Fdr tho "Watchman.
i V rouhr in- sEssioNj.
U honorio'cJtrt of Hem and Quarter Sessions
. nuty j,'W In session, nnd! r$dy for the
fi , Jutr,iTlie unsophisticated reader may
. t.,. tnli of f Ai court, so t Will toll him all
V00 t, u 'mnoHed .of Mrs. IWestburn, Mrs.
,d Mr, tlburn, regular members, and re-
In additi' ociwonolly from the justice loci
'"Veitbufn, the. chief justice-;! a Widow bbout six
lr vf Se , pnfe herself on her respectability, and
; V heard ui U4.Pt that .he is one off tho fimfa
' b' r. HusHtt ban seen about fory years paw, is
B,a,e'i -,i ha. a lareo family. Mrs!- Tyburn is a bro-
wo fortune huiler, they are all Comfortable in
iiMrs. W. HiburiiN.or in other words, to make two
Iti s'nd hem cravat I
TVell. lacnrs.wh itis the news?" says Mrs. West-
I d- nut know uny,' replied 3rs. Kusaet, sot
i ..,t-rrnil Mr. Hawkins Ss' croinir to put
la Tlfl ""T i,
,:,,,. ia.v Mrs. Tyburn. This piece of infor-
01tHa was RK'KtM. r - .
her lad-- " W"lwlv win 1,6 get mony enoueh to Put
1 . factory r lH)H.:xc!a.m.Ml in a breath. Well, I
j. ' iur! I do not know unless he borrowed it," was the
f. ''I t gtby stealit
- :r r f-f j - " ' ' ' i 1 j
J. J. CRUNER,
Keep a check cpox all tocr.
Do THIS, ANp LliERTT IS SAFE."
VOLUME VIII NUMBER 2.
SALISBURY, N. C, THURSDAY, MAY 15, 1851.
i - . i .
What port f d factory is it?" Mrs.
Mrs. U. "Yes, and it will get
made subservient to the well-being of the animal; creal
tion, and to the health and happiness of men. feisinrj
into regionsf perpetual ice aijd shew, ttwy serve? in ho
climates to cool the burining air, and to fan wit& deli-j
cious breezes the heated breath of exhausted criation
and, ward off pestilence, by purifying the atmosphere
and exciting fr sh source of vitality in the pantiog anc
languid system. They are the reservoirs of rivers, sup.
plying the failing or exhaused streams in the low!coun
tries during the summer and dry seasons, with Copious
orrents from the melting snows. j !
They are storehouses of the richest minerals, and thus
jJ,-.nJ man who ivuu m . v
creditor' by biiihh2 laciory ; ana rmaiiy, mat ne was
, tvriodler wlio would tako his neighbor's property by
bxk or crook. Aad who was Mr. Ilawkins? An
jncrt hard-workinij man, who did notjowe a dollar in
the world,4"'! wa"inipl enough u btelieye he had a
Vight Jo build a factory without asking lave of the court.
, u,t ihig casij was tlisjMjscd of, therie was an. inter-
jujjgiun 01 nan an llOUr III i uitai iuc uuai-
; n ii Wliil. llifV wpfn nl dinner, twn
jutt oi ews - "
ntlfmen, I)r. eattake and Mr. Uljfton rode by.
T))$ court was instantly en tho fjui vivje to discover who
"hejt wrrr, where, th;ey had come from and! where they
Wfte fiJ1?- AS iici were warning, iney reBorieu 10
oBfCturr. They finally came to the; conclusion that
'jf,f J had been to Tjriiby Smith's, but jwerei devided in
cpioiun their (lofllination. Mrs. V. asserting they
wtri joi.n(.to see m rases Jones, ' for the doctor
TfU courting there.?!! Mrs. It. thinking they were go
jpjtpiJi, although they had no tackle ; and Mrs. T.
young genilfineu were going, I am not able lo say.
Th'u case wat;imdT clweuspum about two houra.--
Th difficulty of deciding was occasioned by the tenti
The monotutiy was broken by the eatrande of a ne-
jWgirl bWongintf to Ir. Mon-ton. "Wjcll, rn girl, what
you want," saidIrs. W. T.hp- grl answered by
kandirtg her a letter from hcrirnstrfess. While she
lis reading1 it, Mrs. Jt. and Mrs. T. plied th girl with
'. r . . MX..-. I., ....... H A ..
ttiitrnsT V' M (mr to" " ' no wa8 at y1" house
lotnijhtt iwked Mrs. It. ' Mr. Clifton," repled the
jirl. "What was he after?" ' I do not know ma'am.
"Don't know." ''That won't do with me,"" replied
)Ju Udy harslily. ' Ain't he Courting your young mis
frrm " I don't know ma'am," said the girl alarmed,
"know hols, said Mrs. T." interfering. The exami
biuoo wai continue ni-nr an hour, but just as they had
arrived at, the color' of Mrs.-More ton's new dress, Mr.
Buitand Mr" Tyburn came for thir wivs and the
Caurt adjgurned. '
:v ' SPIRIT OF EUItirEDES.
' EsOllT A.vn'IlKVRV CoLLROEr-
May (ith, 1,1.
" . Mb l) N TAINS.
vided among them by the Foreman. In
the evening enough is cooked for both
supper and breakfast ; so that by the time
we have done feeding stock, supper js
ready, and the hands have only to eat and
they are ready for bed. When the flights
are long the meat for supper and break
fast is .sometimes divided without cook
ing. In addition to the above, the negroes,
during spring and summer, usually get
plenty of milk once a day. During fall
and winter the quantity of milk is more
limited, and what molasses they get, they
are rnade to win by picking cotton.
To make one negro cook for all is sav
ing of time. If there be but ten hands,
and these are allowed two hours at noon,
one of which is employed in cooking their
) dinner, for all nurnoses of rpst tht hnur
Carolina. The blowing is a list of some of the Highest j had as well be spent in ploughing or hoe
n our borders: Black Mountain, North Carolina, 6 ing . and WouW be tQ hmrs,
feet; Mount Washington, New Hampshire, ,428 feet i ,r.-U nc n uA . .,.u l r .l r
Mount mv. N.wVJt nn. ! if'rl.n vvork of one hand : whereas the fourth of
Vermont, 4,279: Peaks of Otter. Vinrinia. 400 i that lime WOUid be sufficient for one to
Round Top, Catskill, New" York, 3,800. j
mav be Considered as mines nf wpnlth TK inpraa.i
burpt." Mrs. W.ji Certainly it will, hud then he will ; the surface ofthe earth, and give rich8g anddiUr.it
. i' ,1 I.;,. rriiltlorN iiluui i. ;iiiib iuiiuuulcu
. t;.. on MK Jlawins, who was discussed until
, ..t,.,iv nt.and tf;th court at least; that hewas a
to hi vegetable pnxluctions. They frequently
shelter from the piercing blasts, and by reflecting the;
sun s rays, they afford a genial warmth. By attracting;
the driving clouds, they cause the land to receive' an in-j
creased amount of the dews of Heaven." i !
The highest mountain in the United States is in North,
The hills! the everlasting hills ! !
How piierli-PMly- they rise,
Liko Earth's gigantic Hont'mels j.
Diwoursing in the nUifS.
llail l-Niiturti's Htorin proof fortresses
Uy'freodoiii'H children trod ;
Hail! yc invuliieruble walls, I
The mnmmry of (itnl.
When the dismantled Pyramids
Shall .blend with desert dust i
When eVr ly temjile made with hands,
1 fuUblt'BH to its trust,
. Ye shall jit st(Hp your Titan crestsl-
1 Magnificent as now !
Till ymr Almighty Architect
In thujuler hid you bow.
I love ya In your quietudo
Where e'er a silent world
Morn's silVery mists entwine your minks
Like banner's lightly furled ;
i ' 1 . . . . . . . .
iur let! when throneu on blackest clouds
' Thttfound ye roll and veer,
The utonn-god pours his thunder truknp,
And liurls his lij;hlnin spear !
I lov the. torrents strong and fierce
Thpf to the pi ain ye fling,
. .Which gentle flowers drink at their coal,
Ami: Eagles at their spring.
And whM arrested in their"speed
By winter's wand of fro6t,
The brilliant and fantastic forms
Inhich their vtarr are tossed.
I tovej'ttpon the breezeless lake
To ee your shadows sleep
n " h'delovly sails the crested swan,
J AUivc each mirrored steep :
, 1 Vvti.yur shapes precipitous,
Bite, ue,l;UL., nnt.j grand,
That sund fur out i ocean
Lfc inlprim fr(m the land!
Glorias ye are when noon's fierce hi ami
, 1 Your ;nake(l summits smite,
As (for ye day's great lamp hangs poised
- In fcloudless chrysolite;'"
, Clo'riuus when o'er ye sun set clouda
Like broidered curtains lie.
Sublime whrn through dim moon ligt beams
l our spectral mnjosty.
I love your iron sinewed race
( Have shared their rugged fare
ne ure8ii(,i()s f whi- eyre homes
w out on DounOlysa air
; lKlI hunters who from highest clefts,
The wild goats' trophies bring, j
u crest tiicir b,.nnets with the pluhiea
v "l your atrial King.
y fva'aer'n amid Helvetian Alps
Th $witzcrs daring leap,
i olied on his pole o'er bridgcless vids,
. - A. thousand toises deep
' V "h.o u his keen unquailing glanco
',; hat, challenged where it fell
I wity the same high purpose beam,
'.U. , Tj11 nerved the patriot Toll. ;
r 1 e ilia numntain maidens
Tlleir stept' elastic spring
'ighi as if K.mejewless'Vird,
' . Upbuoyed them with its wing.
! v , T the w'ld unfettered grace,
U . . , 1 "l hath never Iled,
ao Uieirs the healthful purity.
i J "ak wn nativ n.t soiled.
JJSEg OF MOUNTAINS
tteat elevations of the Earth't Arfacc
From the Southern Cultivator. j
MANAGEMENT OF NEGROES.
Mr. Editor, As the proper manage-!
ment of our nejgfoes is a subject not se
cond in importance to any discussed in
your columns, I hope it will not berieem-l
ed amiss if, in giving my views, I enter!
somewhat into detail. That on some
points I shall be found to differ in opinion
from some ofyour-readers and correspon
dents, is to be expected. I shall not, how
ever, object to any one's expressing hid
dissent, provided it be done in the spirit;
oT kindness. - ! . j
Our first obligation is undoubtedly to
provide them with suitable food and cloth
ing. Here the question arises What i
sufficient food ? For athere is a differ
ence in practice, there must be also in
opinion among owners. The most com
mon practice is to allow each hand that
labors, whether man, woman or child;
(for a boy or girl ten years oliL or joverj
who is healthy, and growing rapidly, will
eat quite as much as a full grown trian or
woman.) 3 lbs. bacon, if middling or 4
lbs., if shoulder, per week, and bread at
will ; or if allowanced in this also, a! peck
of meal is usually thought sufficient.
W-ith plenty of vegqrbles, this allovyancd
is quite suflicient ; but if confined tokneai
anu bread, negroes wiio work hard will
eat a peck and a half of meal per week. 1
As I live on my farm and occasionally
inspect the cooking for the negroes, I sed
that they have enough, but nothing to
waste; and 1 sneak from nersonal obser?-
I 7 i
vation. when I state, that if without vegei
tables, they will eat this quantity.
With very little trouble we can always,
during spring and summer, have plenty of
cabbage, kale or mustard for greens, also
squashes, Irish potatoes, and beans. Io
fall and winter, sweet potatoes, turnips,
pumpkins and' peas.- I believe there is
no labor devoted to a provision crop', that
pays equal to that bestowed on a! plain
kitchen garden. As there is no vegetable
of which negroes are more fond than of
the common field pea, it is well to save
enough of them in the fall to have i them
frequently during the spring and summer.
They are very nutricious ; and if cooked
perfectly done, and well seasoned with red
pepper, are quite healthy. 'If occasional
ly a little molasses be added to the allow
ance, the cost will T)e but a trifle, jwhile
the negro will esteem it as a great) luxu
ry. As most persons feel 'a great reluct
ance at paying out money for little luxu
ries for negroes, I would suggest the pro
priety of sowing a small patch of ivheat
for their benefit. The time and labor will
never be missed. Many persons are in
the. habit of giving out the allowance Jp
their negroes nce a week, and requiring
them tor do "their own cooking. This plan
is objectionable on various accounts.4
Unless better provided for taking care of
their provisions than is -common among
negroes, some will steal the flfeat from
others, andt he loser is compelled, for the
remainder of the week, to live on bread,
or the master must give him an addtion4l
allowance. TheT master can not expect
full work from one whois but partially
led; while on the other hand, if he will
give the loser an additional supply, the
Um m imnosft nnOri his
liri uiJ ouuii - I y r 7 I
kindness, by being intentionally careless, j
or bv trading off their meat and pretend
ing it has been stolen. Another objection
is that some are improvident, and will get
through with their whole allowance of
meat before the week is gone, and conse
quently are a part of their time vVithout
any. x s
To making the negroes do their own
cooking the objections are still j more
weighty. U encroaches upon the re$t
they should have both at noon and at
night. The cooking being done in; a hur
ry is badly done; being usually burnt out
side while it is raw within ; and conse-
quently is unhealthy. However abund
ant may be their supply of vegetables, thp
hands hajve no time to cook them, and
consequently are badly fed, and have nJt
the strength to do as much labor as they
could otherwise perform with comfort.
The plan pursued by the writer is, to
weigh out a certain amount of meat for
each day ; a portion of which is gven to
the cook every morning, to be boijed for
dinner, and with it are cooked as many
vegetables and as much bread as the ne
groes will eat ; all of which is usually di-
houses being but one story high, the low
ness of the chimneys renders them vory
liable to smohn from currents of wind
driving down the flue. This, may be ef
fectually prevented by the following sim
ple precaution. Around the top of the
chimney throw out a base some 8 or 10
inches wide and from the oqter edge of
this draw in the cap an angle of 35 or 40
degrees with the horizon until true with
the flue. No matter in what direction
the wind blows, on striking this inclined
plane the current will glance! upwards
and pass the chimney, without the possi-
couvenienl dutance. Where there are piout
negroes on a pla'-ation uho aie difpoie'd. thej
should be allowed and encouraged to hold
prayer-meetingt among ihecnselTes ; and where)
the number is too great to be accommodated
in one ofthe negro houses, thej should have a
separate building for the purposes oi worshlpj
Where it can be done, the services of a minis
ter should be procured for their jpecitl benefit.
Djr having the appointments fof preaching, at
noon during Summer and at night during win.
ter, the preacher could consult his owoconTen
ience as to the day of the week without ia the
least intefering with the duties otihe farm.
A word to those who think and care but lit
tle about their own soul, or the soul of the ne-
abuck.1 .upply.he hand, (,om .be UWI.- ! SS."? 'V"."!00 ' ,Mt
Some person make each nero carrv a i. T,uren' Dnare a e ,ona e; company:
or large gourd full of water to the field eerj L'Te ' r L I T? '7
morning and .bis has to serve for the day. . tZ V T V T fee PeCI,Z al ef"e!
During fall and winter, hand, may be made w hh,ir , Jm T '7 i
to pack at night what cotton has been ginned ! 7uullTT ' ,,?"P,B.U,e,-Md
in the day. The women may be required to I Pr' "Z L T S
spin what little roping will be ne.elry tor Z Pf inL 1 rrott
n u -j..i. l J, , ,he teehng?. If m this association the chid
plough lines, and to make eom heavy bed
quilts for themselves. Besides this there is
very little that can properly belone of nights.
One of the most important regulations on a
association the child
becomes familiar with indelicate, vulgar, and
lascivious manners and conversation, an im
pression is made upon the mind and heart.
cook for all. As there are usually a num
ber of negro children to be taken care of,
the cook can attend to these, and see that
the nurse do their duty. I would add that
besides occasional personal inspection, it
is made obligatory on the Overseer, fre
quently to examine the cooking, and see
that it is properly done.
One jof your correspondents has endea
vored to prove that lean meat is more nu
tritious than fat. It is, however, a well
known fact that the more exhausting the
labor the fatter the meat which the ne
gro's appetite craves, and it agrees well
with him. This I regard as one of the
instincts of nature ; and think' experience
is opposed to your correspondent's theory.
As to clothing, less than three suits a
year of every day clothes will not keep a
negro decent, and many of them require
more. Children, particularly boys, are
worse than grown personson their clothes,
and consequently require more of them.
I have never been able to keep a boy,
from ten to sixteen years of age decently
clothed with less than four suits a year ;
nor would that answer, if vspme of the
women were not compelled to do their
mending. It is also important that wo
men who work out, should in, addition to
their usual clothing, have a change of
drawers for winter.
As no article of water-proof, suitable
tor an outer garment, and sufficiently
cheap for plantation use is 4o be had in
the stores, the writer would suggest the
propriety of having for each hand, a long
apron with sleeves, made of cotton osna-
burgs, and coated with well boiled linseed
oil. In the fall, when picking cotton, this
apron may be worn early in the morning
until the dew dries off, then laid aside.
By making it sufficiently loose across the
breast, it can be used as an- overcoat at
any time that the negro is necessarily ex
posed to rain.
Patching may be done by the women
of wet days when they are compelled to
be in the house. Or when a woman, from
certain causes, is unfit to go to the field
she may be made to do a general patch
ing for all the hands.
In furnishing negroes with bed clothes,
it is folly to buy the common blankets,
such as sell for a dollar or a dollar and
a quarter. They have but little warmth
or durability. One that will cost double
the money will do more than four times
Besides whole clothes, negroes should
have clean clothes, and in order to do this,
they should have a little time allowed
them to do their washing. As it is not
convenient for all hands to wash at the
same time, they may be divided into com-
Dlllty Ot blowing down it. A COHt of white ! going to bed, will et a stool or chair and nod
wasn inside and out, every summer, adds
very much to the neat and comfortable
appearance of the buildings and is also,
by its cleansing and purifying effect, con
ducive to health. The cost is almost no
thing, as one barrel of good Jime will
whitewash a dozen common sized negro
bouses, and any negro can put it on.
It there be not natural shades suflicient
to keep the houses comfortable j a row of
mulberries, or such other shades as may
suit ther owner's fancy, should by all means
be planted in front, and so as to protect
the houses on the south and southwest.
The negroes should be required to keep
their houses and yards clean ; and in case
of neglect should receive such punishment
as will be likely to insure more cleanly
habits in future.
In no case should two families be al
lowed to occupy the same house. The
crowding of a number into onq house is
unhealthy. It breeds contention ; is de
structive of delicacy of feeling, and it
promotes immorality between the sexes.
f;,rm;.,nano,u,,ui'.L....,..7. r.i.. ! "u,rn 'sl3 ,ur years pernaps for lile. lould
...... v. turn i nanus "n Mri ly II S tTB, ' ,. 1 1 . rr . .
'pi..., ,u i.i , ? j . we m all cases trace effec s to causes, I doubt-
1 hey are thoughtless, and it allowed to do soIT i . v.i(1ui.uk
will ooi .., , n i j i j t- no1 uul many young men and "women of re'
vmII set up at all hours, and others instead ot ' f... " i i
J.ll c l.i (ln aiiU Ui IUl )l(IpCll MT UU
J i. .1 . 1 1 i. i i t
or S een till mmnintr. Hv ha nne! nmo r tan . ' . . . r . . r
!, M i J u ,Ti ii i Y heen ''d lo lhe a,a s'ep ihvfteds of cor
o clock, all hands should be in bed and unless : J -.HlfcL.
in case of sickness or where a woman has
been up with her child, if, any is caught out,
after that hour, they should he punished. j
A large sized cow bell that could be heard
two miles, and would not cost more than three or
four dollars, would serve not only as a signal j
for bed time, but also for jreltinjj up of a morn- I
mg, for ceasing work at noon, .and resuming it 1
after dinner. Where the distance to be heard ;
is not great, a common har of cast steel hunji
up by passing a wire through one end. may be
struck with a hammer and will answer in place i
of a bell.
ruption, which in the days of ,f?uvod and
youth were sown in their hearts by the indeli.
cate and lascivious manners and conversation
of their father's negroes. Il this opinion be
correct, an effort to cherish and cultivate the
feelings and habits of delicacy and morality a
mong negroes is forcibly urged upon us by a
regard for the respectability of our children, to.
suy nothing oi the prospects ot both child and
servant in another world and of our own re
sponsibility w hen the great Master shall re
quire an account of our stewardship.
I have given you, Mr. Editor, an outline of
Most persons allow their negroes to cultivate ' nnAanto ...:ii " , J u .
1 MM tl (IP n 1 C W I 1 I r l r r Mil a m r a avmaIIam amtm
or a number ol ...:m i fi: ., L . . '
, . . ,,c "in "riicm jour icaucrs, anu mucu ouiia
It I c no Tl Ia , . J O
a small crop of their own.
icasuus mr uiiiii is . uau one. 11 is nexi io i r,:,i
11 i r . i jour irienu.
miipvj53ihic iu ivccp uiriii Htnu wurKIIIg llJrir
crop on Sabbaths. They labor of nights when
they should be at rest. There is no saving
more than to give them the same amount, for
like all other animals he is only capable of do
ing a certain amount ol labor without injury.
To this point he may be worked at his regular
task and any labor beyond this is an injury to
both master and slave. J hy will pilfer to add
Sleepy Hollow, Sept. 1850.
From the London Globe, of April 5th.
THE ROTATION OF THE! EARTH VI.
The experiment now being exhibited in Pa.
ris, by which tho diurnal rotation of the earth
In addition to their dwellings, where ! t0 what corn or cotton thev have made. If rendef,d palpable to the senses, is one ol the
there are a number of negroes, they should ! they sell their crop and trade for themselves most remarkable of the modern verifications of
be provided with a suitable number of ; they are apt to be cheated out of a good pur. ; theory. Although the demonstration bj which
properly located water closets. These
may contribute an income much greater
than their cost, by enabling the owner to
prepare poudrette ; while they serve the
much more important purpose of culti
vating feelings of delicacy.
There should at all times be plenty of
wood hauled. Surely no man of any pre
tensions to humanity, would require a ne
gro, after having done a heavy day s work,
to toil for a quarter or a half atnile under
a load of wood before be can have a fire.
An economical way of supplying them
with wood is to haul logs instead of small
wood. This may be most conveniently
done with a cart and pair of hooks, such
as are used for hauling stocks j to a saw
mill. Such hooks will often cqme in use,
and the greater convenience and expedi
tion of hooks instead of a chain, will soon
save more time than will pay for them.
The master should never establish any
regulation among his slaves until he is
fully convinced of its propriety and equity.
Being thus convinced, and haying issued
his orders, implicit obediencejshould be
required and rigidly enforced, i Firmness
of manner, and promptness to enforce
obedience, will save much trouble, and be
the means of avoiding the necessity for
much whipping. The negro should feel
that his master is his la w-giver;and judge;
and yet his protector and friend, but so
far above him, as never to be approached
save in the most respectful manner. That
where he has just cause, he may with due
deference approach his master and lay
before him his troubles and complaints ;
but not on false pretexts or trivial occa
sions. If the master be a tyrant, his ne-
'.I'll Mil 1.
lion ot tneir lauor. i ney win nave many things ; the rotation of the earth has beeh established
- j.u,.u u .n I-'-''"- to be such as to carry a conviction to the minds
nuitu v c- nuun uui wuciuci iotj uuiamcu nun-
estly. As far as possible it is best toplace tempt,
ation out of their reach. We have all their
time and service, and can surely afford to furnish
them with such things as they ought to have.
Let U3 spend on them in extra presents as
much as their crop (if they had one) would
of all who are capable of comprehending it to
which nothing can be JmaginefJ to add either
force or clearness, nevertheless even the na
tural philosopher himself cannot regard the
present experiment without feelings of profound
interest and satisfaction, and lo the great mass,
i f i t .
yield. By this means wo may keep them from ' ,a wnom lne complicated physical phenomena
whiskey and supply them with articles of ser- I bv xvl,ich ,he rotation of theearlh has been e
vice to a much greater extent than they would lablished are incomprehensible, this experi
get if allowed lo trade for themselves, while we ! menl i"valuab!e. At the centre of the dome
avoid the objections above stated. . ! of ,he Pantheon a fine wire at -attached, from
Believing that the strolling about of negroes vv;hiclj a sphere of me'al, four or five inches io
for a week at a time during what are called ! diameter, is suspended so as lo hang near the
Christmas holidays, is productive of much evil, i 00r f building. This apparatus is put
the writer has set his face against the custom. I in Oration after the manner ofVa pendulum.
Christmas is observed as a sacred festival. j Under, and conceatrical with'it, is placed a
On that day as good a dinner as the plantation I circular table, some twenty feet in diameter,
will afford is served for the negroes, and they j tlie circumference of which is divided into de-
all set down to a common table, but the next Srees. minutes, iVc, and the divisions number-
ed. .Now, it can be shown bv the most ele-
day we go to work. From considerations both
of morality and needful rest and recreation to
the negro, I much prefer giving a week in Ju
ly when the crop is laid by, to giving three
days at Christmas.
On small farms where there are very few
negroes, it may be proper to allow them to vis-
mentary principles of mechanics, that, suppos
ing the earth to have tho diurnal motion upon
its axis which is imputed to it, and which ex
plains the phedomena of day and night, Ate,
the plane in which this pendulum vibrates will
not be affected by this diurnal motion, but will
it to a limited extent, but on large plantations i maintain riclly the same direction during
there can be no want of society, and conse- I twenty-four hours. In this interval, however,
quently no excuse for visiting except among 1 tDe ,au'e OVPr which the pendulum is suspend
themselves. If allowed to run-about they will ; et wil1 continually change its position in vfrtue
rarely ever take wives at home. The men tno diurnal muiinn. so as to make a com- '
wish an excuse for absence, that under pre. ' l,lelfl revolution round its centre,
text of being at their wife's house, they may ' Since then, the table thus revolves, and the
run about all over the neighborhood. Let it , pendulum which vibrates over il does-not re
be a settled principle that men and ihir wives 1 volve' lhft consequence is that' a line is traced
must live together. That if they cannot be ! ,JPon the table by a point projecting from the
suited at home they must live single, and theie ' bottom of lhe ball will change hs direction re-
fwill be no further difficulty. If a .master has 1 'ativeiyto ine tat.ie, Imm minute to minute and
a servant and no suitable one ot the other ex Irorn noUr - ,iulir. othat it such point were a
for a companion, he had better give an extra Penc" ancJ ,tial PaPer Wer" prad upon lhe ta
J . . . . I In sections of country that are sicklv it will be
panics, a certain evening assigned to each j conducive (0 heaIth, in the fall, to make
company. 1 nose wnose time it is to wasn
should be let off from the field earlier than
groes may be so much embarrassed by his : price for such an one as his wouLI be willing
presence as to be incapable ol doing their
work properly when he is near.
It is expected that servants should rise car-
ly enough to be at work by the time it is light
the rest of the hands, and on that night
should be free from all attention to feed
ing stock. The rule works equal ; for
those who have to do extra feeding on one
night are in their turn exempt. It should,
however, be an invariable rule not to al
low any of them to wash on Saturday
night, for they will be dirty on the Sab
bath and render as an excuse that their
clothes are wet. On some large planta
tions it is the daily business of one hand to
wash and mend for the rest.
In building houses for negroes it is im
portant to set tbem well up. (say 2J or 3
feet from the ground to the sills) so as to
be conveniently swept underneath. When
thus elevated, if there should be any filth
under them, the master or overseer, in
passing can see it, and have it removed.
The bouses should be neat and comforta
ble, and as far as circumstances will al
low, it looks best to have them of uniform
size and appearance ; 16 by 18 feet is a
convenient size for a small fHmily. If
there be many children in a family a larg
er house will be necessary.
Many persons, in building negro houses,
in order to get clay convenient for filling
the hearth, and for mortar, dig a hole un
der the floor. As such excavations uni
formly become a common receptacle for
filth, which generates disease, they should
hv nn means be allowed. In soils where
the clays will make brick, the saving of
fuel, and the greater security against nre,
render it a matter of economy to build
chimneys. In all cases She chimneys
should be extended fully two feet above
the roof, that there may be less danger in
discharging sparks. They are also less
liable to smoke. In consequence of negro
the hands eat their breakfast before going into
the dew. In winter, as the days are short and
nights long, it will be no encroachment upon
their necessary rest to make them eat break
fast before daylight. One properly taken care
of and supplied with good tools, is certainly
able to do more work than under other circum
stances. While at work they should be biisk.
If one is called to you, or sent Irom you, and
he does not move briskly, chaslise him at once.
If this does not answer, repeat the dose and
double be quantity. When at work I have no
objection to their whistling or sing some lively
tune, but no drawling tunes are allowed in the
field, for their motion is almost certain to keep
time with the music.
In winter a hand may be pressed all day,
but not so in summer. In the first ofthe spring
a hand need not be allowed any mor time at
noon than is sufficient to eat. As the days get
InnfFrnnd warmer, a longer rest is ne-
cessary. In May from one and a half to two j
hours, in June two and a haU, in July nnd Au
gust, three hours' rest at noon. If the day is
unusually sultry, a longer time is better.
When the weather is oppressive it is best for
all hands to take a nap at noon. It is refresh
ing and thej are better able to stand pressing
the balance ol the day. Hands bj being kept
out of the sun during the hottest of the day,
have better health, and do more work the sea
son than those who take what they call a good
steady gate, and work regularly from morning
till night. They will certainly last much long-
If the corn for feeding is in lhe shuck the
husking should be done at noon ; and all corn
for milling should, during summer, De snenea
at noon, that as the nights are short the hands
may be ready for bed at an early hour.
If water be not convenient in the field where
the hands are at work, instead of having it
brought from a distance in buckets, it will be
found more convenient to have a barrel fixed on
wheels and carried lull of water to some con
venient place, and let a small boy or girl with
to marry, than to have one man owning the
husband and another his wife. It frequently
happens that one owner sells out and wishes
to move. Neiitter is willing to purt with his ;
servant, or if one will consent, the other m not
able to buy ; consequently the husband and
wife must part. There is a sore evil, surely
much reater than restricting to the plantation
in making a selection.
In the infliction of punishment it should ever
be borne in mind that the object- is correction.
If the negro is humble and appears duly sensi
ble of the impropriety of lii conduct, a very
moderate chastisement will answer betier than
a severe one. If, however, he is stubborn or
impeitinent or perseveres in what you kiiuwia
be a falsehood, a slight punishment will only
make bad worse. The negro should however
see from -your cool, yet determined manner,
that it is not in consequence of your excited
temper, but of his fault, and for his correction
that he is punished. As a general principal
the legal maxim that " it is better ninety and
nine guilty persons should escape than one in.
ble, lhe course formed by this pencil during
twenty. four hours would form a system of lines
radiating from the centre of 4he lable, and the
two line? formed alter lhe interval of one hour
would always f.rm an angle with each other of
15 deg., being the i wenty. fourth part of the
circumference. Now this is rendered actually
visible to the crowd which daily flock lo (he
Pantheon to witness this remarkable experi
ment. The practised e) of a correct observ
er, especially if aided by a proper optical in
strument, rn'iy actually see the motion which
the '.able has, in common with lhe earth, under
iii e pendulum, between two successive vibra
tions. It is, in fact, apparent that the ball, or
rather the point attached lo the bottom of the
ball, does not teturn precisely to the same
point of the circumference ot the table after
two successive vibrations. Thus is rendered
visible the motion w hich the table has in com
mon with the earth. Ii is true tha, correctly
speaking, the table does not turn round its own
centre ; but turns round the axis of ihe earth ;
nevertheless, lhe effect ofih.2 motion relatively
' suspended over the centre of tho table is pre
i cisely the same as it would be if the table mov
ed once in twenty-four hours round its own
'centre, for although the table be turned. In
; common with the suiface of the earth, rouad
: the earth's axis, the point of suspension ol the
pendulum is turned also in the same time round
the same axis, being continually maintained
I vertical above the centre of lhe table. The
j plane in which the pendulum vibrates does not,
' however, partake of thi motion, and conse
: quently, has the appearance of revolving once
i in twenty-four hours over the table, while. In
reality, it is the table which revolves once io
twenty four hours under it. !
nocent should suffer," is correct. It, however,
has its exceptions. If, for instance, the ne
groes take to killing your pigs, rr stealing your
chickens and eggs, and you cannot ascertain
who are guilty, it is only necessary to put the
whole crowd on half allowance of meat for a
few days and the evil will end. This remedy
is heller than a perpetual fuss and suspicion of
In the intercourse of negroes among them
selves, no quarrelling nor opprobious epithets,
no swearing nor obscene language, should ev.
er he allowed. Children should be required
to be respectful lo those who are grown, more
especially toihe old, and the strong should nev.
er be allowed lo impose on the weak. Men j Philosophic Editor. The editor of the
should be laught that it is disgraceful to abuse i Alabama Argus, published at Demopolisln
or impose on the weaker sex, and -if a man , Marengo, makes merry, after the follow-
should so iar torget and disgrace htmseii as ,u , - fashion4 over wbat most foiks would
strike a woman the woman should be made . consi(jer a 8prious troub,c .
io give u.mio. nicKory ...u r.ue .... . ..... We see the sheriffhiis advertised lhe Ar
Ibe wife, however, should never be required " . . . - . iV-
to strike her husband, for fear of its unhappy 8" e for sale during our absence. .We
influence over their future respect for, and kind- I ?0PeneL D,u?er lu nav?,a me" "!" 5H
11. II me snerill cnru-.i, uc win uu
ness to each other.
The neernes should not be allowed to run
about over the neighborhood ; they should be
encouraged to attend church when it is within
more than we ever could. Like a damp
percussion can, we think it will fail to go
off.- - . 1
; I i
: 1 i . - - .r:-v" - . i i n
i - - - - - - - m