TeriiM of the. Watchman.
L ' i i..hrit)tion. ner yar.Two Dollars payable in
'tJnnce. Bt if not paid in adTance. Two dollars
and fifty wil1 charged.
AmTiT inserted at Ql for the first, and 25 eta.
for each subsequent Insertion. Court ordera chirged
25 per et. higher than these rates. A. liberal dedoc
tioo to thoae who advertise by the year.
Letts" to the Editors mast be poet paid.
! Til SilHiA " WiTClMt N.
1 i '
BRUNER & JAMES,
Editors 4r Proprietors,
To the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States :
It was known that mines of the precious
metals existed to a considerable extent in
California at the time of its acquisition.
Recent discoveries render it probable that
these mines are more extensive and val
uable than was anticipated. The ac
counts of the abundance of gold in that
territory are such an extraordinary char
acter as would scarcely command belief
were they not corroborated by the authen
tic reports of officers in the public service,
who have visited the mineral district, and
Jcrivcd the facts which they detail from
personal observation. Reluctant to credit
the reports in general circulation as to ihc
quantity of gold, tho officer commanding
our lorccs in lyuiuornia visucu mc mine
ral district in July last, for the purpose of
obtaining accurate information on the sub
ject. His report to the War Department
of the result of his examination, and the
facts obtained on the spot, is herewith laid
before Congress. When ho visited the
country, there were about four thousand
persons engugcu in collecting gold.-
There is every reason to believe that tho
number of persons so employed has since
t .. .1 TL 1 '
sDCcn uugiucuicu. j. uu explorations ai
froftdv mndn wnrrnnt the. hlif tUn tU
Jsopply is very large, and that gold is found
at various places in an extensive district
information received from officers of
h nflVV And othr sniircM thriiicdi nnt sn
t, I ia and minute, confirm the accounts of
pti pe commander ot our military force in
yAlilornla. It appears, also, from these
eports,that mines of quicksilver are found
n the vicinity of the gold region. One of
hem is now being worked, and is believ
ed to be among tho most productive in the
I The effects produced by the discovery
Jof these rich mineral depositees, and the
success .which has attended the labors of
ihose.who have resorted to them, have
rod u ecu asurpnsing. change in the state
faflai rs in California. Labor commands
n exorbitant price, and all other pursuits
ut that of searching for the precious met
als are abandoned. Nearly the whole of
pi the malo population of the country have
kuiio iuuu eu,u uisincu onins arriving
on tho coast are deserted by their crews.
.and their voyages suspended for want of
xuivrs. uur commanuinir omcer tnere
entertains apprehensions that soldiers can
not be kept in tho public service without)
& large increase of pa). Desertions in his
command have become frequent, and ho
recommends that those who shall with
stand the strong temptation, and remain
faithful, should be rewarded.
This abundance of gold, and tha all-en-
grossing pursuit of it, have already caused
in California an . unprecedented rise in the
price or the necessaries of life.
That we may the more speedily and
fully avail ourselves of the undeveloped
wealth of these mines, it is deemed of vast
importance that a branch of the mint of
the United States be authorized to be es
tablished at your present session, in Cali
fornia. Among other signal advantages
'which would result from such an establish-
mcnt would bo that of raising the gold to
1 .i . m .
iu par vaiuc in inai i erritory. A brancn
mint of the United-States at the great com
mercial depot on Iho west coast, would
convert into our own coin not only the
gold derived from our own rich mines, but
also the bullion and specie which our
commerce may bring from the whole west
coast of Central and South America.
The. west coast of America and the adja
cent interior embrace the richest and best
mines of Mexico, New Grenada, Central
America, Chili, and Peru. The bullion
and specio drawn from these countries,
and especially from those of Western'
Mexico and Peru, to an amount in value
of many millions of dollars, arc now an
nually diverted and carried by the ships j
of Great Britain to her own ports, to be
rccoincd orl used to sustain her National
Hank, and thus contribute to increase her
ability to command so much of the com
merce of the world. If n branch mint be
established at the great commercial point
A CHECK CPOX ALL VOCR
Do tbis, axo Liberty is safe."
Gen' I. Harrison.
VOLl'ME V, NU.MHEU 33.
SALISBURY, N. C, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 21, 1848.
eastern States. Our planting and farm
ing interests in every part of the Union
will be greatly benefited by' it As our
commerce and navigation are enlarged
and extended, our exports of agricultural
products and of manufactures will be in
creased ; and in the new markets thus
opened, they cannot fail to command re
munerating and profitable prices.
The acquisition of California and New
Mexico, tho settlement of the Oregon
boundary, and the annexation of Texas,
extending to the Ilio Grande, are results
which, combined, are of greater conse
quence, and will add more to the strength
and wealth of the nation, than any which
have preceded them since the adoption of
Hut to effect these great results, not on
ly California, but New Mexico, must be
brought under the control of regularly
organized governments. The existing
condition of California, and of that part
of New Mexico lying west of the Rio
Grande, and without the limits of Texas,
imperiously demand that Congress should,
at its present session, organize territorial
governments over them.
Upon the exchange of ratifications of
the treaty of peace with Mexico on the
thirtieth of m&y last, the temporary gov
ernments which had been established over
New Mexico and California by our mili
tary and naval commanders, by virtue of
the rights of war, ceased to derive any
obligatory force from that source of au
thority; and having been ceded to the
United States, all government and con
trol over them under the authority of
Mexico had ceased to exist. Impressed
with the necessity of establishing territo
rial governments over them, I recommend
ed the subject to the favorable considera
tion of Congress in my message commu
nicating the gratified treaty of peace, on
the sixth of July last, and invoked their
action at that session. Congress adjourn
ed without making any provision for their
government. The inhabitants, by the
transfer of their country, had become en
titled to the benefits of our laws and con
stitution, and yet were left without any
regularly organized government. Since
that time, the very limited power posses
scd by the Executive has been exercised
to preserve and protect them from the in
cvitable consequences of a state of an
archy. The only government which re
mained was that established by the mill
tary authority during the war. Regard
ing this to be a de facto government, and
that by the presumed consent of the in
habitants it might be continued tempora
rily, they were advised to conform and
submit to it for the short intervening pe
riod before Congress would again assem
ble and could legislate on the subject.
The views entertained by the Executive
on this point are contained in a communi
cation of the Secretary of State, dated
the seventh of Octoberdast, which was
forwarded for publication to California and
New Mexico, a copy f which is here
The small military force of the regular
array, which was serving within tho lim
its of the acquired territories at the close
of the war, was retained in them, and ad
ditional forces have been ordered there
for the protection of the inhabitants, and
to preserve and secure the rights and in
terests of the United btatcs.
?fNo revenue has been or could be col
lected at the ports in California, because
Congress failed to authorize tho establish
ment of custom-houses, or the appoint
ment of officers for that purpose.
The Secretary of the Treasury, by a
danger. I ; In the eyes of the world and of
posicriiv, now trivial and insignificant
will be all our internal divisions and strug
gles compared with the preservation of
this Union of the States in all its vigor
and with all its couptless blessings ! No
patriot would foment and excjtfr geogra
phical and sectional divisions. No lover
of his country would deliberately calcu
late me value of the Union. Future gen
erations would look in amazement upon
th? folly of such a course. Other nations
at the Present dav Would lnnfc nnnn it
with astonishment ; and such of them as
desire to maintain and perpetuate thrones
and monarchical or aristocratical princi-
1 . .i .... . .
pies, win view ii witn exultation and de
light, because in it they will see the ele
ments of faction, which they hope must
ultimately overturn our system. Ours is
the great example of a prosperous and
free self-governed republic, commanding
the admiration and the4 imitation of all
the lovers of freedom' throughout thr
world. How solemn, therefore, is the du
ty, how impressive the call upon us and
upon all parts of our country, to cultivate
a patriotic spirit of harmony, of good fel-
luwaiuj), oi compromise anu mutual con
cession, in the administration of the in
comparable system of government formed
by our fathers in the midst of almost inse-
perable difficulties, and transmitted to us.
with the injunction that we should enioy
its blessings and hand it down unimpaired
to those who may come after us !
In view of the high and responsible du
ties which we owe to ourselves and to
mankind, I trust you may be able, at your
present session, to approach the adjust
ment of the only domestic question which
seriously threatens, or probably ever can
threaten, to disturb the harmony and suc
cessful operation of our system.
The immensely valuable possessions of
IMcvv Mexico and California are already
inhabited by a considerable population.
Attracted by their great fertility, their
mineral wealth, their commercial advan
tages and the salubrityof the climate,
emigrants from the older States, in great
numbers, are already preparing to seek
new homes in these inviting regions.
Shall the dissimilarity of the domestic
institutions in the different States prevent
us from providing for them suitable gov
ernments f Ihese institutions existed at
the adoption of the constitution, but the
obstacles which they interposed were
overcome by that spirit of compromise
which is now I invoked. In a conflict of
opinions or of interests, real or imaginary,
between dilterent sections of our country,
neither can lustly demand all which it
character of their own domestic institulions as
they may deem wise and proper. Any and all
the States possess this right; and Congress can
not deprive ihem of it. The people of Georgia
might, if they chose, so alter their constitution
as to abolish slavery wilbin its limits ; and the
people of Vermont might so alter their consti
tution as to admit slavery within its limit?.
proprietors and purchasers. To do tbi?. U will
oe necessary to provide fur an immediate sur.
vey and location ofthe lot. If Congress should
deem it proper to dispose of the mineral lands,
they should be sold in small quantities at & fix.
ed miuimum price.
I recommend that survevor reneral omV
be authorized to bo established iu New Mexico
Hotn btates would possess the right ; though, and Califoruia, and provision made for survey
as all know, it is not probable that either would
It is fortunate for the peace and harmony of
the Union that this question is in its nature
temporary, andean only continue for the hricf
period which will intervene before California
and New Mexico may be admitted as States
into the Union. From the tido of population
now flowing into them, it is highly probable
that this will soon occur.
Considering tho several States and the citi
zens of tho several States as equals, and enti.
tied to equal rights under the constitution, if this
were an original question, it might well be in
sisted on that the principle of non-interference
is tne true doctrine, and that Congress could
ing and bringing the public lands into the mar-
ket at the earnest practicable pcri.nl. In dis
Ksiog of these lands, I recommend that the
right of pre-emption be secured, and liberal
grants made to the early emigrants who have
settled, or may settle upon them.
It will be important to extend our revenue
laws over these territories, and especially over
California, at an early period. There is alrea
dy a considerable coinmcrco with California,
and until ports of entry shall be established and
collectors appointed, no revenue can be received.
If these and other necessary and projer mea
sures bo adopted for the development of the
wealth and resources of New Mexico and Cal
ifornia, and reirular territorial governments be
not, in the absence of any express grant of pow- ! established over them, such will probably be
cr, interfere with their relative rights. tho rapid enlargement of our commerce and
Upon a great emergency, however, and un
der menacing dangers to the Union, the .Mis
souri compromise lino in respect to slavery was
adopted. The same line was extended further
west in the acquisition ofTexas. After an ac
quiescence of nearly thirty years in tho princi-
pie ot compromise recognized and established
by ihese nets, and to avoid the danger to the
Union which might follow if it were now disre
garded, I have heretofore expressed the opinion
tnat that line ot compromise should be extend
ed on tho parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty
navigation, and such the addition to the national
wealth, that the present generation may live to
witness the controlling commercial and mone
tary power ofthe world transferred from In
don and other European emporiums to the city
of New York.
Tho apprehensions which were entertained
by some of our statesmen, in the earlier periods
ofthe government, that our system was incapa
ble of operating with sufficient energy and suc
cess over largely extended territorial limits, and
that if this were attempted, it would fill to
minutes from the western boundary of Texas, i pieces by its own weakness, have been dissi
where it now terminates, to the Pacific ocean
This is the middle ground of compromise, up.
on which the different sections of the Union
majority ofthe people of every section of the
country, however widely their abstract opinions
on the subject of slavery may differ, would
cheerfully and patriotically acquiesce in it, and
peace and harmony would again fill our borders.
Tho restiiction north of the line was only
yielded to in the case of Missouri and Texas
upon a principle of compromise, made necessa
ry for the sake of preserving tho harmony, and
possibly the existence ofthe Union.
It was upon these considerations that at the
close of your last session, I gave my sanction to
pated by our experience. In the division of
power between the Stales and federal govern.
ment, the latter is found to operate with as much
may meet, as they have heretofore met. If, energy in the extreme as in the centre. Il
this be done, it is confidently believed a large as efficient in the remotest ofthe thirty States
mn.:.. T . I. - 1 - r l-.l t. L .L- 11..! S .1
which now compose ine union as u was in I no
thirteen States which formed our constitution.
Indeed, it may well be doubted whether, if
our present population bad been confined with.
in the limits ot tho original thirteen States, the
tendencies to centralization and consolidation
would not have been such as to have encroach,
ed upon tho essential reserved rights of the
States, and thus to have made the federal gov.
ernment a widely different ono practically, from
what it is in theory, and was intended to be by
its frame rs. So far from enterlainin; annre
the principle of the Missouri compromise lino, j hensions ofthe safety of our system by the ex
by approving and signing the bill to establish j tension of our territory, the belief is confidently
entertained that each new Slate gives strength
From a sincere desire to preserve the harmony ! and an additional guaranty lor the preservation
otthc Union and in deference for tho acts of , or the Union itself.
might desire to obtain. Each, in the true
spirit of our institutions, should concede
something to the other.
Our gallant forces in the Mexican war,
by whose patriotism and unparalleled
deeds of arms wc obtained these possessions
as an indemnity for our just demands a
gainst Mexico, were composed of citizens
who belonged to no one State or section of
our Union. They were men from slave-
holding and non-slavcholdirig States, from
my predecessors, I felt constrained to yield my
acquiescienco to the extent to which they had
gone in compromising this delicate and danger
ous question. But if Congress shall now re
verse tho decision by which the Missouri com
promise was effected, and shall propose to ex
tend tho restriction over tho whole territory,
south as well as north ofthe parallel of thirty
six degrees thirty minutes, it will cease to be a
compromise, and must bo regarded as an orig
If Congress, instead of observing the course
of non-interference, leaving tho adoption of their
In the pursuance of tho provisions ofthe thir
teenth article ofthe treaty of peace, friendship,
limits, and settlement, with the republic of Mex-
ico, and of tho act of July the 29th, 18 19, claims,
of our citizens against the Mexican republic, a
mounting, with tho interest thereon, to two mil.
lion twenty. three thousand eight Hundred and
thirty-two dollars and fifty-one cents, have been
liquidated and paid. There remain to be paid
of these claims, seventy-four thousand one hun
dred ninety. two dollars and twenty-six ceuts.
Congress at its last session having made no
provision for executing the fifteenth article of
" .1 :: . r. i. .. - it i i i
tho North and the Southfrom the East muu -a ri
. , .... rr,, ,, . , eu in a bill wmcn passed mc senate at your
in-arms and fellow-citizens of the same
common country, engaged in the same
common cause. When prosecuting that
war, they were brethren and friends, and
shared alike with each other common toils,
dangers, and sufferings. w Now, when their j the constitution, treaties, and laws ofthe Unit-
work is ended, when ncace is restored, and ! cd btates.
they return again to their homes, put ofTi
the habiliments of war, talio their places
in society, and resume their pursuits in
civil life, surely a spirit of; harmony and i
concession, and ol enual reerard lor tne
owndomcstic institutions to the people who may the treaty, by which the United States assume
inhabit these territories : or if, instead of ex
tending the Missouri compromise line to the
Pacific, shall prefer to submit tho legal and
constitutional questions which may aiise to the
upon that coast, a vast amount of bullion
and specie would flow thither to be re
coined, and nas's thence to New Orleans,
NeV VnrL- nnd other Atlantic cities. necessary arrangements for
The amount of our constitutional curren- provisions into effect.
cy at home would bo greatly increased,
wtiilo its circulation abroad would be pro
moted. It is well known to our merchants
trading to China and the west coast of
America, that great inconvenience and
loss are experienced from the fact that
our coins aro hot current at their par va
lue in thoso countries.
Tho powers of Europe, far removed
from the west coast of America by the
Atlantic ocean which intervenes, and by
a tedious and dangerous navigation a
round the southern cape of the continent
of America, can never successfully com
pete with the United States in the rich
&nd extensive commerce which is opened
to us at so much less cost by the acquisi
tion of California.
Tho vast importance and commercial
advantages of California have heretofore
I mained undeveloped by the government
ol tho country of which it constituted a
part. Wow that this fine nrovinee is a
part of our country, all the States of tho
Union.-some mora imme1intl ,i:
circular letter addressed to collectors
the cusfoms. on the seventh day of Octo- j rights of all and of all sections ofthe Union
bcr last, a copy of which is herewith trans- j ought to prevail in providing governments
milled. exercised all the power with which j for the acquired territories! the fruits of
he was invested by law. s j their common service. Thje whole people
In pursuance of the act of the four- ' 0f the United States and M every State
teenth of August last, extending the ben- 1 contributed to defray the expenses of that
efit of our post office laws to the people war ; and it would not be just for any one
of California, the Postmaster General section to exclude another from all parti
has appointed two agents, who have pro- ; cipation in the acquired territory. This
cecded, the one to California, and thcoth- would not be in consonance with the just
er to Oregon, with authority to make the j system of government which the framers
to make satisfaction for the "unqualified claims"
of our citizens against Mexico, to " an amount
not exceeding three and a quarter millions of
dollars," the subject is again recommended to
your favorable consideration.
The exchange of ratifications of the treaty
last session, an adjustment may be effected in with Mexico took place on the 30th May, 1318.
tbis mode. If the whole subject bo referred to Within one year after that time, the eommii
the judiciary, all pails of the Union should sioner and surveyor which each government
cheerfully acquiesce in the final decision of the ; stipulated to appoint, are required to meet at
tribunal created by the constitution for the set- j the port of San Diego, and proceed to run and
tlerncnt of all questions which may arise under mark the said boundary in its whole courso to
ine moutii oi tne kio nraro uei ione. ii win
be seen from this provision, that the period
Congress is earnestly invoked for the sake of within which a commissioner and surveyor of
the Union, its harmony, and our continued pros- the respective governments arc to meet at San
perity as a nation, to adjust at its present ses- Diego, will expire on the :i(Mh May, 1M9.
sion this, the only dangerous question which j Congress, at the clo.-o of its last tcsion,
lies in our path if not in some one of the ; made an nppropriaiin fir "the c&penscs of
modes suggested, in some other which may be runningand making the boundary line" between
satisfactory. ! 'he two countiies, but did not fix ihc amount of
In antieioalion ofthe establishment of recti- sa,nr-v wlHC" sho,,,u l,c paU to tl.p commission
i . . c
lar governments over tho acquired territories, a
ioint commission of officers ofthe army and na-
the season had so far aJjan '. ?
practicable for it', la proceed
of the next prng. j
In the month of October 1 1 :
ing communication was rcct itr ! ,
ernor of tho temporary goven.;
giving information ofthe enmi;
dian disturbances, and of tie t!
fenceless condition ofthe inli!
were immediately transmitted t
der of our squadron in lie Tad ,
to their assistance a part eft!.- t
that station, to fumih them w;
munition, and to continue to gi r
and protection as lire navy cou! ! -army
could reach tho country.
It is tho policy of humanity.
has always been pursued by t! I
to cultivate the gd will ,f ih
of this continent, and to restrain t!
ing war, and indulgiog in exec
means, rather than by Circe. Tl
have been done with the tribe i s
that territory been brought un ! r
mcnt of our laws at an earlier
suitable measures been adopted !
such as now exist in our intcrr
other Indian tribes within our ! ;
doubted. Indeed,the immediate :
of the existing hostility c( the Ir
gon is represented to hate been :
ofthe United "States in mAin- t
trifling compensation in such ar;
wanted, for tho country now ore
emigrants, which the Indians c! ii
which they formerly roamed.
This compensation had Lcm
them by the temporary govern
in Oregon, but its fulfilment U I !
ed from time to time, for near;
whilst those who mado it La 1 !
waiting (or Congress to clal!i
government over the country. 'I".
came at length distrudful of t!.-!.
and sought redress by plunder r
which nually led to the preset.! t.
few thousand dollars in suiulle
compensation (or tho country l
taken possession of by ourcr.u :
satisfied the Indians and Lave
war. A small amount properly
is confidently believed, would e
In this Indian war our fellow. r
egon have been compelled to t .'.
their own defence, havo pcrf :
military services, and been tuV
ses which have fallen heavily ;
Justice demands that protiflon
by Congress to compensate tier-
vices, anu to reiunu to them t!. - :
penses which they have incurrc '
I repeat the recommendation 1
iu iA;o"rcn. mat Drovmons i '
appointment of a suitable numV r
gents to reside among the triU s
that a small sum be appropriate! ;
agents to cultivate friendly re! v.'
If this be done, the nresence cf ..
tj force will be all that is ncc :
them in check and preserve c :
I recommend that several j r. '. ,
as regards tho tribes inhabiti: :
as. New Mexico, California, a:. '
region lying between our set!.':
souri and these possessions, as i'
tive means of preserving peace t
dersand within the recently ac;
The Secretary ofthe Trca
in his annual renort a hinhlr t:.-
ment of tho condition of tho l i:
The imports for the fiscal j c sr
30th or June last, were ofthe v
dred and fifiy-four million nine 1
enty.se ven thousand eight bun Its
six dollars ; of which the amr
twenty-one million one hunJn
t i . t t i
eigui inousana anu ten oour., i
dred and thirty-threo million ci,
forty-nine thousand eight hur.Ji
dollars in the country for dome
The value of the ei ports fur i
was one hundred and fifty-fujr
two thousand one hundred at. 1
lars, consisting of domestic pro '
ing to one hundred and iLiriy-t
hundred and four thousand t -twenty-one
dollars, and twet.'y
hundred and twentyeight iLoj
lars of foreign articles.
Tho receipts into the trca.
period, exclusive of Joans, &r:
nve minion lour ounureu ana t :
seven hundred and fifty dollar
cents, of which there waic'-m
ihirty-one million seven bun ! re I
thousand and seventy dollar
cents ; from sales ofpublic In'
and twei ty-cighl thousand ii !
ly-two dollars, and fifty-six cci.u
cellaneous and incidental .
dred and fiity-one thouianJ -dollars
and seven cents.
It will be perceived that t!
'nion,'6omo more immediately nnd di
jeetly than others, are deeply interested
tne snccdv devclonmcnt of its wi.t.
fcnd resources. No section of our rnn.
Jfy is more interested, or will be more
Itfn.f.l 1 .1 . t ...
-vuvmcu, man ine commercial, naviga-
and manufacturing interests of the1
The monthly line of mail steamers from
Panama to Astoria has been required to
"stop and deliver and take mails at San
Diego, Monterey, and ; dan r rancisco.
These mail steamers, connected by the
isthmus of Panama with the line of mail
steamers on the Atlantic between New
York and Chagres, will establish a regu
lar mail communication with California.
It is our solemn duty to provide, with
the least practicable delay, for New Mex
ico and California, regularly organized
territorial governments. The causes of
the failure to do this at the last session of
Congress are well known, and deeply to
be regretted. With the opening prospects
of increased prosperity and national great
ness which the acquisition of these rich
and extensive territorial possessions af
fords, how irrational it would be to forego
or to reject these advantages, by the agi
tation of a domestic question which is
coeval with the existence of our govern
ment itself, and to endanger by1 internal
strifes, geographical divisions, and heated
contests for political power, br for any
other cause, the harmony of the glorious
Union of our confederated States ; that
Union which binds us together as one
people, and which for sixty years has been
our shield and protection against every
ofthe constitution adopted;
vy has been ordered to proceed to the coast of
California and Oregon, for the purpose of mak
ing reconnoissances and a report as to the pro
per sites fur the erection of fortifications or
other defensive works on land, nnd of suitable
situations for naval stations. The information
which may bo expected from a scientific and
skillful examination of tho whole face ofthe
coast will be eminently useful to Congress, when
- a '
'1 he question is ueneveu io oe ramcr.au.Uau (. come to consi(Jer ,hc propriety of making In September last and took the southern route,
than practical, whether slavery ever can or would ; fnr lhpso ' liona, Sll,,;cfts. ,v the way of Santa Fc and river Cila, to Co
exist in any portion of the acquired territory,
even ii it were leu to me opinion oi mo siaye
holdinir States themselves. From the nature of
customs for the last fiscal year -
er and surveyor io ie apMiiiiei on ine pan or en nunareu anu uny.sevrn i.v
the United States. Il is desirable that the a- ly dollars and niuely.tix cfnU :
mnmil nf rom rr nsnlii.n M'l.iclt llmv tliflll r. lh! KrrplSrV nfllin tVfrtirr i
ceive should be nrescriled bv law and not left, i renort : and that tho a??rei"
- j - , . r:,
as at present, to executive discretion. j the same period from cuttonu, 1
Measures were adopted at the earliet prac cellaneous sources, also exec
ticable peri.nl to organize the "Territorial gov- j by the sum of five hundred nr. !
ernment of Oregon" as authorized by the act of' nd seven hundred and fifty '
the fourteenth of Aucut last. Tho governor 'c cents indicating, houcv
and marshal ofthe territory, accompanied by a j approach in ine estimate to t ,
I be expenditures during tr
ing on the 30th of June la f , i
the war and excluiive .f pajt:;
and interest (or the public tic! f.
small military, escort, left the Slate of Missouri
Proper defences on land will be necessary l,ornia' w"n ,nc l,l c, on OI rr
for the security and protection of our posses- ! .none of our vessels of war to their destination.
..1 , i I Iho rrnrprtior wae fiillv advifCU ol the fjreal im-
j ..i;ah. in mnfK iKn lariTPr s"ns ; andtne cstaoiisnmentoi navy.yarus, anu , h : . : ' . .... " ,
the climate and productions, in much the larger Lr.. ! portancc of his early arriral in the country, and
n I -I t if I L .. l f
li is conuuenuy ueneveu uc mj n-atu vrcg-m
in the latter part ofthe present month, or early
in the next. The other officers for the terri-
portion of it, it is certain ii could never exist ;
and in tho remainder, the probabilities are, it
would not. But however this may be, the ques
lion, involving, as il does, a principle of equali
ty of rights ofthe seperate and several States,
as equal co-partnera in the confederacy, should
not bo disregarded. j
In organizing governments over these. Terri
tories, no duty imposed on Congress by the
Constitution requires that they should legislate
on tho subject of slavery, while their power to
do so is not only seriously questioned, but de
nied bv many of ibe soundest expounders of that
nsttument. ! wnetner iongre u?gisiaio
a dock for the repair and construction of vesse
will be important alike, to our navy and com
mercial marine. Without such establishments,
every vessel, whether of the navy or ofthe mer
chant service, requiring repair, must, at great
expense, come round Cape Horn to one of our
Atlantic yards for that purpose. With such es
tablishments, vessels, it is believed, may be
built or repaired as cheaply in California as
upon the Atlantic coast. They would give
employment to many of our enterprising ship-
builders and mechanics, and
and enlarge our commerce
As it is ascertained that mi
or not iho people ofthe acquired territories, copper and quicksilver exist in New .Mexico
when assembled in convention to form State and California, and that nearly ull the lands
constitutions, will possess the solc and exclu- where they are found belong to the Unitei
ereatly facilitate ry.
in ill P:irffir- ! bavins been crant
. f rr Uer. services cou
- . .
, co, onicrs were is.
iri nower to determine for themselves wheth
er slavery shall or shall not exist within their
limits. If Congress shall abstain from interfer
ing with the question, the people of these Ter
ritories will be left free to adjtjst it as they may
think proper when they apply for admission as
States into the Union.
No enactment of Congress could restrain the
leople of any ol the sovereign States of the
Union, old or new, north or south, slave-hold-inor
non slave holding, from determining
lory have proceeded by sea.
In the month of May last I communicated in
formation to Congress that an Indian war had
broken out in Oregon, and recommended that
authority be given to raise an adequate number
of volunteers to proceed without delay to the
assistance of our fellow-citizens in that terrilo-
The authority to raie such a force not
ed by Congress, as soon as
Id be dispensed with in Mexi-
ued to the regiment of mount.
ed riflemen to proceed to Jefferson Harracks, in
M issouri, and to prepare to march to Oregon as
soon as the necessary proviion could be made.
Shortly before it was ready to march, it was
arrested by ihc provision ofthe art passed by j
Congress on the last day of tho last session, j
which directed that all the non commissioned
precious metals, for the use ofthe United States; officers, musicians, and privates ol that regi-
IIIVJIll Ul V W . W . - F
States, it is deemed important to the public in
terest that provision be made for a geological
and m'meralogical cxaminatian of these regions.
Measures should bo adopted to preserve the
mineral lands, esnecialfv such as contain the
or if brought into market, lo seperate them from
the farming lands, and dispose of them in such
manner as to secure a largo return of money
to the treasury, and at the same tim lead lo
the developments of their wealth by individual
should UJK3U their application, be entitled to be
discharged. The effect of this provision was to
disband tho rank and file of the regiment ; and
before their places could be filled by reciuits,
million eight hundred and c:
hundred and seventy dollars :.
It is estimated that the tr cc'
sury for the fiscal year rndir. '
ol June, 1819, Including i!.
treasury on the first of July li
the sum of fifty-seven miiiio:) ;
sand nine hundred and iity
ninety cents ; of which thirty
dollars, it is estimated, will Ij '
toms; three million f dnhr i
the public lands ; and orvj r,,'. .
thousand dollars from rni?ct 1! -.
dental sources, including tlo ;
loan, and the amount pai l m
tho treasury on account cf mi!
in Mexico, and the sales f a -and
other nubile property rn. .'
1 m m m
ry for the ue ol the gorerm:,
nation ofthe war, and twer.ty
dred and ninety-five thouia;. 1
thirty-five uVdlars and thirty
already negotiated, iudu :.
funded, which, together wi;!i t
treasury on the first of Jul j h
Tho expenditures for lie
ing the necessary payment
principal n(l intercut of ti
the princtpil and intcicil cf'.: