
What is the object of a. vigorous prose- plighted faith, implied or expressed,
tion of the war? Howcnn it be sue- ' ad reinstate such government in pw
cessful ? I can see but one way oflmak- a8a,n overturned and again reinstau ;.
ing it so. and that is by suppressing all sbou,d be compelled to lake the povcr
resistance on the part of Mexico over- 1 lo our,own bands just asihe Et.lL-h !
powering and dispersing her armt.nd comll?d "am. and aSain lo do 1 1 1
utterly overthrowing her Government. 2 ' ? circ"mla"ces' Uil.,!1fu.!
But if that should be done ; if a vflorou. i ZTSH! uT .
prosecution of the war should lead to that
result, how are we to obtain an honora
ble peace ? With whom shall wfe; treat
for indemnity for the past and security for
the future ? War may bo made Jry one
r if ....
iar oacK as my recollection extend.
The President himself enters . I
whether the plan of -forming a Govci
the manner which I have been con? I !
treating with it for indemnity, may 1.
in spite of the large sums remitted to meet ! party, but it requires two to maketpeace. 1 that case, he agrees lhat the very
the expenses of the war. The case is dif
ferent now. Instead of having a tide flow
ing in, equal to the drain flowing out, the
drain is now both ways. The exchanges
now are against us, instead of being in our
favor, and instead of specie flowing into
the country from abroad, it is flowing out.
In the mean time the price of stocks and
Treasury notes, instead of being at or a
bove par, have both fallen below, to a
Small extent. The effects of the denreci-
If all authority is overthrown in Mexico, ! which I have said the' vigorous rr
I.I. 'll? .!
where will be the power to enter intone- I ino war W,M evnauiy leau must
gottation and make peace r Our; very
success would dpfeat the possibility of
making peace. In that case, tlie war
would not end in peace, but in conquest ;
not in negotiation, but in subjugation;
He says, after having attempted t
such a government after having t-r;
best efforts to secure peace if all :
must hold on to the occupation of th'
we must take the full measure of in !
to our own hands, and enforce sue!
ihe honor of ihe country demand." '
his word?. Now, what is this I I
acknowledgment that, if he fails in
a uovernmeni wun wnicn ne can tic r
and defeat, I repeat, the very ohiedt you
aim to accomplish, and accomplish that
which you disavow to be your intention,
by destroying the separate existence of
ation of Treasury notes will cause them : Mexico, overthrowing her nationality, and co alter putting down all rcsistanc
to pass into the Treasury in payment of blotting out her name from the lisCbt na- ensting (.lovenunent, we must tiu5.e
the customs and other dues to the Govern- lions, instead of leaving her a free repuh- of the whole country, and hold it tul.j
ment, as the cheaper currency, instead of lie, which the President has so earnestly
gold and silver; while the expenses of the ; expressed histlesire to do.
war, whether paid for by the transmission
6f gold and silver direct to Mexico, or by
drafts drawn in favor of British merchants
or other capitalists there, will cause what
ever specie may be in the vaults of the
Treasury to flow from it, either for remit
tance direct on account of the ordinary
transactions of the country, or to pay the
If I understand his message correctly, 1
have his dwji authority for the conclusion
to which I come. lie takes very! much
the same view lhat I do a to how a war
ought to he prosecuted vigorous y, nnd
what would he its results, with thf differ
ence as to the latter resting on a single
control ? Can word be stronger ?
tho whole country 44 take the lull i
indemnity no defensive line no-tr
enforce terms." Terms on whom :
(tovernment 1 No, no, no. To enf
on the people individually; thut i t
tahlish a government over the in in ti
The President is right. If the vir;
secution of tho war should be f uc
contingency,, and a remote-one. lie says tho contingency on which he cxr
drafts which maybe drawn upon it, and ' that the great difficulty of obtaining peace a treaty fails, there will be no rctre
Which, when paid in the present state ol j results from this, that the people oj Mex- argument against calling bari; it.c ar
Exchanges, will be remitted abroad. But ico are divided under factious chieftains, kinf! a defensive line will have do ui,
this process of paying in Treasury notes i and that the chief in power dare not make , r haring spent sixty millions of ! ::
instead of gold and silver, and gold and ! peace, because for doing SO he would be . l,,,lrr? possesion of the whr .
silver flowing out in both direr.! ions, can- ! lisrHI hv P5vi h uUn snX. tb:it aud 'hr inlerks" ,n fcor of kcepmg
and mine?, and all who arc profiting
indirectly by its prosecution, will he
retiring, and will swell ihe cry oft
our conquests. They constitute an
body of vast influenre. who are rr.
0 . I "
ill i r w - iii m ft i l x t. ...
wj MM J V 1,1 m.lMlt t.li nrl,.l l t
poi conunue .ong wnnoui exnausung us j the only way to remedy this evil and o . Tbe a ilse( wil, u h .,
specie, and leaving nothing to meet the obtain a treaty is to put down the whole ; live j)y ,le war ho nuniProtJS conU
public expenditures, including those of the j of them, including the one in power as me rci,ant s. the sutlers . ihe HH'cuIat. :
L rn . ai .1 1 . I m '
war, out ireasury notes, tan mey unuer j well as the. others. Well, what men i
such circumstances preserve even their 1 Are we to stop there ? No; OurjGener
present value ? Is there not great danger ns are, it soems, authorized to encourage
that they will fall lower and lower, and I and to protect the well disposed Snhabi
finally involve the finances of the Gov-1 tants in establishing a renublican &overn-
ernment and the circulation of the coun- mnt H savs thf-v nr? numerous, and what is impoverishing the rest cl i!
fpv in tlna rrpooloc amKorKOcemorit o,il I .. 4Vm r vr,rrCincr thplrnnin. i It is at this ilHgO that the. Pfe'ii
n j iii mi giuuiict iiiiuaiiasjuibiii uu arc LfrwVCIIlCU liuui jt j
. . f I ' . . . ' t 7 I 1
Is there not great danger, with this pros
nir lnfrr n nnrl with tbn nrrei f v n
raising by loans near forty millions, of a have thus formed a government,'-under
commercial and financial crisis even j the encouragement and protection; of our
army, to obtain peace oy a treaty W4tn tne
government thus formed which shjdlgive
us ample indemnity for the past ami Secu
rity for the future. I must say I aill at a never be able to extort from lU
loss to see how 4L free ,and independent ; forms of taxation to which you t
... a .11-1 ! ! 'I .
renuh he can be estaousneu in .Mexico un- i sum sutticicnt lo payineiorce nccc
der the protection and authority of jts con
querors. I can readily understand how
an aristocracy or a despotic government
. . t I 1 J'. I.M.iL
might De, DUi now a iree repuuiicau gov-
possibly a suspension bv the banks ? I
wish not to create panic ; but there is
danger, which makes a great difference,
in a financial and moneyed point of view,
between the state of things now and at
the commencement of the last session.
Looking to the future, it is to be appre
hended that not a little difficulty will have
to be encountered in raising money to
meet the expenses of the next campaign.
whole of 'Mexico would be at th
next campaign, when sixty million
will be added to the present cxpci.
would indeed acquire a control o
larger portion of her population, I
l&AVl , lilts VAI'VHuvx w .ww . - w ..f--...., i ' . ... I
jf conducted on the large scale which is i ernment can be so established, under such
proposed. Men you may raise, but mo- j circumstances, is tome incomprehensible.
: will be found difficult to obtain, it : i nau aiwajs ujjiu-u iua 8u-ii u-
tbem in suhieclion. That force us ; .
one, not less certainly lhan forty i..
according lo ihe opinion of'tht S :
Mississippi, (Mr. Davis,) wLo m i- !
ed as a competent judge upon thin
stated in debate the other day tLii
now there, exceeding that number,
riey will be louna aimcuu to ooiain. ji , i nu a.o vvm ger; and urged, on I bat account, th
is even to be apprehended that loans will ernment must be the spontaneous ?Kvish ol , passage of lbe yil to raise ten re-i...
have to be negotiated on very disadyan- ' the people ; that it must emanate; from j lnja 8Ubject it is as well to speak o ::
taeous terms tor the public, in tne pre- me ucmo u. mr: it.Tiv,ii" ouww..vv- mce. e tnau never owam injr.
sent state of things, if they grow no worse, ny ineir ut'0,,,", ,u ". rr"'4 ; exjenuiiures ci tne war. m
Ihere can be no resort to Treasury notes, from abroad. But it seems thatthse are j 0f ,h pockets of the people of the I
m. . i ..,:.v, aniinnniwl nif inns obsolete i(Iei3 and . and ihe longer ihe war is contiiiw
llhevcannowoe materially murroscu , .1.111""- 1 , - , o ,
out a ruinous depreciation ; and a resort
must be had exclusively or almost entire
ly so, to borrowing. But, at the present
orices of stocks, to borrow so large a sum
as will be necessary can only be done at
that free popular governments may be ! more numerous cur army, ibegrenter
made under the authority and protection j dbt,aud the heavier the burden i;. ;
But suppose these difficulties surmount
ed how can' we make a free Government
7 Where are the materials 1
. .1.. : cwl rata nf intprpt nn thi in Mexico?
nominal amount of stock. In a recent It is to be, I presume, a confederatfrj gov
conversation with a gentreman well in-! ernment like their Jormer, v nere is me
fnrmprl nn thinhiect. he said that, in his intelligence in Mex.co for the construction
. . . - '.... . . 1 1
II these views be correct, the rnJ
icy recommended by the Presij. r
contemplated or not, will be to f .rr
ernment to adopt one or ihe" ct!.( r :i
alluded to in these resolutions. Wi
pression 1 cannot support ihe p:-!ii-y
mends, tor the reasons asigtu-J in 1:
n. ...t wmi nf nrh n envprflmpnt 1 Tl, Kr;i .f iV,p.i k 1 1
; opinion, it loriy minions mc 1 equueu, n. am --. . , ri 8u.u..... ,'.
loan could not be had for more than nine- It is what she has been aiming at fr more iucon,itent wtih the avowed o -j -c t
kv for one hundred, which would be about than twenty years, but utterly hncom. lhe was has been prosecuted i
Ut thl rate of seven per cent. ' petent are her people for the task, that it be so is apparent, from what has ;
at the rate Ol wrn per wuu . . ! . - ' r:i.. r.m -.Ami to ! Sine tK commencerneiit U
i These are formidable objections, but , has .ma 7 Pf hli r(
1 ino r?ro n t rrf 1 v ni tup i iilu 11 j & w -
1 v ft iicj ci. - v m 1
thev are not tbe only ones that are more
so than they were nt the commencement
ltit The &reat bodv
and wealth of Mexico is: concentratea in
'1 . i !i
avowed the intention of conquering