Terms Pi the Wdtclimaii. I
I l'ijjii' liat if not paid in advance, Two dollar
A6vEitTitiETs inserted at 8 1 for the first, and 25 ct
r rch Wseqjkn. insertion.. Court orders chvged
:' ii per 'i'r thin these rates. A liberal detlac
Tiliort to ti)oe ho advertise by the year. " :
f flPLAN pF JAIBS RIVER AND TEN-
"j; NESSEE RAIL ROAD. ,
4 jjr, Piston, fof Rp:kbriife; has offered an
imrxirtant amendment to the bill authorizing a
iu1scriVtion by the.Stalrj of three-fifths of the
"(jipilal stjrk oftthe Lynchburg and Tennessee
Railroad Company. v
i'lo the first place, this amendment directs a
tiirvej made of lines for a Railroad from
i ' ri:.. . L "l -,-."-' Iin. with two
rjamr uivct iq ma irnm.'s'"
fbranches. one tothmencin at Lynchburg, the
iotner at Uucha'nan.aud the two meeting at a
! Common point in Raii"ke. hJve .nushm.
: . -v . i i M. Hoard ol 1'uulic Works.
,cri atp nieo ': -
urp to n-1 1 K""" .
Hooks aV io be opened fr receiving 32.00Q
ifckrr of, 8-jO each, which the corresponding
,,fPe. fifths to be, subscribed hy tho State, will
in.ke, the! whole! capital U.OOU shares, or four
1 i - fil ' ' 1 ' '
! m - I-. . ... - , . - . . ; : i z "
f ' - V .' ! 1 V i . 1 ...... ?
BRUNER & JAMES,
Editors 5- Proprietors.
I Keep a check crox ill yoca
Do this.asd Liberty is sate."
! ! Gen'l. Harrison.
VOLUME V, NUMBER 42.
LISBURY, N. C.,. TjHURSD AY, FEBRUARY 22, 1849.
11 f -ft
Report on Plunk Road made by Mf. Phi
lo White, February 11. Ig48, m Ae
Legislative Council of Wisconsin.
The? select committee to whom was re
ferred he petition of citizens of Racine
and Vyjrtl worth. counties, praying thefincor.
poration of a company, with the view of
constructing a Plank Road from te vil
lage of Racine to Rock River, having du
ly considered the subject-matter of the
inillions oi aotiars. , , ' nraverlof lh nftriiinn. k L
a a i t'vVWvik ui irai r. i n i
wnicn ot . -
; tach suhsrriber is to designafe to
fyk three icrtions pf the road he wishes his
Vuhscription applied As soon as 200,1)00 is
tukfcrihtd forth Common stem from the Ten-
tirWe line, the Statu is to subscribe 830,000,
gnij to on pdri passu, until the whole amount
ne'omrjr-'for the section" subscribed. Viz:
$J,YJ5.oOO. subscribed. When 830.000
ihall have een simcribed (or the LyniMiborg
branch; the Slate is to subscribe 8310,000
and when 3150.000 shall have been subscribed
far. the Hticlianaii branch, the Stale id to sub
' icrlhe; S'325,000. As soon as the joint sub
t fcfiptions: amount trt 8500.000 lor the Lynch
Luf branch; or to-8350.000 for the Buchan
an branrh ; in either of these.events, the com.
pajr is ir be incorpratcd as the James Riv
'er and 'IVtiaessee Hail Road Company."
The bill provides that: the Slate Vdiall have a
vote of three-fifths in allWetings off the compa.
' The " Lvnchb"ur! and Tennesseeulnil tload
Company" in authorized, at or before; its "next
in final meeting; to accept the. terms of the. arft,
and subsItitutH stock of the new company for its
tiick at prVtiertt tubc(riled, evfry sobseriber
Vutg at Jiherty 4o vvih,draw his uhscripiion.
ThCoiinrntni CtKiucil of Lynchburg is.au.
tEqtized to guarantee 6 percetit dividends on
th LyWhbiirg brarich, on an amount not ex.
ceMinK $300,000, or to take a transfer of seh
guaranteed stock and to assess taxes for these
ptirpfiscijon the property and persons of all per
! tops iTkiding' withiii the corporate limits and
kill-a mIe without, ihem.
!;fThe H.ichmnd and Dainille. Railroad Com
jixny is aothii2id hereafter to connect with
the proposed roail at the common point in Roa
ui'ke ti at any'. point between that and the
TenneiHiee'lHie ; atwf the Company is to have
the IprivJieg-' f gunning its cars on the road
font) thr pint o" roiinection to thd Tennessee
litte, on ertns to le agreed ujoti between the'
tvifo rimpanies, or. in case of their disagree
ment; hv the Board of Public (Works. Rich
ATUlClvOF Tfll OUT-GOING ADMIN
j Tho AV;isliingtn correspondent of the New
Ycik Ci tjlrier writes : - ,
That it is obvious to all who attentive- I
commerce, successfully to Drosicute nub-
; lie works so expansive in their range, and
also so costly in their construction, as
railroads; and it is equally clar, either
that the host of railroad and oter enter
prises at the East absorb the disposable
capital there, or that the sagacity of eas
tern capitalists Has failed to detect those
llatent evidences of ready dividends from
tnatelass of heavy works in the lyet infant
state of our community, of whih it is in
dispensable their minds should be fully
satisfied before it can be expected their
I coffers will be opened to us. j
As corroborative of their vieivs in this
i ... . . f - i
y watch the progressive improvements if ! regHr(1 your committee beg leaS'e to re-
the day, that the vast and rapidlv.multi. m,nd lne Council, that at the Nst session
repairs." A report fromi certain road com- draught ; and stage owners say thev are
invention and carly ftdoptiofi of improve- , "
hments in the various departments of ci viLr ;
life; but it is as true as-it is mortify tng,
that our provincial neighbors across5 thejj " V !
Lakes are vastly in advance of os. with-'; '
regard to this; Me great roadmprovefnent j' ; V
of the age. Let us profit by f heir exam-; I j..
pie, and be prepared to receive lessorw .of f :'
wisdom from any quarter. , - 'Y j j 1 - y
In the State of N. York, the first plank-J
road company (the one at oalina, wejbe
lieve) was chartered in 1814 ; since when, ,
applications for similar charters had' in-
j creased so rapidly as seriouslyMo obstruct?,
action on other -subjects in ihe Legtsla-i
ture. To remcdv which, a ircneral la vv-
. . - . ... t. '
mtssioners to the Canadian Board of Pub- Mess fatiguing to horses than stone roads. ! i,c .i.-.-
l.c Works shows that he cost of onemtle at the same rate of speed. plank road companies could organize wjth- j
of Macadam road will; make and main- It seems to your commtttee. that these I out lhe intervention of special actsNn
tain nearly four mites of plank road-the fcts show conclusively that planked ways eaCh ca.e. And we learn that, in ac- !
tr.J8 n thrCormT1r ayeraSm?,a' ft roads, to those of ! c6rdace with this general nrovUiorf, a
"uul per mtie. xvn.te mose on me , enner stone, or gravel, or any similar ma- : lar-ft number of rmn, r,.
latter ought oftener to fall short than ex
ceed 82,000 per mile. And the report to
plying products of tbesoil and of theJmines l?f ,he Lis,f-tre a charter was granted
ot Wisconsin, and the no less mnirlhr.pv. I ,or lne construction of a railroad from
there is not as good a road in Great Brit
ain as the Salina plank road." In Canada
it has been tested by actual experiment,
that the adoption of plank in lieu of bro
-T ... KllllUIV-CA- i , ... ... , ... ....
pandinEr1 commeree nf nor nnA .1. I t-ake iMtchigan to the Mississippi river, a
navigable rivers, demand an increase of I foute confessedly the most eligible for so
the facilities of intercommunication be. I imPOFlanl a work that could have ( been
tween the business points and the fVlrmmtr I se,ected within' the bounds of VVisconsin,
and mining districts interior. So active I?? amPlR.POWers privileges, apd immu- j ken stone as the covering oi a road, has
is the competition, and so strong trie riv. nmes conterred upon the company, to tlie etlected a saving ot an amount sufhcient
iuii rAiciu, we ueueve, inai was asKea ny io repiani. me roaa every mree years,
them ; and yet. although mora than a j whereas the same planking will ordinari
year has elapsed since they have been in ! ly Jast for ten years. An experienced and
the full enjoyment of all they sought, so ! intelligent road-maker in Canada remarks
tar as legislative sanction goes, n behalf i that " no stone road in a clay soil can
of an enterprise from which the coolest I stand in that climate, unless it rests upon
a bed of some appropriate material thick
enough to protect it from the frost." To
be " thick enough" for that purpose, it
A I II I
lenai, under yearly all concetvaDle .cir- ; jzed, for ,h construction of nbtnk roads
CUmstances. And there is one rpasnn ... ..c iv - v i.
theew York Senate declares, that ex- i more obvious than others, why they should , The Salina and Central Square rod. ix
per.ence proves, that j plank road over be peculiarly so in our climate : it is the j teen miles, is finished and in snccesful
the same line with a. Macadam one, can deep freezings and frequent thawings du- j operation ; and of the Rome and OswLo
be built andmaintained for less than the j ring our winter months, -which disrupt j road, sixty-two miles in length, fiftyX
merest on the. cost ot the Macadam one, the foundations of nearly all roads of earth ! miles are finished and in use. Besides
added to its yearlyrequireu repairs In , or stone, and wTiich firmly bedded macad- I these, the following roads arerxpected to
......wc. " wm.u Ul mauau- a.mu runus uuiu ai unws ue aoie : be-hum in the spting. the stock bavin"-
cwn yjw uns iriKen uii, iu iiiiiKP.rouui iot 10 resisi ; wuereas mis cause is almost
a plank track ; and " men who have tra- i wholly inoperative to the detriment of
, plank roads. 1
veled over the best roads in England, say plank
1m m (twin, . g f v V -uiiri
recently passed the lloue, contains
tiis fr a jmfljiou of dollars bey or
oi4le of the. Secretary. In stating.
,rnre f r the ensuing fiscal year.
bi oornmeuting the other day upon Mr.
Rockwell's speech, in reference .to 'the condition
flh Treasury, . I neglected fo mention an im-
pottsnt laqt, which sems also to have escaped
lik not ici. 'I he civil and diplomatic bill which
recently passed the :lloue, contains appropria-
na the esti-
. the e x pen-
tln for any 'portion' 6f the ' forenoing services
via included. ,
, i:This wilful-neglect occurred in ihe face of
tbe'fatl, alihohgh one Locofc'o administration
succeeded another, full provision was mide at
tb adr.tfnt of Mr. I'olk, for an entire change in
tbe "diplrjiiiatic corps, of which he availed him-
le.il tiHhe ;tullet extent. How Mr. Uuehanan
jwill explain this uiiworthy expedient remains
trte seen. If it Whs nofa wilful attempt to de
jptire Gen.-Taylor of a right, conceded by the
Unifirni usage of the government, it was at least
l disregard of du$ which will require some in
igeiiuity to palliate, j
j Conformable to established usage, the Sec
retary orSiate was In duty bound to estimate
for ih. mtetiin service of an iftcoming' Admin-
fell 10 iiriinolations thiiF'nrft anthiui but credit
hfer bratrches of the- public service
hiye aln been disregarded or put'aside, with
-i fie. w t( creating a javorahle impression as to""
U sute of finances and in this way the Civil
and Diplomatic bill has been burtheneu with
V'tns and accounts that ought properly to have
Uken a tfitferent direction, or to have been in.
ttudtfd i n luff estimates of tho Secretary of the.
rcasufy. . ' :
airy between those points, for commercial
supremacy, that that one should chance
to be laggard in her enterprise, would as
suredly run the hazard of being doomed
to the hindmost rank in the great!" race
of improvement," which so peculiarly cha
racterizel the present as the age of " pro
gression. And so rapid are the developments of
the vast agricultural and mineral resour
ces of our territory, that we are admon
ished hat the period has already arrived,
where there ought to be speedy action to
Vardsjthe improvement of the principal
avenues between the business points and
the productive inland- districts, sqj as to
quicken the transit of goods, &c, ho the
interioj-; and lessen the time and expense
of cartrying our staple products to market.
Latent: elements of great wealth fie dor
mant in the soil of Wisconsin, which, with
sufficiently augmented means of transpor
tation,iwould speedily duplicate our mar
ketable products, and consequeiltly en
hance the prosperity of the country, in
crease i the welfare of the people, and ac
celerate the growth of our towns fby ex
tending the range of their trade and bu
siness. -, I : 'i
ButJhe inquiry is suggested, wiat are
tlmse means of transportation by- which
such important results are expected to be
accomplished 1 Our answer may lie found
in the language of that eminent ' states
man ?md illustrious benelactorj of the
" Empire State," De Witt Clinton, that
" every judicious improvement in the es
tablishment of roads increases the
valjie of -land, enhances tlie price of com
modities,andaugtnntsthe public wealth."
In the absence of the natural advanta
ges of water-carriage, roads or public
" high-ways" are the avenues by which
the inljvrior"gairi ready access to mari
time pjrts and market towns, and through
which flow streams of w'ealtii to the na
tion, ahtl Comfort, competencevand con
tentment to the people. At aptly remark
ed by Professor Gillespie, " the roads of a
But your committee deem it needless to
multiply evidence on this point ; for the
advantages of plank over macadam roads
in Wisconsin must be obvious to all, since
I.I I T
already been taken : Central plank road, ' I ;1
a continuation of he balina road, twelve ;j 1 1
miles : Oswego county road, (a continba- ( j
tion of the Central,) 17r miles to he ' 1
north; Jefferson county, road, from ihe- 1 H
last named, to atertown, 18 miles : "
, Utica and Watertown road, 94 miles1; .
calculators concurred in anticipating a
more certain success and a readjer reali
zation of profits, than from any other w hich
could be started in our midst, we have no
.1 i i f-.i f i
mere is wunin our nounus very little ot , Syracuse and Tully. 20 miles ; Salina and
me material itne5cn?c granites, and the, Oak Orchard, 10.J miles; Pulasqui and
basaltic rocks in which the hornblende j.port Ontario, 18 miles ; Rome and Utica,
predominates) w.ith which to construct ; 15 mjes : a road in Montrromerv rmmtv.
the latter, while there insufficiency of titn- ; 21 miles ; another in Warren countvi 30
her for all the purposes of the former.
This, in our view, should settle the ques
tion, not only as regards the utility and
economy, but the expediency of our peo
ple's adopting that class of road improve
ments, for local and present purposes, in
should have a depth of twelve to fourteen ; preference to all others.
Although as your committee think they
21 miles; another in Warren countyj30
miles; Utica and Bridgewater. 22 miles;'
five roads leading out ol the city of Roch'
estervarying from 3.J to 10 miles each ;
ami two roads leading out of the cit of
Buffalo, about 15 miles each- And in ad
dition to the foregoing, roads have l4en
tidingsof stock subscribed, nor of ultimate ' inches of compact broken stone ; and to
'steps taken towards an organization of J give it such a coating would render it ru
the company under the charter. t A know- j inously expensive in its construction, and
ledge bj these facts is a source of deep re- i Consequently profitless to its ownefs. It
gret to all the friends of improvement in ! was the heaving up of the foundation by
VVisconsin ; and the more so,. because the the action of the frost, that, so disrupted a ; ability to accomplish at this day
well-known character ol the projectors ot j macadam road near Toronto, as to render
projected, with a probability of their con
struction, from Svriieusr In Humor 1 Aft
have clearly shown, plank roads should, j miles ; from Fulton, in Oswego county, to f
for present purposes, be preferred by our , Vienna, in Oneida county, 35 miles ; from 4"
business and commercial men over every , Saljna to Rome, 35 miles; from Sacketts
species 01 road improvement within our Hafhor, to intersect the road from Salina
this truly important work for talent, ener-
gy. and public spirit, excludes all hope of
any more speedy accomplishment of rhe
enterprise under other auspices, at this
day, . !
In view of these facts, therefore; your
committee cherish the hope, tha all who
have thoroughly investigated thjs matter
will concur in opinion with them, that a
class of improved public thordiighfares,
less costly in their construction aSid more
practical for every day's use than rail
roads, is called lor in all portions of our
Territory. Assuming such to be it he sen
timent of the Council and of thelcommu
nity, we find our inquiry narrowed down
to a choice between i
MACADAMIZED AND PLANK ROADS.
Believing they were not giving a wider
scope to thejr investigations than the im
it nearly impassable in wet and cold wea
ther, and which occasioned the taking of
it up and substituting a plank track in its
stead, the remaining portion of the mac
adam track being used as a turn out path.
On this road, even after some portion of
the plank had become entirely worn
through, the very beasts of burden instinc
tively preferred the plank to the. macadam
track ; and when reined from the former
to the latter in turning out, would of their
ing, as we do, that the general adoption
of that system of road-making would be
productive of positive and immediate ben
efit to them, as well as to all classes of
our citizens, by giving a new impulse to
every branch of industry among us, con
tributing directly and certainly toihe still
more rapid growth of our business towns;
increasing the prosperity of their people,
and enhancing the welfare of all within
their borders yet it is most manifest that
our farmers and agriculturists would
own accord immediately turn back upon ! partake more largely of the benefits flow-
mg trom the operation 01 these roads man
any other portion of our population.
In the estimation of your committee,
plank roads are of more real importance
to the Wisconsin farmer than any inven-
tlie plank, when not prevented.
But in this comparison of the relative
value of plank and stone roads macadam
and stone we use as synonymous terms.)
we have exhibited but few of the peculiar
" ADVANTAGES OF PLANK ROADS.
All who have given much attention to
this subject and made themselves even
to Watertown. 12 miles; from Oswegj to
Auburn, 2G miles ; and a road in Onon
daga county, of about six miles in length.
There are still others, of, the particulars
in regard to which we have no certain
knowledge. ' 4
MODE OF CONSTRUCTION, ETC. ; j '
As plank road making is a new theory
in Wisconsin, and most of our people, con
sequently, entire atrangers to the mariner
of constructing that kind of public thor
oughfares, your committee will askj'.he
indulgence of the Council, while tfiey
briefly state the reult of their inquiries
and in vectigalions on thi subject. i
Plank roads have been In use among
the Russians for many yearc their adop
tion there having been hret nuggested.. we
portance of the -matter warranted, your! nartiallv nmuainird with it aeUnnvvlerlcr,.
1 J .1 : .1 ' . ...... j, -t -- , :--
uuiiiiuuiee exienueu ineir inquiries ao me
provinces of Canada, and to all tljose por
tions of our own country which gave pro
mise of adding to their stock of informa
tion on this subject ; and they liow find
themselves in posssession of a knass of
that plank is the material for an improved
road-way, in certain locations, and under
peculiar circumstances. And the Hon.
Henry L. Ellsworth, in his '".Patent Office
Report lor 1843. although evidently some
what skeptical of the general utility of
facts and statistics which have forced a j p!ank roa(ls is constrained to admit that
conviction upon their own mitjds, that
plank -roads are better adapted to the
wants of Wisconsin at large, and to the
" there are stretches ol 30 or 40 miles in
parts of the West, where the soil is a deep and on any day of the year or hour of the
tion of the day. They will save htm time ! believe, by the difficulty of constructing
and labor, which is the same as money ; I any other kind of road-way over their
they will give him a choice of time in car- ! vst "steppes" (boggy deserts) in gaining
rying his products to market, as they offer j Hccess to the rich and exhWustless ore leds
no such obstacle as " had roads," but pre- (r iron mines) of thiiU country. But pur
sent to him as smooth and firm a surface j rebearchea afjer facts and statistics in re
over which to travel in the worst of ea- ' trard to the.-Russian mode of constructing
sons as in the best; they enable him to ; plank roads, have thus far been barren of
accomplish twice the distance in the same ' any satisfactory results. " j '
time, and haul double the load with less
effort ; let interest or inclination call him
to town, and he can proceed thither with
all desirable speed, in his own conveyance.
(ing "one of the first indications of j And as plank road making is a new theo- ; an(j there are
liergence of ai people ' from Jthe sav- j ry, an untried "scheme," to mbsof our ! nr deep rid
ate ;" and he views them as u the j people, your committee hope the.yfvvill not j Wisconsin w
country are accurate atul certain! tests of jTnen. at the present juncture, thap any or
the degree of civilization" their cjonstrdc-1 all Other modern road improverpents.
tinii-hemor " nn ni th hrct inrtien'tmns 'nil Anil
veins land arteries of the body ipolitic, f be transcending the sphere of their- duty
through which "flow the agricultural pro- i by presenting-to the Council a rapitl sketch
ductiohs and the commercial supplies! of the progress of this species of road im
which are the life-blood of the state." ( proVement, the mode ol construction, du
Acquiescing, then, as we presume all rability. cost, &c, and the superiority ot
will, in these premises, the next inquiry is, f plank over Macadam and all other kinds
1 WHAT KIND OF ROADS . 1 roaS ;
-and iri (ailing to notify the hed of the s fcest adapted to'the present wantsof our I u 'Macadam (or broken stone) roads have
yto ll.H euect,,he has subjected him--, .,,','. ,u I been in use tor about one third of a cen-
." . . ,1 k- . I I - I. I 1LU IUKM UUU IVKU Kill IC.O, lJl
circumstances oi our larmers ana pusmess nr ,.,1 nf nvUrr!ntinn in ,irh n
ses you must be content to wade through
the mud. or adopt plank roads." Even so ;
very many such stretches"
1st. Manner of laying down the Plank.
At Quebec, the plank were in the first
instance laid lengthwise of the road, under
the impressionjhat the limber would stand
friction better in th.t prwition, thatlhe
plank could brs more recdily taken up in
repairing the road. Sec. But it. was soon
discovered that the hores could not, wfien
heavily loaded, keep their feet on plank
AN iSirORTANT LAW.
Among, thejimportant acts of the recent ses-
m of the Legislature, none, will have a more
.'tp'tieraV'tknu 'direct-bearing upoji the social re-
physical characteristics of our country,
and tlie circumstances of our people i--t
Railroads are unquestionably the mightt
est means of overcoming material space, j!
of producing immense ehanges in the con
dition of localities, and of linking togeth
er remote portions of a continent with
bands of irorr, that the genius of man has
rich vegetable mould, and without stone i ay he may elect, without consulting hor
oscopes or watching the phases of the
moon ; and no accidents of the weather
need interpose had travelling between him
ich vegetable mould" all over wheat, or flour, or pork, or other product-. ' con.ian ,y exposeq io
here even Mr. Ellsworth ac- of his farm, admonishes him oHhe appro- i ., """--y r.r. m.'-o.
knowledges plank roads are indispensible. i priate moment for realizing the bee-l re- ! -loul' . uirir icr. -But
that honorable gentleman labors un- j ward for his toil. In fine, to our citizen, i JU Piect bavin- worked hadly.,we
dnr the HisdvfcnW nf havinr snnken n those nterior d str cts wh ch are never i "-'- l" u
- . .-r)- .... . 0 -1 - - - t ,
four or five years too soon, when plank expected to be traversed by Railroads, the
road making was " a new project," and construction of planked ways will extend
looked, upon as of equivocal utility by , the advantage of good, desirable, and con
some of the wisest heads in the country. venient thoroughfares, affording them an
Such, however, have been the rapid de- easy and rapid communication with their
velopmentsin regard to the usefulness of markets and their distant neighbors, and
while ihe adoption of plank! roads, ! nlank roads within the last five vears.that securing to them facilities for travel and
at least in the United States, does not date
back scarcely half a dozen yeajrs ; and
yet the latter seem in a fair way almost to
supercede the use of the former. . lacad
am roads are made of hard stone,! broken
up with hammers into pieces about an
inch in diameter, and this V metal" is
what were considered sound opinions and transportation'unenjoyed by their ances-
philosophical deductions on this subject tors and unknown to the ancients.
in 1843, are now scouted as antiquated The. late Lord Sydenham having wit-
notions in 1848. In the report of the ievv I nessed the great utility of plank roads du-
On one of the Montrei.! and ChamMy
roads, tlie planks arc twelve feet iu length,
but being laid diagonally with the line of
the road, the track is only eight feet in
width. This mode, too, is disapproved f
for it is found, that th crminjfi suddenly
of half the whecfa and half the load upon
one end of the plank, while there is nob
ing at the moment to keplhe other down,
constantly operates.! .loocm the planks,-
causing them to uprirjz from end to end,
1 ' l 1 .. U . i
York Senate, it is remarked, that while ring his residence in Russia, (which coun- j 0n A W(. . , vm f .tJxu nanu
roa in Caoad. ata well aa those in the
macadam roads " may be best for one sec- j try led the way in their adoption some
tion of country, the difficulty and expense
yet devised. For connecting distant and! Prd "P" the 8radef hed of theoad to attending their construction may
t il .ioifWmfl A the depth of six to twelve inches. it first them impracticable for another;
Hliorts than thatUvhieh makes
iff ions tor jVjmVa-roier.'' By ifusacl, hereaf
l?f all real estate, fownedMiy -married women.
art he time of marriage, ur that may hereafter U
J.acoitiidi spall bo , exempt Trt)irf execution,
ttVd shilf n'eilher be sold ivrir leased by the hus-
important commercial points, io other
mode of lancl transportation can! cornel in
competition with them ; and welfeel safe I
in predicting, that ere the lapse of many!
years jWisconsinwill be traversed by rna-
ny of these magnificent " highways," les-
sening the expense and shortening the dis
tance I of travel and transportation be-;
i tween the Great Lakes and Mississippi,;!
and facilitating and increasing the inter-;
hs'nd without her consent, and all such proper
that may bo acquired after 1st March next
vb aiiy lady nov- married to he subject to the
Wtoe exeihplions. 'Neither is Ihe life estate ol
husband in s'jch lands liable to execution.
- ! 4, . 1 T t l-k . - . I !t-K a-. a
1 I t .lr KrVtr- artt WriU'S US IIOUI WCUOIU UUII. WUi;aU
.u " .u i c AVtMrVi;t;;e 'r- cient quantity ot stone Isay ten or;tweIve
the northern and western extremities ot i - , v i . vi t j i i -n
mbryo " Commonwealth. , - . . J . ... , ...
I J i ! i be expensive in any locality, and built
a-k. a m a - i m
liut dearly-bought experience, ex'am- ) otherwise, it will be destroyed at the
these roads are heavy to travel on, ex
ceedingly annoying to tender-Tooted ani
mals, and laborious for a team 'to; haul a
loaded vehicle over ; but in time the bro
ken stones become pulverized on the sur
face, and form a mass of comparative
smoothness and solidity. Yet this' solidi
ty is far from being permanent : V A Ma
cadam road, (an experienced gentleman ' reach of 14 miles, the line of road runs
fn- alonff a ledsre of rocks proper for macad-
amizins1. only needs to be tumbled into
practicable for another; while
" plank roads can he built on any ground
to the ad vantage of the public." And re
cent even's go far towards showing that
plank are preferable to stone roads in
nearly all localities, as will be seen from
the", following circumstances: A plank
twenty or thirty years since.) was deter
mined, on his accession to the Governor
Generalship of Canada, to test their adap
tation to the wants of the Provinces over
which he had been destined to rule ; and
the first plank road constructed there un
der the supervision of the Government,
was commenced some nine years ago.
Since when, the Canadians have become
road is about to he constructed at a town so fully satisfied of the very great .id van
in the State of New York, where, for a tages resulting to the farming and com-
mercial interests of their Provinces, from
the introduction of that species of -road
improvement among them, that they have
gone, more extensively into this system of
road-making than any kingdom or repub-
the road-way ready for breaking. In an
other town of the same Slate," movements
are makins to take up the cobble stone
lie on the elobe. The larger proportion
pies of which may be found in Our own f breaking up of the ground in the spring navement of a street for a (distance of of these Canadian roads are located in the
brief history, touching internal improve-jj or he so iniured as to require extensive i two miles and lay down a plank: road" in London district, Canada West. Amon
! I -1 .. ..1 b . . . ? i . J
menis. nave aeumusiraieu me luillliy I
th- fatal elrrorr indeed of thrusting im-l
provements in advance ot the ousiness re
i m - . ... 4 . i
quiSltei to sustain them. Individuals, cpr- j ,ate member of the Legislature of New Yorty and Su-
i V A,pijftpevlus of a small monthly periodical
I to be devoted ia the general subject of Educa
, T-7, u LiiiriicuuLiit iu mo win1""" "-"-"""i
l, - . r - , -
to make a iotiruul ttf the kind hiuhlv
itM'p.ibiic. It is to be hoped therefore, liabilities for expensive works, many of
"T W o tht nuOu ar w.-vnt m I in rpantrt. and Wllicn IL were a misnomer u tuaiauiei-j
. . . ,
J. W. Brooks, Esq., civil engineer ; to wljom, and
to Wiiliani C. Young, Esq., Superintendent of Ihe Sche
nectady and Utica railroad, Thomas G. Alvdrd, Esq ,
United Wtates, the plank are laid crass
wise, or tranv-eraly to the line of the
roadj'which method i found to be free
from the objections incident to the others,
and liable to few or none peculiar to lit
It is recommended by the engineer of
the Salina road, whose euggestions are -all
practical and fafe, that the cndsoflhe i.
planks ought not be laid even-; but that v
one in every three should project about
three inches beyond the line of the track,
so as to prevent the wheels of the turning
out vehicles from scraping close along the
edges of the plank in passing off and) on
the track, and, causing ruts there. . This
is fount! to be an effectual remedy against
the formation of ruts on the turn-out .
paths. i ' i .
(To be Continued.
, appears in this paper, lne connuc- . , - . . p,f n,r;, r.,, r.a- f ih United States ,
N. Mendenhall. s well and oeculiarlv : naveoecn iprceu into umm.uicy, na - : - '.l v r rLi.tor.Mr. ! bee
. both ai regards L-ilet and inform.!. driven tO.a humiliating repudiation Oj lietr Mr 'wViUt'.editor of the Prairir Farmer.Mr. Mihor.ofthe ' c
ie. deOlS, ny heedlessly incurring enormous . Railroad Journal, and V. O. Mncomber, 01 Lew lorK,
V fn bKd such a work U calculated to eflect. J jze as rimprovemeuts," and most, perhaps
Vn1 It trwv meet with bbernl enrntim cement. 1 luinlpiiufrnn to the owners as a Present
rf. ...... ry j uuiu... V w - , j I
pnly GO cents a year. lb.
;,LWV" Sugar. Idossrs. & T, Wad
Jj'lhikve left at this office a sample bf the
; W beautiful Bro wn Sugar that we ever
'!ccMftat to have setm; made at Magnolia,
n inorda. Fy. Observer. v
t i I f 1 . . . 1 ; iV. n n . 1 n riC lie.
we are inueuted ior niuis auu hui uiauuu u.
to us in the preparation of this report ; and to Professor
Gillespie's Manual on Road Making, Hon. flf L. Ells
wor'h's Patent Office Report for 1813, Report of the
Canadian Commissioners on Plank Roads, as also the
reports on the same suriject of lion. Geotge Geddes of
Salina. Hon. Mr. Burnham of the New" York Senate, in
C February, 1847, Charles WhitlJeseyEsq , of Cleveland,
Mr. Talcott, engineer
engineer for Several
j investment, and some even totally profit-;
! t II P. I .v. r. ri 1 1 ill tnu tla.i
tess-ior an iunur umc. .uo-
come manifest to all matter-;of fat Irien'ds' j. w, Judson, Esq , of Oswego, M
( i ; ,r,.-urm.nt in Visennsin of the Illinois canal. Mr. Gzowski.
ni Hill rllill 1 i II V I " 1 1 -r-' -' j r
. 1 i i nt .io x-'Jr nnwpw , f the Plan!l Tads in Canada, and to a correspondent of
that our own people do not as c possessj Ae Delroil Free Pres9 we re als1 indel)red r va!ua.
the requisite capital, that ean bediverted:U,e facls and-statistics, which have materially ipided os
from the ordinary channels at tjaae ana m ine pertectmg tins report
itc Bt3f? A nft wh have seen letters from them are the following, cither finished or
I t,V I - ' - - - ---- - w .
Cleveland. Ohio, saying that the city cor in-progress : From Port Stanley to Lon- j
poration are about to substitude plank lor ! 20 miles ; Hamilton to Port Dover, 36 j
the cobble stone pavements of some of-miles; London to Brantford, 57 miles ; Cholera Mixture. The following He
their, streets. This plan has already London to Chatham, G7j miles ; Uhathara ;,-e as been received by a gentleman
n adopted, to a limited extent, in the to Sandwich, 00 miles ; Chatham io , wn from fais ffiend in Loufsiana,
of Chicago, to the universal satis- hertsburgh, 18 miles ; Londn to 1 ort bar ... . rvi,-i,t t ;K X,n
wnereii tirt tni vijuuj. ...
plete success :
Take, of Gum Camphor. Gum Opium.
African Cayenne, and Oil of CloVes, each
one ounce ; Hoffman's Anodyne LiqUor,
one pint. Shake up the ingredients fre
quently, and in 10 or 20 days filter through
paper. For an adult 30 to GO drops, eve
ry second, third, or fourth hour, until Ihe
stomach and bowels are relieved to be.
taken in a wineglass full of water.
faction of all teamsters and pedestrians, dinia, 62 miles ; London to Port Goodrich,
i r t it,. 75 miles ; three or more radiating from
It appears, from actual experiment, that ...
i 1 ' mi tin,! r u-KppI. Toronto; one at Brockv.lle ; one or two
li vHhiele. at an a verageate bf one-fifth at Montreal and Chambly ; one at Que
faster, and draw at least one-fifth greater .
weight on a plank than on a broken-stone
road. In fine, plank roads are preferable
to those of macadamized stone in cheap
ness, in ease of draught, and in comfort
to passengers ; greater speed being attain
able on them, with less resistance to
bee, ami others of Ies note in different
parts of the two Provinces: making an
aggregate length of plank road in Canada,
of between 4G;0 and 500 miles !
Our people have not been in the habit
of looking to the English colonies, at this
day, for models of enterprise, and for the
. ,-' ii
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-.if mr?. -ae. -