'i j- ' i : t : 1
term i the lVa t v h ma n .
f : i , '"'T J.
j i ' ' advance.- Bt f no' -Pld in advance, Two dollar
I nJj rtO ct-; will be charged. ' i
AnfattE,ifT!j inserted at 1 for the first, and 25 cts.
$ j i fa f a'cb subsequent-insertion. Court orders chirped
! I )2j'pet: ci: higher thanheaei rates. A liberal dedue
lo tion, lo yio wno advertise by the yefir.
Lsttes's t the Editors must be post paid.
I jPLANK ROADS.
iltfort pn Plank : Roads made by Mr. Phi
'I i White, ; February 11, , 18 18, in the
I vi(di'c council o; mscotJii.
Durability of Plank Roads
a question of ho
Ration of J,o s,r,ali . instil luoe.
.. .. ,
claw ol road mi-
protemrliti, and ihe expediency ol adopting u.
Of colqriii ihvi duiutiliiy o'F.plaik road is de.
;'jfr4iWeWinr'aerrirviitabIb degree, upon
the tmount of iravH upon them, and other con
iinceiit circunwfancp. jQne elficieni inrans
ht pjrtjte'ciinjr the plank against wear by abra. j
.iotjft't) corrring them 'with an inch or two !
Cr Und crjr eati the grit ol which, combined
iv it h.1 1 he'je 1 c r irnc n t of the'aiiirnala and the fi.
irrp: of the wood, protects the plank from the
IdtVV of; tbe ihrnea' ahoes and ih hruisti nf
; fihrei iVci, oflhree. norths rtf an inch to one inch
thickness,' which it it-difficult for either coik
rwel. to disturb. Mr.jCizowski calculates
jaijeanhy abrasion at the rate of one. fourth
"Ifirf irjcji in. two years ; and a? planking will
jio(!ljreak through until orVe and a half to two
'nciirsoCHfac: is worn iwav, it follows from
kjJitL. t. -r.t.L . ... . . .
f W; -umi.ii vi mi: piitim win oe eini
i t ' this calculi an on is based upon the
iurftlf,l,!rt! ,h1 ,h f 'kihg is of pine or other
;!vloftj wol oak wilt f course bit Irom Juen.y
,t0y Wf. loj.ger. I j According to ihe ex-.j
krncof the fialina company, plank from
i!fU 1 -r ,,,(;,,CJr f thickness will - wear
.ffotit seyin to twelve year : although Air. AJ.
I A U'a . company, thinks, as abov; stated
A tbt Out WiiConsin oak might enduhi twelve or
tin years. I he, wea and tear of the first
f " ' ' a,q e equa I, to that ollthe seven
"?cceeaing years : and Mr. Uzowski says the
rtpalrg CI . the first year are double thse of any
iQclceedfiig one, until the road comes to need
replaiikihg. J 1
.: j ; j 'K ' 'Cost of Plaik Roads. :
j LThis. ioo, is a consideration of no small mo-
j i. rnVlt in deciding upon tfce adoption of this spe.
jne isarlly depend -mucli on the physical ctiar
;'ac eristiti of ihecmntry, and iho facilities of
Tobainin $uila!)le limller. And much also
;jfe'jends,upon ecoiidmical management. All
b lexpehditures on tho Salina road seem to
haie been husbanded to the iiest advantage.
Alj 5fr Alvord remarks, ihey built it themselves
-4tiit! is, they superintended it themselves.
J hired their workmen j by ihe day, bought their
i j i-jeirru tools, Ace; and he feels "satisfied that
i Hthii li ltic true wav." not onlv to sav Pinono
f ! ihtd' 10 secure a more subytnnliul st met ur iKan
couM he; execled through the agency of con.
Iracuiri . Thr most expensive )lank road of
Vhfch tf'i have any particulars., is that from
Pprjl Stanley to London, CanadaWest, the ave.
,rtg(H 6f Which was 84.000 per mile. But they
VftTBiuufortufjate in their route, having Vie.
qufjily;to make heavy excavations for a dis.
UnkeuClen rriiles, with a necessity of construct.
r iev'iiteen bridges on the entire line, and
Jhay'nV.Jjti procure lh(ir plank from the State of
Widliigii, t a cost of 824 per M ; I heir road,
'UH is of junnecessarily large dimensions, be.
'jhgjsjxtt'fn feet at Some' points, and twelve feet
to WRJtlt at'jthcrs, wiih 4 by 6 inch sniff for
jSills.r Tlie average cost of all the Canadian
irftidi, fciwever, is stated by Mr. (zowKkLat
.per mile. Hut when it is recol.
lecncJ thut these Canadian road are one.third
Urjper than the moilern structures in Western
ew oik, and al least one-sixth more ex pen.
.live Ihahjhose construcird in accordance with
Arnerican. improvements and economy, (as ex
etnplified y Messrs, Ceddesnd Alvord' man
pernenrof ihe Salina load.) it is evident that
ilia .J . I ..... J 1 l .
...u rrajg inigui ue rcauceu to less than
Although it is doubtless to be attributed to
'wfirig circumstances, that ihe Salina road
wai constructed so cheaply the actual expen.
dil tire, being on an average, only 81,187 per
Vtjvc- perdeivo that tlu) estimate of the
.COit'of the Home and Oswegoroad is even less
7i!nljJ 61,250' per mile ; the difference in their
rwwevej-,. consists in the low price-of
-he.fnlocR plank, which seems to have cost them
cjvly $3:50 to 8 1 00 per mile ; and, moreover.
iKiu. .. .. . i ? t ..
"vj "urn upon nn ojii roan -way, wiin very lit.
M extne for grading, &c. What was the
achat expenditure on this road, we have-not
tei advid. 1
. .Mr.lJjijddes, the engineer, made the follow,
"jg eslhnafe of the average.
j jf ; fyst per mile of the Salina Road :
4.1,y '4 inch scantling, 14,080ft.
PlaiiVSieetloiig, 4 inches thick. 168, 920ft.
: w! "'i At : B5 i pe 183,000ft. 8915
"J'lnp and grading, 81 per rod.
Lngtneering, superintendence, &c. 10 '
n..pr,cfci;t.1' ! ' . ;., y
;;fttjini rate houses. s '. t
iuicei bt idges.'and contingencies,
jliAiRBaf cost per mile. 81,500
rn.Vi.nr t J" 5 ,he ac,Ua' cost r thel
' W A ffi -tlar" '?m lh1 ""'endent, was j
i i . . .. . .. . . ,
J Mrjfudson estimates tha cost of a road,
jnudfr;6f hemlock tank four inches thick, the
rtrtcH fourteen feel wide, w ith a carriage way
,0 turnout on each side,' having five cood slrin.
Mt hy eiglft inches in size, al) complete, at
utoO per mile." But Mr. J. wrote
our .yedrs ago! ajid his fancy road Is six feet
wo -y ide. with three stringers too many in num
Wiclthinl ioUr i .!-rrt . it,', i.:
lim..'-.-'e- . i
afier, acaHown his road to modern j
VhrgW ..(X leetlrack; with only two
-bl, 7!01 ,oar;by ,,tir ,ncn scantlmg,) w.,uld ,
tY : materially from that or (Jeddes of
: 06 $itX road, thniif 1R 1.400 her mil..
5 V M"5V0a7 , ut BA00i f"f-m,lc- I
Idoultt ti. t T T , r. g S--1 r v
1 ;-MllaWifc li ' ,ror" l
i3.t .7,"a,H; M.rc,"; ttl "n aere..oi j
-a. a .
SUI J . A . . . . . J7 ' ...... -w .-,
at mis day, (his cal-
. . . I "
. i .. - - ir i ii;ivinrT ri.an rv. ri 1 1. . i
j. mauc u.rrr. urnrs .- i
U DM ft ft vwi litinM .. A. mtnn t .
WrtheL 5 7 netrarad any I
.risliiL. ' . -: i l c,,rpeenng, and !
b?S1?a,re:a(J'P-4i the maximum pricrf,,r
rlri wok, &c, vour committee
Itlink It I
nitiimn hia ittiAi.l
1 "ft t"? tnaximum cost of a
Wylfiole-route in V
plank road on al.
M'tjgttow furnished the data on which to
IrfJ ubicribtionj, per, year, Tvo Dou.ARspayable in
- nniMTtin - T lirTlCI ' ' - ' - " rr - .. . I
S U N K I & JiUlUCV : r I v- -r - s
C1 Editors Proprietors.: i U" Ke" a c all to j ' ffI-F DotH,mL,Km,m.-
i -r, mi irituy rerKoner can m .
, cuate for him?elr d . , - f . rttmm..-
nfl r ,l0 fl,; i " . V", T r
" - -aiiiuaic (ireseni neiow, nt a sin
gle track plank road, 9 fet wide, built In ao.
cordance w ith modern! improvement!. I
Jf of Hemlock, at $6 per M: '
Sills, 4 b4 inch scantling, 14.080ft.
Pjank, 4 inches thick, 168,960ft.
At 86 per M. 183.040 ft. 81,098 20
C.radmg road, and laying plank and sills 320 00
blmces bridges, and contingencies. 100 40
CJales and gatehouses, say.
- c7- i ..vw. v,v,. , 1UU Ull
Or if while or burr-oak limber be used, at $8
per M., then we would stale the maximum cost
of ftich abroad at about 81900 per mile. i "j
In all the most densely populated portions of
! . ui isconsin riv.i
our.i errnorv, south and east of Wisconsin
er. the ffenera charartPr rf
I of a construction of roads, such as deep excaJ
! vations, heavy embankments, cosily briuVe$ or
J frequent1. sluices or culverts, and where TimbU
is not very scarce nomdear, we feel confident
that roads of this charactor, of a capacity suffi.
; cient 10 meet all ihe wants of our productive!
and industrial rlaacna n o ,1.011 n. , C
; et loTns and . commercial and business depots
I at an average cost certainly not to exceed
Si. 800 jer mile.
j lour committee understand, that Governor
1 Cass is at this time, coostructin
iff an 8 feet
wide single track plank road-on his. Individual;
account, to extend from his farm into the city!
of Detroit, a distance of about one mile and, a
half. It is laid upon a traveled roadway ; the
lumber costs 86 per M., and the whole expen
diture'will not exceed an average of 81,500
per mile. .;
' . ' TUs-' : .
It is suggested by ihose most experienced in
the management of plank roads that the tolls be
so regulated as to blend the intereitfs of the
owners and the public. By the character of
the Salina road, the directors are authorized to
levy a toll of two cents a mile for a two.horse
vehicle ; but as it is their interest to encour
age such an amount of travel as will insure the
wearing out rather than the rotting out of the
plank, and as a light tariff will bring a heavy
revenue, ihey have thus far never avaijed them
selves of the maximum rates of toll allowed, but
hae only charged one and a half Cents per
mie in summer, and one cent in the winter.
Profits of Plank Roads, j
From careful estimates of ihe quantity of
travel on the market 'roads and principal ihor.
oughfares of Wisconsin, your committee are of
the opinion that the slock of plank roads op the
routes of nearly all of that kind of highways,
would be a good investment, yielding a profit
of seven to fifteen per .cent per annum. The
stock of the Salina Company cannot! now be
purchased at par; and we learn from the su
perintendent, that, since the completion of that
road, they have made semi annual dividends
at the rate of 12 J per cent, per annum ;, be.
sides having! accumulated a reserved fund of
surplus profits, within somewhat more (han one
year, of about 83.500 ! So that ennsidera.
liousof private revenue are superadded ?lo those
of nolllie 111 ilil V. in iirrrincT iKo niAMmn LrUJl.
road improvements among us. And this nrofit
to the company, is not
the only necu-
niary advaniaKe Immediately imanatiho- ft-om
the construct ion of nlank rnnrla. fnr iIiau im.
pari increased value to all contiguous property
We are advised from Salina. that it is a 44 uhi
versaily admitted and proved fact, thatj'. since!
that road has been in existence, a period of
about eighteen months, 44 it has benefited the
three towns through which it passes, more than
810Q.000. I ;
: Speed, Dravght, Etc.
j Over the Port Stanly and London road,(Car
i nada Wst.) two-horse liwht wairnn wiih (iv :
I to six passengers, travel at the rate of eight i'ort" Carolina contains a very; sparce
j miles an hour with perfect ease ; and two horses j population compared with its Capabilities
I in a lumber wagon usualy haul two totjs (foftylpo furnish the-means of subsistence and
I hundred) at aload.-Andon London and Brant- objects of profitable labor. A Rail Road
lord road, two-horse learns invariably crry six.
teen barrels of flower each, at a load, from
Woodstock mills, 52 miles. The ,motion of a
carriage over these roads is said to he similar
lo that on a solidly beaten snow trackf
PlanklRoads preferred by Farmers.
It is a prevalent opinion among those who
are unadvised xxf-the capabilities of plan roads,
that when Wisconsin comes to be traversed by
rail roads, and planked ways will in a good
measure be superseded in their usefulness.
But your committee are fully persuaded that
this idea is entipely erroneous. Haifa dozen rail-
roads leading into a market town, would not ob-
via,e ,be necessity of a good road for wagons in
alf seasons loa distance of thirty miles M lealt
from the place. Railroads, can never be marta i
to 44 lake the place of teams for the transport a. fa,t t value they contain is dependent ; Koad, and when the cars commence run
lion of grain," &c, within one day's drve ofja prst upon Ms everflowing tide, and next ! ttmS l"e value of his premises is raised to
market, 44 because the farmer can carry the upon the wonderful invention of Fultonj fifteen hundred, what has he then ? There
cheapest for that distance,," There are sei. ijand the fact is universally known, thai j s the increased value of five hundred do!
sons when work is slackwith almost evefy jj their growth is little less than magical, i j lars upon his property, and the stock lor
larmer ; yet his teams are daily consuming as Well, I take it for granted then, that I which he has paid his money five hun
rZed tvn y illhe VW same circumstances which would ! dred more. By the advance of five hun-
' . , , . .... w mesc seasons, ne
ran nam nis proaoceMo market with aftw hil $
lines' expense in Edition to wh Xi?!"
been incurred had his teams remain Ml. Li!J
their stalls. "
Yourcommittee have recurred more frequent
ly lo ihe Salina road ibaiUo any other; as the
oasis ot tneir remarks , and calculations.
cai,8e y lok upon (hat as a mM work, as
well with regard to lhe solidity of its structure
gineer antf superintendent. The surfeslioiU
rnirti aim :u
. .... i ' . l
, i m n it.:. .1
emeu in this connection! therfe-
are entitled to much consideration.! They
.a -1 a S
recommend that the work on plank roads be
done by the dav; and th:
mn..;. nn ..,;n.
that an energetic man
torn orient as an eiiLrineeT. and caoahle of i-
recti tier hn wh7.1 ,f lhi nnprntinnc. ht$ nl-ieiri
it j m . .J . i. -: .
in charge of the works. Trey became Satisfied If"06 north to t hose of Virginia, jand all
from their observation in Canada; and l$eir c. Inat scope of country lying between those
patience afterwards at home that in tEis wiy jivvo lines diverging from this point bound
the. foundation of a plank road can be mere cd by the limits of Tennessee on the West
SALISBURY, x. C, THURSDAY, MARCH 8. 1849.
thoroughly made, the more perfectly bedded.
&c, than when the work is let outlto'iobbers!
Besides securing a more substantial structure
y rj' Work and Personal 8"pejvrsion, this
melhnd has been prored, in the construction of
the Salina road at least, to be the mdst economi
cal, h having saved to that Companyj some thou,
sands of dollars in the cost of the entire road.
Now in view of ihe facts and suggestions, it
must readily occur to every farmer, within a
reasonable distance of the Jine of a' plank road
that he can better afford to take stick in such
a company than any other of our industrials
ctasses, because he can more cheaply pay for
his shares by working them out on the road,
bvery head of a family, with his teams, wagons,
plows, scrapers, shovels, and other Implements
which are always at hand in the Icultivation,
&c, of his farm, could, during those leisure
times which every one occasionally enjoys,
work out from one to a dozen shared, according
to his force and proximity to the road, without
any serious diversion of his attention from his
regular vocation, or perceptive detriment to his
crops. In fine, to all1 classes of our farmers, no
scheme was ever devised that offered so rich
an assurance of immediate and positive bene,
fits, to them, as the constiuction of planluroads
in the neighborhood of their farms. ;
In consideration, therefore, of the vast advan
tages resulting from the adoption ofthis system
of road improvement, as demonstrated by the
facts and statistics herein presented your com
mittee not only deem it good policy to-encurao-e
the. construction of that class of public ihor
oughfares throughout the length and breadth of
Wisconsin, but they conceive it an! incumbent
duty to recommend, that ihe sanction of leria.
live enactment be extended to all I projects of;
mc Kinu, wnetner prosecuted by individual or
associated enterprise. " j .
And in order to give effect to their recom
mendation, with reference to the petitions from
Racine and Walworth counties, they have pre
pared a bill in accordance with the prayer of
ihe petitioners, which they beg leave to pre.
All which is generally submitted.
PHI LO WHITE, Chairman.
' Salisaury, Feb. 22d, 1849.
To the Editors of the Carolina Watchman :
Gentlemen; The Bill chartering the
"Central Rail Koad," passed by the Le
gislature whose labors have just been ter
minated, has fixed the attention . of the
people I mean the MASSES in 'e very
region of the State, I have visited; and
the question is asked with thrilling inter
est Will the charier be secured?" On a
subject of so much comprehensive impor
tance, I imagine any remarks containing
neither personal nor political reflections,
respectfully tendered, will cheerfully, re
ceive a place in your columns.
An idea has become very generally cur
rent that the passage of Rail Roads through
villages and interior towns, afJect injuri
ously the value of real estate in them, bv
fvf",nK ,he ,ra? Pto P0!"" Pressing
FeaTter commercial facilities. Thisopin-
,on 1 am inauato Deltevc, has even now.
iPerated to determine the capitalists of
Salisbury to close their purses against fhe
promotion ot tne scheme. The view is
correct or otherwise according to circum
stances. In densely populated countries
where villages spring up at small inter
vals to supply the conveniences qf every
neighborhood, the tendency of Rail Roads
being in a great measure to bring points
comparatively remote into close commer
cial contact, they must produce the re
sults, alluded to above. But Western
fpassmg through must from the Very na-
Iture of things, exert the very same influ
ence that a navigable stream does, run
ning by an interior town. The analogy,
will strike any man who reflects upon the
subject a moment, with force. Take for
an example then, the Mississippi River
and passing by New Orleans, observe the!
numerous beautiful and prosperous cities,
Stowns and villages that dot its banks, and j
let their intelligent and wealthy inhabi-
tants, answer whether the great 44 Father i
of waters" has depreciated or elevated
the value of properly in them, and they j
will tell you that their very existence is
attributable to the mighty stream, and that
rear un a city on the mar? n" of a lar
ui , - - .of
navigable stream would produce precisef
the.Same rsult at a P0,nt ally fa
ivorable on a Rail Road. Am I mistaken ?
ilf I am. the whole argument falls to the
Wou ' From the present lights before
jime" my impression is vivid that the posj-
tion is correct. The next point is to de-
Uermine whether Salisbury be such a pp
tsition ; and for that we must observe mi
nutely the character and extent of the
country by which we are surrounded, the
prod uct i veness of ihe soil, the pursuits of
ithe inhabitants, and our relationship to
jother villages in the Western and North
pestern portions of our tate. f
I Strike a line from Salisbury 'due west
l:to the bord ers nf Tpnnpspi nnrl nnntK.r
.1 tr.. . i i ". . .
Writ,, reby the avenue whh
r'Lt.rr &,.hI.C-Vruclio ''
..u t irginia on tne iNorth. it it seek an
If Zf:: 'l"??!1: 'rV ?? -'"peil"n yy and Eastern illiberality.
y vvvw,t, umiic! oaiisoury its ac-
pot or its market. It must do so, for the
reason, that at this point, the route diver-
es from its Westerly direction and forms
a rlnt anwlA 1W tahln t.. o .l
LnrV I? y fkl"? a dUe Soulhem
yuur&e?. xience this dImpp. nnP cepe f tin
ouvrtntage or proximity to the region
above described,:which of itself, all things
else being equalj must fix the trade here.
A portion of the territory included within
these boundaries is exceedingly fertile and
abounds in valuable minerals. It contains
the wealthy and populous counties of Ire
dell, Davie, Surry. Wilkes and Burke.be-
,i - . i i
sjaes the trnnsmountain counties
immense resources are vet um.Wlnnmi
This rr,- fJ:.i., 'T
! J v.uusiucr me DaCK
ihnrv ie A 'T T J""'" Ul
Ury S to depend. Indeed Ven now, it
UrdWS to no inconsiderable extent ilS Com-
mercial supplies from this place. Scat-
tpred over the Whole of this vast area, we
tjnd small dealers whose capital will not
justify the expense of a trip to New York,
WhO (JO their trading exclusively with OUT
u . a w . ...... vj . i 1 1 . i lit mm r wnc? nAwr.. n . W
Salisbury has derived its present prosper
5 They are country dealers and do a
bartering business, taking from their cus
-U irom iniS Kind Ot trafic
tomers in exchange for goods whatever !
win meet with a ready sale here. Give
us then the advantage, of a Rail l?,t
neCting US With the Northern -SiU. 0,1
; CD - . a.vuu w l J :
vyiii it not at once make Salisbury to this
T VIUV-J, UUU
,cs,u wuai iviempnis ana the other lar,
towns on the Mississippi are to the back-
country they supply 1 But it may be said
ie territory of which this would be the
emporium, is neither so extensive nor pro
cjnetive as that of the towns to which it
is compared. I believe in point of fertili -
IJ: H W ill Compare With any region in the
teht it irH3t I lrCe ex-
tent it is absolutely creatpr than ft,of r
o . uiui. ji
r. j iiHcnur iuMn in me southern,
tvh rh I o ii . . . .
- fc ficui icurtii to tnv minu.
I :i. i i wv . ... .
- - -
..en iai:us oi javie, ireuell and Row-
an as a body are unsurpassed, and but
mlrhltT Pr0Iet0iS ! Cilities'of a
rnarket for thejr productions and their for-
tunes are immediately secured without
. . f .. . tl.ul
yy u, amp lO Uaillomia. YOU
invite them to greater diliirenr. -;.n o
golden bribe as the reward of industry.
Science Will be introduced. aarir.nl n
:,Mi i . , ' . '
Will become a Study. Sedge Will no long-
er be permitted to Wave OVer deserted
fields, fences will be rebuilt, eullies filled 1
' ... o",,,c:a Ul,cu i
p. ueiapidateu buildings repaired, and
InP nnra nrhmh .1 . .
.w.w un,u uituci inc present SVSlem'
pi cultivation of corn yields twenty or
.twenty-five bushels of corn will tripple its
fproduction. Every man's means will be
increased, and in proportion that his ca
pacity to grat fyhis wants are enlarged
-n iT ' . lZ c,,l"rgea.
his des.res Will be expanded. " Such is hu-
man nature, lor SUCh has been Its history, j
The effect. inpvifnhU Q U: ...:n u 1
The effect, inevitable, of all this will be 1 nd' "'T"; h wil1 of eneral convenience ,o mer- TThr " ll Ue "PPr1Pnftl'n
that three times lhP flmn, 7f 1 .DP' ams, and other persons corresponding wil, other Na- ! f , 1 hfee Millions of DollaiS for the avow
I": . Umf . "mount Of Surplus :i.ons and Countries, and tend to prevent mistakes and ! ! purpose, of cmiblinff tbr Prr.id.nf
productions Will be exposed for sale at !
an increased price, and that whereas be
fore only a portion of it came here, in the
event of a Rail Road running through
pur streets, it must all do so, either to find
;a depot or a market. This must increase
the commerce of Salisbury at least fiv
' C 1 .1 1 - i ..
pri , , . - i
, a o,ucii iu me inercnan s. camta tsts. '
onrl rvrn. U ll ro i- I r .
and property holders of Salisbury, to know
11 U1IS View Ol the SUbject S not Correct '
If it is not, I ask them through vnnr l
urns to as in IL W n T I
urns to assign the reasons. But if it be ;
true, asa mere matter of dollars and cents, '
throwing OUt of view all Considerations of '
patriotism State nridlT 5" f "Jj ??
patriotism, otale pride, d.c, ought they;
not tO subscribe. I assume, as a proposi-
tion that will be conceded, that if I go to
a eanilalkt tn nrnm.ro l,n I c . ,
him fhlr h 1 P.? u ! ,and Sa1,sfy '
him that the debt will be amply secured,
and vye agree upon the rate of interest, he
will not hesitate to advance the monev.
Rut !n ti,; -oc tkk . . r
2JV'' ib 'ld.0!e,mems. ,ake
lipmpnls trk tabu
stock, to individuals possessing real estate
in or near this place, are greater than any i
man seeking a loan can Droffcrwho do.
serves to be trusted This can be easilv
shown. Suppose one who owns a house
ad lot in town worth one thousand dnl-
,ars subscribes five hundred to thr Ril
dred then he receives a return of one thou
sand. Does any man doubt that the value
of property will Jbe: increased at least in'!
that ratio. If he does, he has but to make !
inquiries, and he will find that even the
passage of the Bill granting the charter
has already advanced the price of real 'l
estate some ten or fifteen per cent. I have ;
made these remarks simply to show that I
men of substance in this community as a j
mere pecuniary operation, ought to step
forward promptly and take shares. Thev l
cannot lose, and must be advantaged by
the operation. j
One thing, however, is very certain, if
we do not seize thej present opportunity-to i
secure the very liberal charter proffered!
by the last Legislature, the doom of Wes- '
tern North Carolina is fixed, and her ties- i
tiny for next half century at least, must
be irremediable obscurity and we shall
have none to blame but" ourselves. The
twiu, auu in uoing mUSt dOUble the pre- i ,n nuroPe Asia Alnca, and America, belonging orsub
Jsent Value of real estate. ecl lo the Crown of Great Britain, ihe said suppuiation,
' 1 nr..l i . . .. i according to which, the year of OUT Lord herrinnolli .n
VOLUME V, .NUMBER 44.
1 lins of the
i &d b.h' p TsoT
i " b f-r he closed abouK'
i & a. sr j k. m .
t And not only th! 1 imiif rnnnlr Atira K, ik.
I ISm.V11'3 wiM m3kc )Y"
i.- nicir guuua transported nere, ana
bring to ,h,s market whatever ihty m.yhave received
For the Watcnjan
WHO REGULATES TME ?
We go by the Town Clock here, says on; My
watch is the, standard, rays another. My clock regu
lates the son, says another. But that is not what I mean;
how came we to begin our year, and adjust our calen
dar by the course of the sun as we" now do ? Perhaps
not everv one ran tll T!. r , ,
, . auLirui ivutuaii recKoneu
bv lunar vrnr, na ..i.v.i;oi...4 u r.. i . .. ..
. r' . .-u uy J'
'lcea me system known as the Julian Cat
; enoar, till
enoar, till ihe present time. In that, thre
! common.consist.ngoiaoodayseach. Every fourth year
the 24.h of February was reckoned ,.,. I, addil .
day to the vear; but not to the month ; U was re-
as having" the same number of days as before
, oue day was ihe 24th and the next ihe 24th, and being'
,b 6th f e Wwof March, and reckoned Iftirf, was
; hc4ncc callfd bis-sexiile, or' twice-iixtk year. We add
dav now at Ihe rnd of February, every fourth year
t - -l.
",aK,"S oays in the raomh, anJ3G6dnysin that vear.
1 his system prevailed a long time, generally in use
in Europe ; and to this day, in Ruia. But at length
it was found that the civil year was too long for the year
actually made by the course of the sun. In A. D. 35
t at tne lime ot the Council of Nice, the vernal
,eu ine Ist ' 3,arca' but In lj82' il w nd that
I came "n "V earlier in the year than
325. Pone Greworv XIIT A rr,A ...
month of October, ordering the 5th to be called the 15th.
This is called the new style, and the former going on
unchanged in Russia, is old style.
This change, however, did not prevail immediately in
all the Countries of Europe that now follow the United
States. It is 267 years since it began, but was adopted
.j uujs ,ui 01 i ne
in fcjigland, and of course in this Country, in 1752.
was none bv an net nt k.i mman, a :.
be a cujriosity to some, we will give a copy of if
An Act for regulating the commencement of the year
fnr .i.. . . . J e year,
" y me .uirnuar now
i Wh,r,a. the r.i ... : r .L ,
1 r :. ' -tp-me year or our
. r - - .... ..,,, VBCU u ,(.
. mat pari ot li
; j: . i i
rent Hriiain I.' . .
1 , V8" T u r y, . Desmm?' on ne -5ih day of ;
i ihe usage of neighboring ionsfi X ith" !
me,hod of compulation in that pan of Great BriiaTn !
' M.P the common usage throughout' I
tlie whole Kingdom, arid thereby fren.i,,, o I
occasioned in the dates of deed,, and othe wr tin- !
I and dilutes arise .herefrom. i'; VuP-5
' n now ,n u lhrou?l,oui all his .Maresiy's British
! r.'m, nS' T m?ly talled lhe Julian Calendar, hath
i ut-cu ui5.covereu to oe erroneous, by means whereof 1 1.
Vernal or Spring Equinox, which aTthe V of Z
General Council of Nice, in ihe yepr of our Lord 325,
t3ppened' " u bout,' '1he12,s, day of "ch. now
hannens on the f)th or 10i i r f L
the said error is still incin:
...... I I :.. e . '
""u,u " process oi ume, occasion the several Eo
.1 c ii .....
rs uiiu ooisuces, to iuii at very ditlerent times in the
civil year, irom wiiai they lorrnerly did, which mHu tend
to mislead persons ignorant of the said alieroiion: And
whereas, a method of correcting the Calendar in such
manner as that the Equinoxes and Solstices, may for the
. u y a c t3"16 nonuPal da9'in which
the same happened at the t me of the aid Genenl
Council, ha, h been received and established !!' M, no J
generally praensed by almost all orher nations of Europe:
And, whereas, it will be of general convenience tn mr.
.vo, itnu iu Jievei!i mi
disPu,es in r concerning the dates of leu.-
counts, it ine ui.e correction be received and established
in his Majesiy's Dominions: May it therefore please
your Magesty, that it may be enacted, and be it enact
ed by the King's most excellent Majesty, by and with
the advice and consent of :he Lords Spiritual and Tem
poral, and Commons, in this present Parliament assem
bled, and by the authority of the same, Thar in and
throughout nil hi a If .; IA:., : i
: r . i i i .
rs and ac- 1
. - .....j. LruuiMiioii!-, una countries
thpO-h ,i, r m,.j, .l.m , , v:
. r 77 -', no 1 1 noi ue maue use ol rom
and after the last day of December. 1751 , and ,ha ,he ;
ay OI January next llowmg ihe said last day of
Drcernbr' sha11 be reckoned, taken, deemed and ac- ;
cu,nt,ed i lhe fis,dayof tI,e 'tar of our l
and the first day of January which shall happen next af-
"T the id firel of J.nu.ry. n.v..haii 1 i reckoned,
deemed, and accounted ,0 be ,he first day of the
year of our Ijrd' ,753- and f'om time to time.
. -.. , . . ,
, A"d th.t from and after the said first davof January.
,'n,h; 7"' dfays ?r"ch h on and .V
"ckoned and numbered in thesume order : and the feast I
of Eas,er' and olh" n,oveab,e depend
shall be ascertained according ,o ,he same method, as
?T u,n,il 2J of Septemher.in thesaid
y.e.aI' ,-. ', ,nrcl,u,sive ; and tl,a.t.,h'. uaturi day ve. t
n,ruiaiei! jouowtng the said lid day of September
.l.u ii. j i' i ,
tmmu""tiy jouowwg the said ud day of September
A'l'"i - f '! i
ky of- Septeinbtr, omitting for that
en in,ermedia,e nominal days, of th
time only, the elev
of the common Calendar.
Th is is all of the Act that we need. It further nro-
vides as in the Calendar of Gregory, that the bissextile is
to be omitted three lime9 in four huudred years. Thus
1800 would have been leap year, but was reckoned
common: so will be 1900; but 2000 will be leap year.
In this way, the civil and tropical years will always
nearly coincide. The difference will be a day in 423G
Thus, we see, that Julius Ca-sar, Pope Gregory XIII ,
and the British Parliament, have had a hand in reula- ;
ting our time for us.
The following calculations taken from a recent work
on that subject, by Henry Browne, A. M.
From the Creation to Noah's flood, 1655 years.
From the exoUe of the Israelites from
Egypt till ihe end of the Mosaic Dis
pensation and the destruction of the
Temple, A. D. 70 , 1C56 "
From the flood to the promise made to
Abraham, Gen. 15th chapter, (not
what is called " his call. "; 430 "
From that time to the exode from Esypt 430 "
From the exoJe lo the reign of David 430 "
From David lo Babylonish captivity, 490 "
From the rebuilding of Jerusalem o
the death of Christ, Daniel's 70
From the promise o Abraham above
mentioned, to the war with Barcho-
, chebos, under the Emperor Adrian.
A. D., 1355 times 430, (5X530) 2150
The birth of Christ, gth Dec. B. C. 5,
that is, before the era from which we
reckon, ' 5 "
Death of Christ, Friday 14th of Nisan,
our April, A. D. -; 29
His mi nuil rv lastrdbul little more than on ,nr
This is commonly supposed to have been 3 years, but '
this author inclades in hit'pertod the-ministrj of John ' '
Baptisf. The time that "Christ ' liire4 on earth b jW '
1-S0of the time from ihe killing of the first Paschal Lamb ! ' ;
in Egypt, till his death. - It was the Year of Jubi.'ee ' ''
" the acceptable year of the Lord." - From bis death til! ! X1
the destruction of ihe Temple U 1-40 of theaSove tie-
Oo the same day of the same mooih. the decree Jfni '-
oot against ihe Israelites inthe wilJerrr., CrbidJng ! ' ! ,
them to enter ihe promised UruL; and both the first and ; '
second Temples were destroyed 0:h of March, A. B. r li! '
Oo the same day of vengeance, by the eomt,.ao4 pf tj '
Adrian, A. D. 135, Turn us Rufun ploughed up ihefoun- ? !
da tion of the Temple. This Rufaa is not ihe sameW '4; ?
Twentiut Rvfvt, who ( oramandd before, under Tirus," -when
the Temple was burnt. , . r
The Solar, Cycle in 23 years: the Lunar 19: the Ro-,
man Indiciion 15. Multily these al together, and k
makes 79?0, which is called the Julian Period.
The great year of the' Egyptians;' U 14GI common
j", -J? ?riT every four years, w hen a day is ad
ded, 4X3631460; . e., in 1460 years, days in this
way will be added, enuueh lo mike on fear. The leap
year will hare travelled round through all the day ;
the year back to ihe starting point. Hence it b AnntxaJ
.Magnus, or Great Year. - ' i
The eras from which time i reckoned, are crealioa
4004 years before Chrisl, or our Anno Domini.
The founding of Rome 753 years before Christ, i. e ."
A. D. i
Thejirst Olympiad, used hr the f.rek 7?fi n r.
The era of NabonnasKirthy the Chaldeans, 747 B.C.
The era of the Selencidae in Syria.12 B. C.
We reckon also, from the Declaration of Independ
ence, July A, 1776.
The Mohammedans from the itegira, or flight of their
founder Irom Mecca, July 16, 622, A. D.
O The followirrg Enigma was copied from the R. I.
Advocate, in lh36. Perhaps some of your readers can
1 furnish a solution :
1 am a compound of six parts.
Am used in almost all the arts.
O'er all the globe I oft have been.
Yet ne'er by mortal eye was seen.
The first and second of uiy parts
Are sometimes found wiih farmer's carts:
My sixih and first is what the beau
Is most afraid his lass will sltow r
My fourth and first put with my last
Joined with my filth, is all that's past.
My first and sixth united, make f
Brave Perry's watchword on the Lake: -
My sixth and fifih put with my third.
Would be a name by France revered.
, My tiit and third, was killed by Jews,
; When Ue to cheat disguised his shoes :'
When time began my whole was formed,
I into life have millKKis wanned,
j No heat in me was ever found,
I or ''g'". nor smell, nor any sound, i
Yet I can burn the hardest steel,
I And make galvanic batteries yield.
I often deal in human blood,
et all mankind pronounce me good.
i lurnisn man with meat and drink ;
Am in life's chain ihe strongest link ;
My name is known o'er all the land
From Greenland's seas to India's strand. ; ,
While time endures on earth I dwell, "
But what I am no man can tell. SPHINX
Mr. Stephens, of Georgia, in his speech
delivered on Saturday Jasf, made an aRu
sion that drew from the famous Mr. WiT
mof, a stHtement. of which we have wai-
I leU tO SPP. SnitlP lrtuill m r.. . . I ... ...
- - . l.lin u it-iiwii. IJU1 up
nave received none more minute than thr
-Wasiiixoto. Saturday, Feb 17
rr. .t. e,. .
ntTMJ' &P"ens. ln course of Ins thnl-
img speech to-UAV havintr a riLr! t
pledge given to Mr Wilmnt bv" Me P I
b K en. 1lr N,'mot Mr. Polk
in regard to the extension of Slavery into
the New Territories, Mr. Wilrnot obtain
ed the Moor next after Mr. Lahm.of Ohio,
and prpeceded to make the following ex
He (Mr. W.) called upon the President
some two years since in reference to his
famous Proviso, upon an inlirriation that
the President wished to concur with him. .
Mr. Polk opened the subject by informing
Mr. W. of his deep anxiety for ihe passage
of the Three Million bill, and saying that,
he considered the Proviso bc great obsta
cle to such passage. Mr. W. demurred
tLt .L..1....I .. i .1
make 1'eace unnhl r:,it.r 5 .1
; ----- iiiijivjc lijtiu
1 facilitate a Treaty, being regarded as an
i attempt to bribe the Mexican rulers. Mr.
Polk replied, raTlier forcibly, that he was
probably befter informed on jhrtt subject
j than Mr. W. could well be. a's be bad fre
; quent communications with the lending
j personages in Mexico. Mr. Wilrnot then
i said that he had no desire to embarraKs
iiniiiiiisirailOll, nor lO PTolract the
War ; and that, if he enold h 1
Pftmni:A- Tw V4
cO"pllshing in some Other Way the great
end of Pro,,hi,iS ' rxtrnsion of slave-
ry. he would choose that other war He
u.ould as ,0n nut tl,. Pen! 1 n " r 1
"fUl? S?" fl"1. ",l 1 ,SO ,n. l form
J a Jo'nt Kcsofttion. and press it in that
form, if that would efTect the same end
Mr Polk honed he wot, 1,1 . . .
Z, ,7" d" &
metI inat ,n lnat form the resolution
would not be unpoptftarm the South not
even in Mississippi He denied thit th9
South 3,', r, t t IT
... , a"X fS l e on.U
larr), auu SillU mat lor HIS OWn Part 1G
t- . . . . - I .
31"ry, aim saiu mat lor his own r
Jid H lo ie, ancfor foot of
territory. He added: that he believed
slavery could not be extended without en
dangering the harmony and stabltily of
Such, said Mr. Wilrnot, was the sub
stance of the President's remarks to me
, on that occasion. I have onlv once before
5PKen OI and then to the gentleman
I r- . , .
Irom Georgia (Mr. Stephens.) but I did not
consider the conversation in its nature pri-
vate though he had not Seen fit to SPCIlk
. . p ?. .rn
oi ii un now.
"What will the South say to this V -From
the Enquirer, of yesterday, we
learn that Mr. Wilrnot said that he had
last session, communicated the fact of his
conversation with the President to both
Mr. Stephens and Mr. Woodward, of South
Carolina. The Enquirer sajs
44 We have no late Washington papers.
j but learn from a gentleman of high char
j acter, who arrived from Washington yea
j terday, that the I'reMdrnt has authorized
i Judge Bayly to state that the story is false,
i and Mr. Stephens is defied to make good
bis chargt. It is not a strange spectacle
; to see Mr. Stephens, the fire brand and
' factious agitator from the South, so close-
ly affiliated with the Barnburning inceh
j diary from the North I The coalition is
a monstrous one, and lhe story concocted
between two such spirits in itself comes
before the world in "a. most questionable
sharH" With the President V positive de
nial, it will, like another " protocol"' serVo
to blow lip'thc inventors.
l r l