Twin.'! Hie Walclmiaii. -
I , bK-ripiio P yar, Two Dollars payable in
au.1 My ct"- w'11 chnrgfJ.
t'r taca aatHequew insernoa. toun ororm i-u trru
Jj per ci. hitter than lhvse rat-. A rbertd Uetluc
imn to those who advertise by the year.
trmi lo thrKJUorf must b post paid.
TV Senate and House of
Representatives oftjte United States:
It is confidently believed that we have
Ircn saved from their effect by the salu-
xty operation of the constituiionif . Men
its.. It is certain, that if the ' wenly lour
lillions of specie imported info the conn-
V,during Ihe fiscal year ending on me
urticth of June, 1817, had gone into the
inks, ns to a great extent it. must have
one- it Would, in the absence of this ss-
m, have heen made the basis of augmen
1 ( bank paper issues, probably to an a
lount not less than shty or seventy mil
ins of dollars, producing, as an inevita
'pi 'consequence of jan inflated currency,
xtravagant prices for a time, and wild
icculation, which must have been follow-
I, on the reflux to Europe, the 'succeed-
yraTrofo mucb of tliat specie, by the
roMration oi me nusiness oi the country,
.espension of the banks, and most cx-
rT-. 1.1. r -i
nstve oiuiKrupicies. uccurrmjr, as ujis
BRUNEI! & JAMES,
Editors 4 Proprietors.
A CHECI CPOS ALL YOCB
because, ibis w.hiM produce .
rd drain upon n treasury, to i.
Stitrrrst. and i eiij.-r aum-titi-d ?
ry. The operation and htc; i;
whole system were, to r 'nco:u. g
travagvil expenditures, and tin.
the pub.ie patronage, nnd mii
Do THIS, JL.XD LlBCATV IS SAFE."
VOLUME V, NUMBF.R nt.
SALISBURY, N. C, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 28, 1848.
splendid government a! the cx-:
aud impoverished pcopje.
It is manifest that this f .'.
taxation and expendi'ures, Lad i"
prevail. rtiuM ..in hate convtM'. i
"Mt .f llie Vnuixi. in!rn.I,-d by V
a vUn. ani iiw.e
Mte, mU( ,,r fof c,
ami iJur-ea nh , fiMr jvciixi!
chiefly to our f..tri2n afTVirs it '
eniiret.dpiiing ibe tiutc.-. ifi.
rihn, and lh p-p!P of iheir j :
CdiitM! in ihe aiiiiiniti&:'i(.n , -
ces, hut rnst Mnally in the political stru-!e rticnt. In hi manner the? w'...
of 1832-3 '4. in onpoj-iiion to ihe public w ill character of the 'omnmrm ,
withdrawn from Mexico, andjthe volun- j enue may be expects! fr(m postages ; but j which existed immediately after the close lie opinion, and to act in coi.crn in ra-s ,f
teers and that portion of the regular army t the connected line fif.m.New York to i of the war with Great Britain in 1815. and emergency. Th corrupt power of ,u:h h po.
eiipaed for the war were disbanded, j Chagres, and ihencc across the "isthmus I the occasion is deemed to be a proper one Ijtieal engine is no loi.gfr a matter of pxuU.
Orders'have been issued for stationing the to Oregon, cannot fail to exert a beneficial to tab a rptrnsneet of ihi mpmires of lion having been displayed in numerous install-
forces of our permanent establishment i influence, not now to be estimated, on the j puMic policy yhich followed that war.
at various nositionsin our extended coun- 1 interests of th
try, where troops may be required. Ovv- ! navigation, and currency of the United departure from our earlier policv. The V resen,eU u)' a i and patnot.c l rest- not by an-ani-ndment ,.f ,Le c.
in-to the remoteness of some of these States. As an important part of the sys-i enlargement of the powers of the federal Rut the bmlf ,vu l , , 'u r,t, , . '""g l an unxvarrant.il :
pos.tions the detachments have not yetjtem. I recommended to your favorable ; government by co Tr''
reached their destination., Notwilhstand- i consideration the establishment of the j ed, was not warranted by any just jnter- jTd iten r mUUons o do lar, exid dut I it ?. Tl
mg the extension of the limits of our coun- j proposed fine of steamers between New potation of the constitution. Yfew years tlU!! ZT X' Z clu vT
ry ami the forces required in the new Orleans and Vera Cruz. It promises after the close of that war, a series of authors of ih- new ,ysem did not regard i:, ,nv. a., J hi, enabled ihe fc- u ' ,
territories, it is confidently believed that i the most happy resultsin cementing friend- measures was adopted which, united and speedy payment as esseuiiaf m tho public pr.s. riched. and who seek to wield'th- ;
our present , military establishment is j ship between the two republics, and in j combined, constituted what was termed peruy, but looked unon its continuance a no or of tie country, t c!erei c an 1
suilicient for all exigencies, so long as our j extending reciprocal benefits to the trade 1 by their authors and Tivocatesthc Ame- atin:l evil. WhiUt the debt exi,ied. it fir. Were ih t ate collect ej bv a
pe.i nit relations remain unUlSturDeU. ana manufactures of both. rican svstem ' nihedalimpnt to ihe national bank, and tender- the neonh. as is lht? ma in
ould have done, at a perioJ when the
jountry was engaged in a foreign war;
hrn considerable loans of specie were
i-Tiired for -distant disbursements, and
hen lhv4anUs, the fiscal agents of the
jvernm'nt, and the depositories of ' its
otiey, were suspended, the public credit I still remain in the hands of disbnrsin
ustjhaiye sunk, and many millions, of ; officers and those who were encased in
ullnrs,.H$ was the case during the war the collection of these moneys. After the
1812, must have been sacrificed in dis- ! proclamation of peace, no further dis-
. . -
This operated ii hnrrnnny with ihe next
branch of the new Mtein, which w-a a hih
protective tariff. This wa lo affjid h:uuM
to favored c!ases and partifo! ir pursuitji. at
the expense of all other?. A proposition to tax
the whole people for taw purpose, of enriching a
few, was too monstrous lo be openly made.
The scheme was, therefore, veiled under the
tem xvas rej.tc
ceptinn by tome' of cur aMet
l Imni doubted its Cont'i'l.li .-.
p-diency, w hile other lTite I
its branrho. a flgran! and ca
tion of ihe constitution. I
That a nai:oual bank, a pr :
ied nt to raise the revenue i,
;Totectio:i merely, internal im; r
l lie dMribiitioji of the r)riKec !'
Of the amount of military contributions" The report of the Postmaster General I The "in trod uction ofliie; new policy was pc 'lic'e'ed taxation necessary to the. amount could not occur,
collected in Mexico, the sum of seven ' will make known to you the operations of for a time favored bylheondition of the ol ,hu i,,u,rs'. exceeding seven millions of duS- The wh.,le y
hundred and sixty nine thousand six hun- that department for the past year. ; country ; bv the heavy debt which had
died and fifty dollars was applied towards It is gratifying to find the revenues of i been contracted during the war ; by the
the payment of the first instalment due the department under the rates of postage depression of the public credit ; by the
under the treaty with Mexico. The fur- now established by law, so rapidly in- deranged siate of the finances and the cur-
t her sum of three hundred and sixty nine creasing. The gross amount of postages ! rency ; and bv the commercial and pe-
dollars and thirty cents has been paid into during the last fiscal year amounted to ' cuniary embarrassment which extensive-
the treasury, and unexnended bal anees four' million tlirnp ti 1 M'l, L.. l..
v i , , -" M w.. mi v w iiuiiuivvi cinu sciriin : in i , mil i. i iirsc c c iiijl iiitr li 1 1 1 v
one thousand and seventy-seven dollars, : causes which led to its establishment.
exceeding the antinal average reeeivetl The events of the War wild f!rPMt Hrit. ulausible. but d!nivr orlil nf a mcntnrrt lo the ntiblie 1:i:id rm m.w.irr.. x,
for the nine years immediately preceding , ain, and the e mbarrassments which" had protect " home industry ;" and many uf our rant of the constitution, would, u;
the DaSS.If O nf tbp nnt nf tho ' tl.Ii.,1 vl' nltombiil ile nt'.iciinnli.in 1.. T, , ,t nennle IVPrp f'.ir n I i hip lixt In livlivw I K r t n el run ilirn1 i..n loom l, t ...
unfs upon loans, and.upon tb deprecia- bursements were made of any unexpended , March. 1815. bv the sum of six thousand ! minds nf mnv of our ,t,.mPn .u :m. tax which in the main f. II uin UUr. was for matkable that no one i fthese ,n
rd paper currency which the govern-i moneys arising from this source. The ! four hundred and fiftv-thrPP dollars nnA : nrpin tUf H.r,imilllt he benefit of the laborer who naid it. This ing such momentous rrnsrmiet.c
ent would have been compelled to use. i balances on hand were directed to be paid exceeding the amount reel ed fnp tb ! st rnim pnruirrli anrl itt tn wiM Wt? t ' ranch of ihe ?Vslem involved a par1nprhip be- pu ly anv cxprp "rant ff power
Under the operations o the : constitution- into the treasury, and individual claims year ending the thirtieth of June, 1847.w sources successfully in great emergencies
treasury, not a dollar has been lost by on the fund will remain unadjusted until? bv the sum of four hundred nnd nv.ni,.'l nnd Pnn,.;lN. Qr r.,... .u.,i,i
c depreciation of the currency. - 1 be Congress shall authorize their settlement t five thousand one hundred and eiffhtvfonr be concentrated in its l,nd Tbi i.
dollars. creased power they did not seek to obtain
The expenditures for the year, exclud- ! by the legitimate and prescribed mode
i;ins required to prosecute the war with
exico were negotiated by the Secreta-
and payment. These claims are not con
siderable in number or amount.
in. ion. .-o inie oi mem is " in-,
ing necessart and proper for tin
I recommend to your favorable consid-, ing the sum of ninety four thousand six an amendment of the constitution-but
of the 'I'ieasury above par, realizing a ;
. . rni . w . n I w j - - mm m w. iiiv xviwtu.wia u b W fill 111 It m II
(rge premium to the government. Ihe erat.on the suggestions of the Secretary hundred and seventy two dollars, allowed i by construction. They saw governments i portion to "fc
retraining eflect of the system upon ihe of Wr and the Secretary of the Navy in by Congress at its last session to Individ. ! in the old-world based nnnn difT.rnf nr. I Le,L .h r
; hV 4 rfcyril tn IpffKhUinn nn tin unhioAt . ' i : . i t i . I .
.1 S t.-
i ween me government and tne lutorcil classes
the former receiving the proceed of the lax
imposed on articles impoited, and the latter ihe ihe specific powers" granted by tl.
increased price of similar arti- les produced at The authority under which il has !
h4me, caused by such tax. It is obvious that ed to justify rarh if ihem U derive
ihe portion to be received by the favored classes ences and constructions ofihe con v
would, as a general rule, be increased tn pro. 1 ils letter arid its whola object n: '
ie increase of the rates oftax im- not warrant. Is il to k concent
diminished as those rate? were re- immense powers would have been
I - . - . .... . . . .
miencics to excessive paper issues' bv 4 regard to lecrislatinn on this KtihWf ' .nori;mi. .u i ,i i . ...... . , . , j . .. ... ..... .. : ... .-
, . . . , . o--- - - j- -t-- mil viniuiama, ouu uiuiuuiiig iiiu ah in oi , iifi ui stuieiy, ano so consuiuicu as lo ; uuccn io me revenue stanaarn requireu oy me irauiprs o me constitution 10 in-r
the government from Our Indian relations are presented in a j one hundred thousand five hundred dob throw the whole power of nations into the 1 wants of the government. The rates required and doubtful constructions T
fplet. heretofore recommend, il, are again the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in
resented for your favorable consideration, person, by which ail their land in the State
Id my message of the sixth of July last, I of Wisconsin being about four millions
nnsmitting to,( ongress the ratified trea- ! of acres has been epded to thn United
of peace witli Mexico, I recommended
tie adoption of measures for the speedy
ivment of the public tlebr. In reitera
rij that reconimenlatiiu,l refer you to.
,e considerations presented in that mes-
nvy losses, and thousands of our busi- most favorable view in, the report from ! Urs and naid for the services of the lin I hands of a few. who taed n,l enn.mtd
s men from bankruptcy and ruin. The ' the War Department. The wisdom of i of steamer hMwepn Urpmpn n, xt. ! th- m-.w .;i,ftt nn.;K-,t;o. ... :
isdom.ot the system has been tested, by j our policy in regard to the .tribes within York, amounted to four million nn b.,n. 1 straint. In that nrmn.pm.nt
c rxpertencof the last two years r and ! our limits, is clearly manifested by their 1 dred and ninety eight thousand eight hun- ceived the strength of nations in war con-
1 tie aicure o soun.i policy that it ; improved and rapidly improving condi- ' dred and forty five dollars, which is less sisted. There was also something fasci- ;
ould remain undisturbed. Ihe modifi- i tion. ; ,Bn,i r... .u t:.,.. ,u i i .i: i .',
. i ! i i : cininc; ioi iiju 1 1 ii tr ii'iiuii in nit- trtsr, iu.ur, nnu uispiay oi ;
tions in some; of tlie details of this mea- A most important treat v with the. Me- ! vnn
. . mf - - - v v t. j v a a w i i 1 1 i . iiiv oih.ui.1 wiui iiiiii 1111,11 i nr. v ri I : . t . c- t
Tf, involving none of its essential p.in- ' nomonies has been recently negotiated bv ! hundred thousand se.vo.n hnndrpd nd Inr. from th toil nf tb, Mw,i, , nreny ceattng a necessity kcetng up a
' - f ----- - - - w w x m jm mva v c i 11 w v t iiiiniiiii.i. - . . . . . i I il. ij . i ....1.
ty eight do Mars. ; i he authors of the system drew their ideas ry was to jmerpose artificial restricti.ins upon
I he mail routes, on the thirtieth day of of political economy from what they had the natural course of tho business iind'trado of
June last, were one hundred and sixty ; witnessed in Europe, and particularly in the country, and to advance ihe interests of
three thousand two hundred and eiffht Great Britain. Thev had viewed the ennr. lar?re ranitali.-l.s and monom.liits. at the emen.se
States. This treaty will be submitted to ; miles in extent being an increase during mous wealth concentrated in few hands, of the great mas of the people, who were tax
the Senate for ratification at an early i the last year ot nine thousand three hun- and had seen the snlendor of the over- ed increase their wealth.
period of your present session. dred and ninety miles. The mails were grown establishments of an aristocracy -Another branch ofthis svstcrn was a compre
Within the last four years, eight impor- transported over them, during the same which was upheld by the res'rioiive poli
tant treaties have been negociated with time, fortv one. million tupk-n tlmnsan,! ev. ThpHnn-nt i( Im.L- ,lu n nnnn ib..
f 111 Its support. 1 he public debt, in- ! diflerent Indian tribes, and at a cost of one fivt. hundred and se.ventv nine miles r noorer classes of the Rnolisb rwu.nlMiinn
'uJing that authorized to be negotiated, million eight hundred and ftfrty two thou- 1 making an increase of transnortation for unon whose dailv and vearlv labor the
i sand dollars : Indian lands to the amount the year of two million one hundred and great establishments they so much adm'tr
! of more than eighteen million fi ve hundred : twenty four .thousand, six hundred and ed were sustained and supported. They
' thousand acres, have been ceded to the ; eighty miles, whilst the 'expense was less failed to perceive that the scantily fed
United States; and provision has been than that of the previous year by four and half clad operatives were not cvnly in
; made for settling in the country west of j thousand two hundred and thirty live dol- abject poverty, but were bound in chains
i the Mississippi the tribes which occupied ;irs. ; of oppressive servitude for the benefit of
i pursuance ot exislmi? mvs. mtk mr n.
tig trsury notes, amounted at that
me to sixty-live million seven hundred
d scvt-nlv-rieht thousand four hurulrrd
ml. fifty dollars and forty one cents.
Funded stock of the Uuited Stages, a-
lounting to about hall a million of dol-
lrs. has been purchased as authorized
)' jaw, smci that period, and the public
t'l has thus been reduced : the details
Jjf ivhicJi will be presented in the annu
""111 report of the Secretary of Treasury.
The estimates of expenditures for the
rxl fiscal year, submitted by the Secre
irjfof the treasury, it is believed will be
Ti(le fdr all necess'ary purposes. If the
ppropriations made by , Congress shall
this large extent of the public domain.
The title to all the Indian lands within
the several States of our Union, with the
exception of a few small reservations, is
now extinguished, and a vast region opened
for settlement and cultivation.
The, accompanying report of the Secre-
j tary of the Navy gives a satisfactory
exhibit of the operations and condition of
that branch of the public service.
! A number of small vessels suitable for
The increase of tlie mail transportation favored classes, who were the exclusive
within the las? tin -re veais has been five objects of the care of the government.
million three hiiin!ru md seventy eight
thousand three hundred and ten miles,
whilst the expenses were riluced four
hundred and fifty ix i m.sar.d se.ven hun
dred and thirty ;ht dollar-? m iking an
increase of service at the rate of fifteen
per cent., and a reduction in the expenses
erf more than fifteen per cent.
During the past year thereave been
It was not possible to reconstruct socie
ty in the United States upon the Europe
an plan. Here there was a written con
stitution, by which orders and titles were
not recognised or tolerated. A system of
measures Wtas therefore devised, calcula
ted, if not intended, to withdraw power
gradually and silently from the States and
the mass of the people, and by construe
to produce a sufficient revenue for tho ordinary tended' to confer them on tl.c C: l
expenditures f government, for becessaiy pur. i menl, it is but reasonable to cm;!
poses, were not likely to give to ihe private would have been done by plain n:
partners in this scheme profits j.'jlncient to sat- . cal grants. This was not d.eie ; 1.
isly their cupidity ; and hence a variety of ex- . lruciure of which the .merica:i r'
pedients and pretexts were resorted lo for the sisted. was reared on no other or !
purpose ol enlarging tin expei).i;iires, and nation man lorccu implications a;. :
of power which its authors as; n
deduced by construction from the c
But it has been urgeJ that the t:
which constituted so essential a Irs
combined ?yiem of measure, na
measure, and that its constitute n i'.
previously sanctioned, because a In:
chartered in 1701, and had rerri v.: 1
signature of President Washing',
fads will show the. jut weight 'to
precedent shoild bts eulilled a 1
the question of constitutionality."
(J rent division of ''opinion up :i t
existed in Congress. It is well '
President Washington entertainc 1 i
both as lo ihe constitutionality nt; 1
of ihe measure; and while iho III
hiuyfor his official approval or 'i
great were ihese. doubt, that ho r-' (
opinion in writing" of ihe member
iuct to aid' him in arriving at a (!. !
cabinet jiave their opinion, and v.
upon the subject (leneral llami'i
it! exceed the amount estimated, the i entering the mouihs of rivers were judi- employed, under contracts with the Post tion to annroximate. our government to
rnu? 111 uie iieauiy iu oe suiiicieni 10 , ciousty purcuaseu uuriugiue war, anu gave uitice department, two ocean steamers in
nay an tne expenses 01 me government; reat einciency lo tne squauron in me conveying the mails monthly between
hav oil the next insfa merit ot three
iillions of dollars to Mexico, which will
rt a " t
UI UU on the thirtieth ot Aluv next '.and
ill a considerable surplus will remnin,
hich fchoidd be nnnlied to tbo further
Jnrchase of the public stock and reduc-
t of the debt. Shouhl en amed annro-
riittions be niade. the necessarv consc-
Jence will be. to postpone the payment
the debt. 1 hough our debt, as compa
J with that of most other 'nations, is
$111. it is our true policy, and in harmo-
fv with the gelTttrs" of our in-slit uti- nx.
lM M we should present to the world the
ii' ...i i . V.. ' i i-
nf T'f.'l'vciawie oi a grttai repuouc, posses-
fig vast, resources anil wealth, wliolly
tfrnpt from" public '..indebtedness. This
ould add still more ,to our strength, and
ve to Us a still more commanding posi-
oti among the nations of the earth.
he public expenditures should be eco
the European models, substituting an aris
toeraov of wealth for that of orders and
Gulf of Mexico. On the return of peace,! New York and Bremen, and one, since titles,
when no longer valuable for naval pur- October last, performing '.semi-monthly 7 . , n . , .. . .,
poses, and liable to constant deterioration, scrvice between Charleston and Havana; . Without rcfiect.ng upon the dissimilar-
they were sold, and the money placed in , and a contract has been- made for the ty of our instituttons. nd of the condi-
t i . c .i r -i "on of our people. Mm those ot L.urope,
thetieasur. : transportation of the Pacific mails across . .' ' . ... c. ..
. , , , , L n ' they conceived the v.r. i idea ot building
1 in? number ot men in the naval ser- me ismmus irom onagresio l anama. -
vice atuhoned bv law during the war. ' Under the authority given to the Secre
tary of the. Iavy, three ocean steamers
have been constructed and sent to the
Pacific, and are expected to enter upon
the mail service between Panama and
Oregon, and the intermediate ports, on
... -mr as f t 1
hensire scheme ot internal impi overnents, capa
ble of indefinite enlargement, and snlhvienl to
swallow up as many millions annually as could
be exacted from ihe foreign commerce of , the
country. This was a convenient and necessa
ry adjunct of the protective tarifi. It was to be
the great absoibenl of any surplus which might
at any lime accumulate in the treasury, and of.
the taxes levied on the people, not for necessa
ry revenue purposes, hut for the avowed ohjct
"f affording protection to the favored plasses.
Auxiliary to the same end, if it was not an
essential part ofthe system it-elf, wasthe scheme
which, at a later period, obtained, for distribut
ing ihe proceeds of ihe sales of the public lands
among the Slates. Other expediei.is weiede
vised to take money out ofthe treasury, and pre
vent its coming in from any other souice than
the protective tariff. ; The authors and support,
ersofthe system were Ihe advocates of the
largest expenditures, whether fr necer-sary or
useful purposes or not, because the 'trger ihe
expenditures the greater was the prrtext for
high taxes in the. form of protective duties.
These several measures were sustained by
popular names and plau-ible arguments, by
which thousand were deluded. The hank was
favor of, and Mr. Jefferson and Mr.
being opposed to ihe constitutional;' v
diency of tho bank. Il ij well !.'
that President Washington retai;
fiom Monday, the fourteenth, wheu r
seated to him, until Ffidxy, the v. '
February being the last nnr:ir-:
him by the constitution to delibrat",
finally yielded lo it his reluctir::
gave il Ids signature. It ictta!.i :
a ihe twenty-thiid of February
day after the bill was presented in
arrived at no atisfa-tory cone:
represented to le an indispensable fiscal agent that day he addressed a no'e to (
has been reduced by
the maximum fixed .for the peace estab
lishment. Adequate squadrons are. main
tained iti the several quarters of the globe
I .'...- L L L :
wnere experience nas snow,, ne.r servi- urego... tm. .u uunmru, kJn exerting vast in-
c s may be most usefully employed ; and the l.rst of January next, and a fourth has , flupnce the opprations of trade,
tbe naval service was never in a contii- .been engaged oy mm lor me service, ue-
up in the United States a system similar
to that which they admired abroad. Great
Britain had a national bank of large cap.
ital, in whose hands was concentrated the
controlling monetary and financial power
of the nation ; an institution wielding al-
1 t ion of higher discipline or greater efficien
cy. 1 invite attention to the recommendation
I ofthe Secretary ofthe Navy on the sub
ject of the marine corps. The reduction
ot the corps at. the end of the war required
i that four officers of each of the three low
d those designated were necessarily more than. the expenditures
smicai, and be confined to such necessa- : i i.i u .r .i c .u ..ir.
I- kW. i i , - er griiues auuuiu ucuiui) icu nuui uic iuwa.
r. nnurl n am l.. ..,.,1, ... , l. ... r 11
U . , ' ; ,vu,u ,,l'V' A board of officers made the selection
. I t j utiiii- i i 11 vi nn ui nr. 11 .r nti
VMiitely demanded should be postponed,
("nj the payment ofthe public debt at the
farliekt practicable period should be a
"ftfdinal principle of our public policy.
For the reason assigned in my last an-
Ual message, I repeat the recommenda
'ion that a branch of ibis mint nf the II-
'itrd States be established at ihe city of
cw i ork. The importance of this mea-
a.t.1- .1- II . I ..
f. " ,s greatly increased oy me acquisi
tween Havana and Chagres ; so that a
regular monthly mail line will be kept
up after that time between the United
States and our territories on the Pacific.
Notwithstanding this great increase in
the mail service, should the revenue con
tinue to increase the present year as jt
did in the last, there. will be received near
four hundred and fifty thousand dollars
dismissed, but without any alleged fault.
1 concur in opinioh with the Secretary.
that the service would be improved by re
ducing the number of landsmen, and in
creasing the marines. Such: a measure
would justify an increase of the number
These considerations have satisfied the
Postmaster General that, with certain
modifications of the act of 1845, the rev
enue may be still further increased, and
a reduction of postage made to the uni
form rate of five cents, without an inter-
upon all me operation?
and upon the policy of the government it
self. Great Britain had an enorous pub
lic debt, and it had become a part of her
public policy to regard this as a 'public
blessing.' Great Britain had also a re
strictive policy, which placed fetters and
burdens on trade, and trammelled the pro
ductive industry of the mass of the na
tion. By her combined system of policy,
the landlords and other property holders
were protected and enriched by the enor-
mous taxes which were levieu upon me
labor ofthe country for their advantage.
Imitating this foreign policy, ihe first step in
establishing the new system in the United States
was the creation of a national barrk. Not fore-
for ihe government ; was lo equalize exenangs,
and to regulate and furnish a sound currency,
always and every where of uniform value. The
protective tariff was to give employment tu 'A
meiioan labor" at advanced prices; was to pro.
tect home indus'ry," and furnish a steady
market for tl.e larne r. lutein il improvement
wer" to bring trade into every .neighhui hood
and enhance the value ofevery man's pp-peity.
The distribution ofthe land money wa to en
rich the States, finish their public woiks, plant his action was had upon it, wet
counted inclusive, then ihe tim
itton, in wtnen h ii.lorms mm it. .
was presented to me by the jo'u.l c
Congress at 1 '2 o'clock on Mr.! i
teenth instant ;" and fie request
"to what precise period, by leg I
of ihe constitution, can hn I'reI !
in hi possession, 1efore It beef, -,
ihe lapse of ten days." If the pr.;
lion was, that the diy on whi 'i i
presented tolhe President, nnd I'.e :
schools ihioughout thir borders, and relieve
them from taxation. But the fact, that for ev
ery dollar takn out of the treasury for ihese
ohjerts a much larger sum was tran-Vrred horn
the pockets ofthe people to ihe favored cla-ses,
was carefully concealed, as was also the ten
dency if not th ultimate design ofthe system lo
build up ail aristocracy of wealth, to control the
masses of society, and monopolize the political
power of ihe country.
The several branches of this system were o
intimately blended together, that in iheir oper
ation each sustained and strengthened the others.
Their joint operation was, lo add new burdens
of taxa ion and to encourage a largely increas
' ed and wasteful expenditure of public money.
It was tho interest ofthe hank that the revenue
! collected and the dislxirsements made by ihe
lT I ftoh Ofthe rich mines ofthe nrecious metal
l"' V....1H ' i . j
tkl"r vv l,,x,co! HUU' uaiuornia, ana espe
.ifl FUlly In the latter.
M I I ! I rarvo.t J.i .!.... 1 r.....
i en, int. i if coiiiiiieiiuaii'Mi, iiririuiuo
pade, in favor? of the gradual ion and
euuction ol price of such of the public
miUJ HO liavt! DPpn lnrr vl in ll.a
tket, and hKve remained unsold, and
a taVOr Of extending the rights nf nro.
h.rflW11011 t0 acVrtl settlers on the unsur
rpl iyed lands.
.ii i i . i.
ii1 II ln' rnnliliAn nnrl nnurali.. ' i- .1
I w ,wii uuu wi'i.inuuiSS "jl me
jrny, and the ktate of other branches of
amount, the greater would be ih bank profits
by its use. It was the interest of the fivored
classes, who weie enriched by ihe prolertire
taritr, lo have the rates of that protertion as high purchseii Sortnejse t me g.n- ,
, '.aa;i.!-. f..r it.r. hi O.er those rate, ihe act of the la?t session of Cong re -
a, , 1 . U
rrr:ilpr Willi hi be their advantage. I' uas the
... . L
. i i .i i .mvrM.m.ni shrui ie tare. oecause. oeiri" me
j w " . , i i i .. i. seein l ne oanerous power anu counurss r us ... o Q , . .
of officers to the extent of the rednetion ference with the principle, which has been se,V , .. ...:i ... dw,mrv of ihe nblic money, ihe larger the
. . . ..... i . il ,1 1 . , r,.-.,l m.. WHICn SUC II ail insUlUilUH uiiiziii email wn j - i
by dismissal.and still the corps would have , constantly aim p.uj. c.u.u. w cmj nof erceivin lhe twnnt.xioi which it
fewer officers than a corresponding num- king that department sustain itseh. djgned to form ilPlvveen the hank and
ber of men in the army. A well digested cheap postage system tj,e 0herbianches ofthe miscalled "American
The contracts for the transportation of is tne "cst means of diffusing intelligence ?yStem," but feeling ihe embarrassments of ihe
the mail in steamships convertible into among the people, and is of so much im- treasury, and of the business of ihe country,
war steamers, promise to realize all the portance in a country so extensive as that consequent upon the war, sorne of our states,
benefits to our commerce and to the navy of the United States, that I recommend to men who had held different and sounder news
which were anticipated. The first stea- vour favorable consideration the sugges- were induced to yield their scruples, and, in-
,i !' . i . i . il,a IWtmnctpr Heneral for its deed, settled convictions o its unconstitutional-
mer tussecured to the government was tions ot the 1 ostmaster uenerai ior us oeeu, i .
in, January. ll,8. There are improvement. KZU S' mi U
IIUW sricii iiiivi ,11 aiKHllt:i Cell inn v nUlUIHj; tail icmiu iuiy uu.iuiu .i..0iv.uw
will, propably, be not less than seventeen of our country, and prevent us from as
afloat. . While this great national advan- suming and maintaining the first rank
tage is secured, our social and commercial among nations, but a disregard ofjhc ex
within which it would he comp-t "
return il to I he Ilou-e in whir-h
iiih his objections, would expire
the twen .fouitli of i'ebruxry. (
ton on ihe sam djy returned ;ri
which he state : ire it As ni y
you hare ten days exclusive cf l'
the bill was delivered lo yu. :-.
hence, in ihe present case, if it i '
Fridiy. ii will be in lime." By
lion, which the President adoj.tr-.!
another day for declaration, and it
til lhe twci.ty-fifih .f February t;
ihe bill ; ih'i aff uding conclu-iv ;
had at Inst obt lined hti own con--not
without great and almost in i,
cuJty. Additional light has been i
up.in lhe serious dimbta which hi
subject, amounting at nnf lime . t
that il was his1 .duty b withhold '
fiorn the bill. .This is found am :
script papers of Mr. Madison, n
relief. It was a most unfortunate error, as me
subsequent history and final catastrophe of that
dangerous and corrupt institution have abun-
The bank, with its numerous
intercourse is increased and promoted perienc of the past, and recurrence to an iiranches ramiOed into the Stales,
1 with nfrm.inv. firpnt Britain, and other unwise nuhlie; noliev. We have iust clos- .rmnv'rif th m iive no'.iiical and
- -. .. . . ........ , - - - - - -- . i - - I - - j - j ...
.l . ... . . , wiiri vjerriiaii v. u ci unii
L7.Jpu...c 8rvfce. under tho supervision S parts of Europe, with all the countries on ed a foreign war by an honorable peace ,nen in different sections of the country into the
s Ml, I n A Wmm 1 1 L a a. I f . 1 l ' . .
L: MU ar earimeni,are ausiactoruy lhe West Coastvof ourcontin
iVa WAc r.v. .X i w Antinant aocriPiil. 1 .1 VVMf rpni.oro.1 n oooccn a Ti linavnlf!- rl u Unn rS r1jktnr4 til "it. and tltl)e I.Usinl Upon it
Hrescnted in thj accompanying report of ly with Oregon and Colifornia, and be- able in vindication of the national rights fJr pecuniary fivors ; thus diffusing throughout
m it m. . I . f T annifiArrr illill lil.
I -.vio.jr yi unr. t ! tween the northern and southern sections ana nonor. l he present condition ol me ttie inassoisonag, - , unDaij. and in-.-rea-
v' tho tUirti of ne-aeel onr fnrrps were of thr TTnit.,t i.tnc rAn;,l,rhU rtr. eountrv is similar in somp resriects to that uals of power and tnnuence io give ionc iu ,
interest ofthe people of all those Hons anl
localities who expected lo be hem-lite 1 by ex
penditutes for internal improvements, that tho
amount collected should be as large as p -sib.e,
lo the end thai the sum disbursed might also be
Ihe largr. Tbe States.being the benefu i iri-
in lhe distribution oflhe land money, had au in
teiesl in having the rates of lax imposed by the
protective lariff Jarge enough lo yield a pulti- lenl
revenue from that source to meet ihe wants "f
lhe government, without disturbing or ukmg
fronrihem the. land fund ; so that eac!i ol the
branches constituting the syslem bad a common
interest in swelling b Phbc expenditures.--
They had a direct interest in nia.mainiuK
its amount, m.'.de
the first time accessible to lhe r
Ihese papers, il appears that IV -ington,
while he yet held the tn
hands, acliwlly req-iested Mr. M
time a meoiVr lhe-IIous S
lives, lo pr"u ho draught of i
f .r hio. Mr. Madison, at his re,
paie the draught of such a nv-
it in him on the lwetity-firi.t i f F !
A ropy of this iriginil dfn'g1.'.
sorr's own handwriiiiig " "' :
by him. and 1s ain..g the j-ip. r
rliased by Coiigie: - It i
wriaen on ihe -me fheet, wl.. h
MadiM.nVhaodwritiog. ani i a.
F, briMrV Jls, 1701. C ;
int aud scot lo Ih- l f
I j vva. - - ' - - -w - v v v fca.t7 vvii;i'i v- a w w w