of the Watchman.
Lriiifco,prr ycarjTro Dolla as-payable in
I" 'Bui if not paid in advance, Two dollars
' 1 tvrs Wrtfd al 9 1 (of the first, and 25cts
i-T juTni iniKrtion. v Court orders charged
fct hisr ha "l,e"- A ,iberBl deduc-
53 iha' dvertiw by tbe year.
. Urt EJitara must be PO( paid.
tETTEll Fltoil THE HON. J R.
Sf ATBsnrBO. CS, C. ) Dec. 12, 1847.
jjr pKASm : III compliance with your re
.w, and, in conformity with my promise, I
iTdctelrmUied to give yu very briefly my
n on the all-iRros$ing tujuc of the day. I
'detained later than t ejected to be in Co
and have Wily this-, moment seen the
L-siiidenCf Message and the Repent of the
It I ...... I m .n .....-i..n,l .. ..
thlat trwy peTsisi in rccommenning a
Tif E MOflft W ATCHMig
BRUNEE k . JAMES,
Editor? 4 Proprietors,
Kee? a check cpoji all toc
Do this, axd Liberty is safi."
NUMBER 40, OF VOLUME IV.
SALISBURY, N...C, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1848.
I. t '-t 1 . :..
men, you wouia pare troops enougn io Keep
peaceable possession of our new 'territory, and
L. J? .-I- J L..1 c
mijjni aismiss in a .voiuniecr iurce.
To succeed in j levying the military contri
billions the President speaks of, and provision
ing the army by force, thti troop? must be very
arc disputed by another, undertakes to
support those rights by force, she. under
takes to support them by var-pvar as
far as she is concerned. It is true, if the
act of violence or aggression on her part.
I be not resisted by the other that suffers it
murli inprnii cort i It rpnuiroi a varv Urno f.
m nrnmpf s.mnliil J uitfcflut nnvin, rr tt,om ! 11 be patiently and tamely submitted
rs4U" pl'cy vhkh will lead to still further ; Thpy can onJy bMgatfiered by formidable de. to no war results. To constitute war, it
ile eipendittire-Df blood and treasure, and jachments, and cU army never has been and i 1S as essential that there should be two
(;fin'ij iw nr . .,,.uiiru. iui mu eVer will be sutpqient numerous to enable the j parues, as it is, mere stiouia Dc two par
kin? onVthc ibjecf of the acquisition of; commanding GerjeVal to separate so many men ! ties to a treaty of peace. The act of one
vrrW-1 ,iaVo ,ni,,8 to do, especially as the j from ,j,e main bod v.
Pff4!dti serins io uium oiigres. Ficugeu io j have g,ven y0q my op1nipns vcry hurriedly,
conquests. I can only express my re-
titty) nty firm conviction that these leirito.
nil acquisitions will not add to our strength or
periiy.' v ' !.'-
rcdorhtnendation that most seriously
alarms tne is contained in the paragraph, where
ibe fxfsident, says thee can be no doiiht that
dxifexisls a peace, party in .Mexico, and that
become expedient for our commanding
ifraU.tiva a'ssuraqces of protection to such
ijrty; .in'.thoit, to create a party, make peace
fa it, and guaranty it in tho possession of
owrr. Nothing can be more chemical ; no
jjprg couH bo 'more insecure than the execu-Toni-tJT
such a ' project we?-e it practicable.
511 party i would bear no proportionj to the
j!ion, anditho ; members of it would require to
Unroteited from public indignation and veil.
ince (or long years o come, by a force not
iris formidable than that now in tho country,
ttihout the hfancQ of any indemnity, ( or the
owe of levying contributions of any sprt. If
ibecacc government 'should agree, to pay and
mWwj iheiir prbtottors, they must, from the na.
Wf ufdiins, tail to clo either. Pray, save us
i Jigruc4 ol atlemplfng such an intervention.
JVj attempt nuhl lead to an interVentilon of a
j.Jerent sort. Hut would possibly prov6 more
juccessffil. Tlie President is apprehensive ot
rein interference,' first in California, and next
n the establishment of a monarchy in Mexico.
Titrfl i hot v4 he slightest risk of the jformer,
11, jf the Mexican people are left td them
kW, no chance of the latter. They were so
tiuifely republican' in 1822 that I didtiot hesi-
(arc confidently to foretell the. downfall of Itur-'
bale. Ihryare much more so noxKantJno
ttttme of that sort could have even momenta.
jary1 luccess, utiles tie leaders consiftfered it
11 iS only" chance of ivppoaing us. There ex
it'it sjrnng monarchic,! PVT strong in wealth
iwtatilm ibe Priefis.lhe former ari.iocraev
indjbo'inlherenlsrof Spain. We mnydfive the
iimliers vnle.r th-Vr banners. Still ihe Presi.
nt is nrong: our armed intervention might
Wing oti us ft poVf rlul foreign foe, but could
it prevent the e t il ; ivhereas, if we hold ba:k,
y 'fc for . it, a monarchy would not exist in
Hfiico three year, with' fifty thousand foreign
Wynncta to .sustain it. The people arc repub
'The President tayhe is convinced that the
tatmeartaT'of bringing the war to an honora
bl cb5e jll bo lei prosecute it with increased
mergy and power in the vital parts of the ene.
y'ffmmtry. Now, I am persuaded that so
Uija u continde to prosecute the war in the
' m m m ' ' m till
inienor ol exlco, wo- nhaii nave no peace
tith jhe najtjon, and all attempts to make peace
itha faction will place us in a worse posi.
ifon jUn open war. I speak with the authori
lof a perfect knowledge of the nature of the
country and the character of iho people.
' I Wis glad to find that the Secretary rejects
it flan of overrunning the whole country, as
'io expensive ;; but I was surprised to perceive
&i)ie imlyj estimates Hhe nurhber of men it
W.d require ito do this, or to maintain our
pffMt conquests, aj seventy thousand men for
tMrM, and somelhiTty.five or forty thousand
lwil second.1' He says nothing of the annual
ewsomption of men during this protongedcon
for it appears to rri? there is! little time to lose
in settlingj the course to be pursued. ! We can
at this period withdraw oir forces without dis
honor : nay, such an act wouldjelevate us in the
! estimation of thefvyorld. The slightest reverse
a threat of foreign intervention might ren-
der such an act difficult, if not impracticable.
! Before our troops vacuate the Mexican terri
; tory thai people !oiht to be told what -we in
tend to do. It !is barely possible that they
might be disposed; to peace upon witnessing
such a movement. !
nation cannot alone constitute a! war; it
is like the act of an individual striking a
blow, if it be not resented, no contest, no
battle, no fight is the result. The blow is
an act of aggression ; it is arc act com-
mencing a contest, but it does not amount
i to a perfect contest. Whether this act on
the part of the President was ah act of
war, of hostility, of aggreston.deriends not
j at all upon the question, whether we had
i a right to the territory of which he took
j forcible possession. ' War, between na-
! , J- " f . j.wv. . v-uiuLl """"I 1 C
fiM .... - w
With regard to (he details of iho defence of 1 ne Pu'cists, who speak of contests be
the line not the liiie defence they can be de- i tween nations, never suppose them to con
tend except about rights. War is a contest
about rights. Public war is a contest be-
termined very easily, and I think we misht be
certain of 7remliri ng unrrjolested for twenty
years, and forevjeri. with such precautions as
tnijrht betaken il jlitlle cost.
With great respect and regard, I am, my
dear sir, yours, truly, J. P. POINSETT.
Hon. P. Bvf ler, V. S. Senate,
I f Washington.
MR. K.YDGER'S SPEECH,
In the Senate, January 18th
Mr. 13 A DC lilt said : If I believed, sir,
that the duty vyhich I owe to the country
and to the Staj which has sent me here,
could be perfoiped by yielding to the re
quisitions of tlid Executive of the country
such supplies as he may deem requisite
for the prosecution of the war, upon plans
for prosecuting it which have riot been
made known td Congress if I believed
that I had not ja Mgh and controlling ob
ligation to exercise my own best judg
ment; fbr the beifefit of those whom I rep
reseiVfi and for the general welfare of the
cnuftfty, upon ejvery question submitted to
the' consideration of tlds body, I might be
disposed to votfcfor the hill upon your ta
ble. Jf. sir, the! yeas and nays had not
been ordered iipcii the passage of this bill,
I might have iieen content to permit the
measure to pass, as far as I am concerned,
without ofTerlig a single word to the Se
nate upon it intrinsic merits. But the
yeas and naysj have been ordered upon
this bill. I ca)inot vote for it. 1 shall re
cord my vote against it : and, 1 think it is
due to the country I feel that it is due
to myself that the views and principles
which W4II govern my conduct in giving
this vote should be plainly and distinctly
stated, and should accompany, to the pub
lic, the vote itself. Sir, I shall endeavor
to assign those) views and principles in as
short a com pals as is consistent with a
full expositionfof what I believe to be the
truth on this fill important subject, and
which every consideration obliges me to
put before those whom I represent, with
the attention of the Senate to the fact.
that though this paper was written on the
11th of July some months prior to the
actual consummation of the act of annex
ation yet the instructions to which 1 pro
pose to call the attention of the Senate,
are given prospectively cautiously and
with a view to the actual , completion of
that measere, when, as appears from the
instructions themselves, the officer to
whom they were directed was required to
consider Texas as a part of this country.
"To secure this end most effectually,
you are charged to commit no act of ag
gression ; and, at the same time, m are
invested with the command of a force suf-
and to be passed upon onlv bv Congress.
The Constitution has undergone nochange.
ine people have made no; amendment to
it. It stands now as it stood in the time
of Mr. Jefferson. Whence, then; ha's Mr.
Polk derived his authority to precipitate
measures which must lead directly to war
Congress being in session, .and without
even deigning to inform them of what he
proposed to do ? But, sir, at all events
there is not the slightest reason to doubt,
as 1 apprehend, that the movement of the
troops to the Rio Grande was , the act
which produced war. There had been,
previously, threatenings ;on thepart or
Mexico. There had been exarik Hint
in war. liut there had been no wr riwl
my conviction is; sir, that if our troops
1 1 1 . n . ..
remained quiet at .Corpus . Ubristi,
. 1. 1 ...'
ficient to take from others a disposition to ' !lale of feTe,inS wllch was likely to result
Then after enumerating the forces at
the officer's command, the Secretary says :
" That you may precisely understand
what is meant by the aggression which
you are instructed to avoid, 1 will add,
that while the annexation of Texas ex
tends our boundary to the Del Norte, the
1 '..s.ci .1 .. .1 r 1 . ' ... . 1 TiTOi.i- ,
x icaiumt icsei vrs uie viuuicauon 01 our 1 vents, suppose that war would have hren i 1 ue u. o. nereoy ansoivr
K,. .-. .4 , : 1' ; 1 1 - .i t r . , ... . . .1 I? i
where they had a right to remain on the
ground so strongly put by the Senator
from Maryland, (Mr. Pearce.) that it be
longed to Texas by virtue of her revolu
tion, and was then in her possession, there are billing to take the oath
11 I ' 1 .. ' ... IT O
""mu ime ueen no war; uut at all e
Iu another part of the s tt
" On my return (which wii;
or three weeks) a civil gn r;
be organized, and the ollict r
for it; after whicb.I will br r
for Upper .California, which 1
be by the latter end of next r
in such case; I ahall expect to
session of that department In
Then we have General Kc .
clamation, in which he anr.c :
tentioq to'hold New Mexico ;
the United States, under the :.
territory of New Mexico.
"And he requires of tho
left their homes and taken i
gainst the troops of , the U. :
turn forthwith to them, or rl
be considered as enemies and t
jecting their persons to pun:
their property to siczurc an 1
for the benefit of the public tt
"Itis the wish and intentit
S. to provide for New Mexico
eminent, with the lensi :
similar to those in the United :
the people of. New Mexico v
called on to exercise the ri
men in electing their own r ;
to the territorial legislature '
this can be done, the laws hi;!,
istence will be continued i;:
or modified by competent au;',
those persons holding ofllco w i
in the same for the pesenU pr
will consider themselves no. 1 c
to the U. S.
tween nations about rights, carried on by
force and not by argument. If, therefore, it
were assumed as clear and unquestiona
ble that the title of Texas and the United
States extended to the Rio Grande, it is
still beyond all doubt, that Mexico pos
sessing the left bank of that stream, hav
ing a settlement there, having officers
there, and exercising jurisdiction there
any movement to dispossess Mexico, to
occupy what she thus occupied a,nd what
she claimed to be her own, is an act of
war. It is an act of war just and right
ful if territory be ours just and rightful
if the territory be unjustly and improperly
withheld just and rightful, if, also the act
of war be directed by those who repre
sent the sovereignty of the nation. Well,
sir, this act was committed by the Presi
dent of the United States. He ordered
the troops to the Rio Grande. They ad
vanced. When they came into the Mex
ican settlement, the inhabitants? fled be
fore them in dismay ; the officers aban
doned the public buildings and set fire to
them, and under such circumstances, our
forces under the command of officers of
the United States, took from Mexico that
which she was in possession oil and by
force kept possession of the territory and
placed it under the jurisdiction of the U.
. Now, sir, on this subject I had the hon
or at the last session to bring to the atten
tion of the Senate, the case of the action
of Mr. Jefferson, during his administra
tion of this government, under j circum
stances of a very similar character, with
this difference, that the title of the terri
tory withheld from us was truly and clear
ly ours. In every other respect the case
was like this. The territory was with
held by another power, and a disposition
manifested by that power to deprive us of
what we held. Under these circumstan
ces, Mr. Jefferson conceived that he
had no right to use the military forces of
the country to obtain possession of that
boundary, if possible, to methods of peace, j produced "by some other!
You will, therefore, not employ force to ! our troops had. not been n
cuse, though ! rPSiding within the bound
nlov force to our troons had. not been moved. whiVh i Mexico from nnv further allL
dislodge Mexican troops from any post j mere matter of speculation, yet it cannot Republic of Mexico and In i
east of the Del Norte which was in the be denied, that in point of iact this war ! them as citizens of the U. S.
actual possession of the Mexicans at tbp ! wa tb
possession ot ine Mexicans at the was the result of the mrivPmpnt f nr
time of annexation." I troops upon the Del Norte. That move-
uiiuuhi mcucu ueciare war, you win , ment was an act of warJ It w.-is at all
at once dislodge her troons from anv post
she may have east of the mouth of the
Del Norte: take possession of Tampico;
and if your force is sufficient, will take
the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa, it being
the determination of the President to pre
serve peace, if possible, and, if war comes,
to recover peace by adopting the most
prompt and energetic measures."
Again, sir, the Secretary of War writes
to General Taylor under date of July 8,
' Sir. This department is informed that
Mexico has some military establishments
on the east side of the Rio Grande, which
are, and for some time have been, in the
actual occupancy of her troops. In car
rying out the instructions heretofore re
ceived, you will be careful to avoid any
acts of aggression unless an actual state
of war should exist. The Mexican forces
at the posts in their possession, and which
have been so, will not be disturbed as long
as the relations of peace between the U.
States and Mexico continue."
Now, sir, here we have from the repre
sentatives of the President in the two De
partments, War and Navy, a clear and
distinct recognition of this proposition,
that, although the President held that oar
true boundary was the Del Norte, yet that
it would be an act of aggression, a hostile
act, an act which would not be justifiable
except in a state of war, to dispossess Mex
ico from any portion of that territory- as
she held the possession at the time of the
annovatinn W lion hnro fV-. r- npilorc ii'o ft .
issued to General Taylor, on the 13th of ? " nlluT ir.u.
events, an act tending tojehange the rela
tions of the two countries from peace to
war; and an act which the president
could not lawfully or constitutionally per
form. The next proposition which I lay down
is, that this war thus resulting from an
act of the President, has: been prosecuted
by him from the commencement with a
view to the conquest the permanent con-J
quest of afleast New Mexico and Up
per and Lower California. I bey the at
tention of the Senate while I shall at
tempt to demonstrate this proposition from
public documents. First, sir, I will call
the attention of the Senate to the instruc
tions given by the Secretary of War on
the 3d of June, '4G, to Gen. Kearney :
Should you conquer jand take posses
sion of New Mexico and Upper Califor
nia, or considerable placfts in either, you
wilj establish temporary civil governments
therein abolishing all arbitrary restric-,
tions that may exist, forjso far as it may
be done with safety. In performing this
duty it would be wise and prudent to con
tinue in their employment all such of the
existing officers as are known to be friend
ly to the United States, and will take the
oatlr of allegiance to them. The duties
at the custom houses ought, at once, to be
reduced to such a rate as may bp barely
sufficient to maintain the necessary olh
remain quiet and peaceful wil!
ered good citizens and receive ;
those who are found in an: .
ating others against the U. S., .
sidered as traitors, and treat
What was the action of f
Sloat? How did he interpret ;
stand the orders he had receive
we have distinct information
point, communicated in the j r
of Comodore Sloat to the .pecj ':
fornia. He, says :
" Henceforward California
portion of the United States n: ;
able inhabitants will enjoy the
and privileges they now enj y.
witb the privilege of choVit!;:
magistrates and other officer.-, i
istralion of justice among their
the same protection will be t r
them as to any other State in' t
They will also enjoy a permar
Again Commodore Stocktc;.
"The Territory of California i:
to the U. S., and will begovrr..
as circumstances will permit 1
and laws similar to those by v.
other Territories of the United i-
regulated and protected.
I Now, sir, it is impoible,l tU
' a I
what was done what was n
our officers to the President! ;
been done by them without
they understood and acted on l.!
tions, as designed to make a j
,.,;iUn..i i: k .- . .t.
revenue io conqucst of SUCh portions of Mr '
government, lou mavi assure the people nc
a r tvpm net pi if r 1 f .
. f ' . . I
out any unnecessary oiminuauon, witnout j which was withheld lrom us. But, he
leaving out arty thing that may be requir- ; states as a reason for referring the subject
eu in a iun nno complete expression oi to lhe determination - of Congress, that
the argumentlwhich, in my mind, is con
clusive in regard to the measure before
VV Durrnf the most favorah e nerud ot the I i i. 1 1 r . i
J". l rrlrA nn in rJm.rl friendlv i y0U' 1 sha11 ffer ?NV opinions, Sir,
with entire respect, and even deferential i countries from peace to war, therefore, it
consideration,fto the great minds of this
body and throughout the country, whom I
know to be arrayed against me, With
out intending towards them any disre
spect, 1 shall take the liberty to declare
what are the , opinions which I entertain
with regard to the origin of the war, the
manner, of it$ prosecution, the tendency
of lhe measures now proposed, and the
puifidular war carried on in a country friendly
th;jri, the Ilritish forces lost annually six
twn per Cnt .one. fourth of whom died of
tounls nd casualties In Mexico we should
ta;at leat twpnly per cent, per annum of reg.
2-ir torcic; and at lest forty per cent, of vol
. "tars. I remarked' in the isthmus between
Aepaspian and Black Seas that lhe Russian
fcrcei required to be recruited entirely in three
J'tri; (hat is to say, they required a renewal
of OBe-t h i rd'j e ve r y year.
Ilie contiuost ot that country by Russia af-
us lesson a we. CuJht to profit by. The
sian force overran the Caucasian country
rpic. Tliey -'conquered a peace. Well, in
-T I oassed throuch the heart ot the country, o , r T,u, fff0 ,x,,n flrt 'fif!r"c.
had been garrisoned with twenty thou, j d h Senalupon , His bill.) but, never-
H or eV",ni yearV,aC0Stf tWe? ! theless, I shalj be undekthe necessity of 4
"fy and seventy thousand men, or six or se- l,lt'roc, r .
thausarid men a year, i At that time it was ! gn$ a HmejDacK lor ine Vun,w ui.ma
fceiarv to it,(v,l,Mirt..r nf irnin tmm ! king myself fhllv understood.
potv io vo, il was unsafe to move with less First, then.ll will lay it down, and en-
hart two iApc- nf nriillerv and a full comnanv deavor to demonstrate that the war in
fntry. ifhis state of 'things contined until which we are now engaged with Mexico,
i"tO, whe,n lhe Caucasians onranized a nower. t was thn immediate result of the unlawful
wl oo!ojition to ti r. rv t V n ' .1 ..nlninnl nnt if t li r Trrcl fl pnt
r.ent day hayo contended against them with . of the United States. I suppose,' sir, that
MTantage.. - J he Caucasua t not: contain ! .i ; n Ai f olcO.
1 .... i . ; iiitrc is no ueniiciiiaii ima uwi v,io
matters relating to peace and war belong
exclusively to Congress; and as this move
ment might change the relation of the two
of those provinces that it is the wish and
'design of the U. States tp.provide for them
belonged to Congress to determine whe
ther the movement should be made ornot.
But, Mr. President, I have other autho
rity. I certainly shall not say that it is
more respectable in itself, than the au
authority of Mr. Jefferson. I doubt very
much whether with a large portion of the
American people, and of the Senate", it
January, 46, which directed him to ad
vance and occupy a position on the left
bank of the Rio Grande, the President or
dered what he then, undoubtedly, under
stood to be an act of war. He ordered
what he intended, and what he supposed
would be regarded on the part of Mexico,
as an act of hostility. For, sir, you will
observe, that when General Taylor, in the
execution of this order, advanced to the
Rio Grande, and drove the Mexicans from
their possessions when he occupied what
had before been occupied by the Mexi
cans and the inhabitants were flying he-
Territories. They will . then be called on
to exercise the rights oft freemen; in elect
ing their own representatives to the terri
torial legislature. It is foreseen that what
relates to the civil government Will be a
difficult and unpleasant part of yipur duty,
and much must necessarily be left to your
In further proof of this, sir, 1 read the
instruction given by tie Navy Depart
ment to Com. Sloat, 12th July, 18 1G.
' ' The object of the U. States is: under
its rights as a belligerent nation, to pos-
u k tt
, , . , - , . nuuiu Lo uiuuzut uuiik yui w iii. -
, 8u.in..w jMHr.uaua-u, , jersons. ijut upon this question, with re-
I the Executive the country ln relation cl to the pident of the United Stales,
to it. I shall got go as far back 8ir as j authoritv is conclusive and overpow
jan honorable, Senator from Maryland dul eri It cVeates upon him, what law
! a few days ago, (i meaq the honorable , .. nn MtonneL lthr , Hin ah!(, fo show.
that the President of the United States
has himself recognized that such an act
as this is an act of hostility of aggres
sion of war. On the 11th of July, 1845,
fore him, and these facts were reported to sess itself entirely of Upper California
the President, there was not the slightest ! The object of the U- States has refer
intimation that General Taylor had ex- ; ence to ultimate peace; with Ab-'sico ; and
ceeded the orders which had been given if, at that peace, the bars of tho;; pos
to him, and had thus been the means of sidetis shall be established, the govern
precipitatingthecountry into a war, which, ment expects, ihrough your forces, to be
bv a prudent regard to those orders, might found in actual possession of Upper Cali-
have been avoided. On the contrary, up ,
to this very. moment, all that was done in
pursuance of that order, has been recog
nized by the President as having been
rightfully done, as having been done in
accordance with the purposes which the ;
Executive had in view when the orders J the wishes of the people of California, as . instrnction right ? Why, fcir. In
" This will bring with it the necessity
of a civil administration. Such a gov
ernment should be established under your .Mexico, and became the proj
protection; and, in selecting persons to t nited States. ;
hold office, due respect should be had to j Well, now did they under
session ol. mere is not one
in the instructions nothing !
the actions of the officers cic '.
instructions which referred c r
tb refer to a military occupati
territories, for thefpurposc of. c
Mexico to do us justice for V;
we had sustained at her hai '
I officers clearly understood that :
j fo take possession of, and ho! t
j ritories as a portion of the Un :
j What says Commodore oc!:'t
j ' 1, Robert F. Stockton, coir.r:
1 chief of the U. S. forces in thd 1
cean, and governor of the 'l i t
California, and Commander-in c !,
army of the same, do hereby tr
to all men, that having by ri:!.:
quest taken possession of th;.:
known by the name of Upper ..
California, do now declare it ; I
ritory of the U. States under !;.
the Territory of California 1
They took possession. ,Th'v
governments and they acted i .
pects as if from that time iu:
I territories ceased to be the t r
the Secretary of the Navy writes a confi- were given.
71 a muuoun a a naif of inhabitants ; j wh who supposes or believes that the
Riisiian empire hot less han siTiv mil ions tn - -V ,t,"TT j c?. . - j
TV. :..'..iJ. i.... ... m,ni9. I President of .the United States is vested
eror six hundred thousand well.ZL ;S ! Wlth the Power of V5 Untvy. It
' Both the President nnd the Secretiry build
ty system;of line defence, as it 'is called.
"ch they easily oterthrow, because no mili.
man would suggest such an anomaly.
y-wpposq a frontier can only be defended
H chain of posts, bordering on the line;
.'erfa's it is best secured by strong interior
wt.- But I did not intend to intrude my
J"iynon, military Irnaticrs. Settle what ter-
7 you Intendlo claim, and tell Mexico you
JN to keep lit. She will bluster and pro
, hut inever attack , vou. Her leaders will
loo much 4t stike to venture so far from
H'3'1' !e W1" na1re 1,0 "an to equip
" 'niaui mem on long marcnes ami
t carhpargns knd I hazard nothing in
lL 3 ,ba! 5 or ik'f rong places in the into.
I our ioe wo,dd keep them iiqfcheck for
if6.?07, and we mighl buy a
.if thought! necessary. By adopting this
W c6m5p al Ul Present in
117 ndj instead of raising thirty thousand
is a nower einresslv, and in terms, con
ferred upon the Congress of the United
States. And the President would have
no control, direct or indirect, except from
the incidental circumstance of His limited
veto of the action of the two Houses, and
except, from the fact, that in virtue of his
oince he is the cniei commanoer, prin
cipal military officer of the U. States.
I maintain .then, Mr. President, that
when the President of the United States
moved the troops under Gen. Taylor to
the Rio Grande and took possession of the
left bank of that stream, he committed a
clear and undoubted act of war. What
is war T What do all the writers on the
law of nations tell us it is? They all, in
substance, define it to be a contest about
rights which Is carried on or maintained,
not by argument, but by force. It can,
therefore, admit of no question, that when
a nation claiming certain rights, which
dential communication to Com. Conner,
an officer in the U. S. service, then in the
Gulf of Mexico. He says: r
"The unanimous vote of the Texan
Congress for annexation leaves no doubt
of the consummation of that measure. j
When you ascertain, satisfactorily, that
the Texan convention, which assembled
on the 4th, has also acceded to annexation;
you will regard Texas as a part of your
country to be defended like any other
part of it. I
At the same time, every honorable ef
fort is to be made to preserve peace with
all nations. The restoration of oUr bound
ary on the southwest, by the consent and
u: M' ihi neoDle of Texas, is due to
liberty, which endear America to eerj
one of its sons, and is a tribute before the
world to the policy of peace, of political
r..,,lm and of union on the principles ot
freedom. It is the President's desire that
this Tfat event should be consummated
without the effusion of blood, and without
the exercise, of lorce ; believing that free
institutions, in their ownright, will achieve
all that can be desired."
But, sir, if the act was not an act ot
war, it was plainly and manifestly an act
which was likely to produce a state of
war. It was an act the tendency of which
was to change the relations of Mexico
and this country from a state of peace to
a state of war. Can there be any doubt
of this sir? It is impossible to doubt it.
wherrwe recollect the unhappy and an
well as to the actual possessors of autho- j sage of the President of theUo
rity in that province, i It may be proper communicating those docum :.
to require, an oath of allegiance to the U. 1 there ii something said whicli j
S. frotn those who arejentrusted 'with au- disavowal of what was done, a:
thority. You will also assure the people tion that in some respects the jr.
of California of the protection ot the U in- had been exceeded. 1 hesc u
ted States. says the President, contain
4i After you shall have securetl Upper
California, if your force is sufficient, you
will take possession, and keep, -the har
bors on the Gulf of California, as far down,
at least, as Guavmas. But this is not to
It appears then, upon the slaK
President of the U.S. and the U
the Secretary of War, that the cr;
established by General Kearney
(rovprnmpnt of the territorv oflNc
D - - i
gry state of feeling which existed between
txxm onnntries. When we recollect
the position which our army held at Cor- interfere with the permanent occupation jc0( in consequence or its late ani
n Christi for so many months, and the of Upper California." with reference to the then succ ;
disputes existing between the two coun
tries the mutual charges of insincerity,
and breaches of faith when we recol
lect all this, it must be manifest that such
n art as moving an armed force to the
attraction of the principles of j Rj0 Grande was, in itself, if not an act of
war, at least one wnico wore mc
ance of aggression, and one which was
calculated to rouse the feelings of the
r..:..o tr nrovoke retaliation.
Thus much must be conceded ; and, il so, Kearney to the Adjutant GeneraUf the
sir whence did the President of the Uni- 24ih August, 181G, written from Santa
Then. sir. on the 13th of August, we sion had not been read by bun
have instructions from the Navy Depart- milled to the President and hii or
ment to Commodore Stockton, or whoever ken uh respect to it. Well, r
might be the commanding officer in the js :,. only one of the documents (
Pacific. I it is intimated that the contents w
-n' . : -Am - nnilprt.i nd thi I. ... th nrrrvr denartmeht n:
iov, air. iu ifiiiui. iy v . .... miu n "j " -- - y-
scope and bearing of these orders still municated to the President a nil ar
more clearly, let us see what was done and sanctioned by hirh. Therefor
under them by the officers to whom they reasonable, just :.r. ! necessary? cor
I t I 1;. I..Mr f -n,.r I ,1 .., m-orv m nf lbe Other 'duC'
1 1 ' Tt Ml 111 ri"!sLI. lli r I' I" I w-v IIKll Hill ..w . i
- m ...1 I
except the one thus specitieu jan I
out hv the exception, has been aJ
ted Statesderive his power to do this with
out the consent of Congress.
According to Mr. Jefferson, an act which
in its execution may change the relations
t u;o n,rf nf the communication, I ot a country i.um t V..
sir for the pirpie of calling distinctly 1 beyond the competency ot me HWum
- i i i i
it i . : t.nMinnfn n nil niiiiruit'u. nil
re, ne says. 1 , .......- --, , t z . -
r oo t ;eeM.it rrrvlamation. even in rcierence io ucnew iv
, i x- M.;;n with ' nrcrnmr. law nothincr is excepttc
claiming ine wnoie oi xew ...... . - -
its then boundaries, as terriwry ol the the President but th.s: that he b
! 0. Staus of America, and taking itundec taken to prescnb, th form of a
M nent territorial government. ."So
! . ! I '
t ' j
jl T t . t