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0 / 75
i .... r . -a,
t!'i. v Tii Dollars payable
! V'L, pa'i.1 in stivunce, Two Dollars
'Bl '" . ' i.
.....i .1 SI for the hrsl.HndVJCts.
nl lnvrliorvo'"af r
l 1L1I J 1 - . ...
. kinhrr lhan these rare. A Iiu-
ffiu. - - . , i
H 5n i- bo advertise by ibe year.
Vritke of llcprcsentalttts :
i i ... 1..H mi l our common consul
in r n i n rr s 1 ; . V ' ' ' -' v ;
! mmhWA WATCHMAN.
i i.vi.ruii r 'i -1 " v j "im.ii
J. J. BRUNER,
Editor 6f Proprietor.
Kzzt X CHECK UPOX ALL Tor
Do THIS, AND LliBERTV IS SAFE."
I"'' ..k .11 ihfl WOtlfl.
wim w p
i ' a lime '"rf ,r,,r" ' "' in,
r uhich rTMkeJiton people., it
h . Ji.ii; "(J lrV"f,,if
:o fMoi-iirf ihe release of such citizens of the
United States, engaged in this unlawful enter.
prUe, as are now in confinement in Spain;
hut it is to be hoped that such interposition
" " ""iii--m 01 mat country may not
SALISBURY, N. C, THURSDAY, DECEMBER lTTsS it
VOLUME VIII NUM BER 32.
. i . . .,umki inr N4MOO won tin
i b"'r V. I I I ' k I - A I V. viwii. mij not
..n4 " "' u-iuiiiS aor prounU ol ex.
which ar ur lorward to the j imnMhiiom that the Gov.rninnt of the United
' ...i i.-i'.ire u. without feelinir a ' States will. hiuftr fi :i....ir i.
l dmi;" 1 , , i , ' " "iiuer any ou.
I , ,.r4"ic' - ...... ... ... iinruK lor ine liberation,
.Vi;i.o-r-ve--' '' 11 -'" r"r or pi-.rdon of such persons as are tyrant ofl'n.
j i ,u ,;!l.Mif.,ot.al.enefireiii rovidence, j ders aai..st the law of nations and the laws
I :....-rn. Clf ' ' ""-a '"c im ui mr umieu Otate. I hetH !iiv .r.i.El 1
cited. K we deire in
t l!r . - II J
f.tibijWv f.iv.d l.n.d.
L K cl'-- ofthU Conffres. certain i l.ility anions the nations, ol the 'earth, it he
f wh'iwcrt! morn or le concern
r ii r . l. . - . . . .
riii-cu ')' " laourr, ihvb aain i aMs wun condign pniiishment.
.1... ..r it.; p i.u i... ... i u .. ..!... ..
hoves os to enforce Readily and flernly lh
neutrality acts passed hy Cingrrsa, and to fol.
ow, as tar as may he. the violation of those
. ,ba h-"lll!,,y c,M"'ry. ly rna
,v .cfiiK ( ffi'iiiMiient ol another mill-
.(j.ijn!! 8Hiiui triHt po4H8iori of her
I n1-iv. ui which Ihey wertj connte.
and juijiro iij me ijiuti-ns oi irie
1(l,r4, On receiving intelligence that
iv,n,ere enle i liiMied, V lost no lime
1 . .r.rh iiiiruH'iis to the proper
t, ,k, Lni'l .SiaK" Ji femed to he call.
tfi" orcaioii. "Uv 'lie proclamalion.
Hut what irives a
invasion ..f Coha i, that under the lead ofSparn
Mh euhjeria and with the aid of citizens of the
United States, it had its origin, with many, in
motives of rapacity. Money was advanced by
individuals, prohaMy-in considerable amounts,
to purchase Cuban bond?, as they have been
called, issued by Lopez, sold, doubtless, at very
large discount, and for the navment f t,;u
the p.,blic lands and public property of .Cuba
.. k-rh 14 lie re with submitted. I nUn l nl uhuinvor b;..A .u c .i '
. - j auu me uscai resources ol
;,K, who might be m danger of being . the people and government of that island from
into iht scheme ui Us imlawful rharJ' whaterer source to be derived were pledged as
(J1(,ln! ihl- penalties which lhe would well a the good faith of i,e. a()vernrnent 'ex
I F'ir ,,,ne ,here WH" reBon to peeled to be established. All These means of
t'.U Ii.'" moires had sufHced to pre. j payment, it is evident, were only to be obtained
'M a-n)l. I his h..p. however, by a pmces, of bloodshed, war, and revolution
-ft-: If" J-'""1-'- ,arl' ""he ,ru. None will d-ny that those who se fot mij'
F ! ...
Ju.n ''() ujjwaid- tit lour hundred armed
.?i;h ev njf in imeiMioiM io mane war up
i ..: f .1... :J I 'in.: . i:
y airijfii rT ,IM i iiu "p'in.
J . .) . I . i i
y ini'eu oiaies. u leader was a
J,fi,U'I veral ofilie chief ofli-ers, and
'i,.itr engg-f in it, were foreigners.
F i . . , . . ... ' ir , , ... J S""U !l mill-
i,a, jh.nl ' 'airier called ihe ! lary exped.tions against foreign States by means
l.ru,e.rtedlr..fn New Orleans for Cuba. ! like these, are far more culpable than the ir.
norant and necessitous whm they induce to
go forth ajj Ihe ostensible parlies in the procee-
dillff. 'l'hl'SP lriirinul..r, ..f ii. . : r ti
f - . iii I . I . -.ii. ..i invasion ol lu-
i Pm.i in palpable viohtioii ol ihe j-ba seem to have determined, with coolness and
-..r,, ..,...ii an uunrtakrug whieh should dis
grace i heir country, violate its laws, and put
lo hazard ihe lives of informed and deluded
men. Y,, consider whether further leis.
lit ion be necessary to prevent the perpetration
ol such offences. in future.
No individual, have a right to hazard the
peace.'ol ihe countrynr lo violate its laws Up
m vague notions of altering or reforming oov
eiiromems i other Stales. This principle is
not only reasonable in, iiself.rj ln accordance
with public Jaw. but is engrafted into Ihe ciKles
of ollor iiHiiikiid a a will .. , n . i
r"1'" ,h" P''luti..n of ihe such are ihe s-mimenls of this Uovernrinp.it it
may be ad.lerl thai every independent 4jali.u1
musi be piesurned lo be able lo defeod its pos.
sessi.uis against unauthorized individuals band
ed logcihe,- I,, aitai k them. The Government
f the United States, t all limes since its esi
tablishmeni. has abstained and has sought to
restrain the citizen of ihe country, from enter
ing into controversies between othr powers,
and lo observe all ihe duties of iiHutraliiv At
1,7"! '," 111,1 "r, A.igu.i. an early peri(M ,.f ,f,e Government, in thfl ad.
" ' ii-oungion. sevei ai laws wee
passed lor this purpose. The main provisions
l these laws weiH re-enacted by the act of
April, 1818, by which, amongst other things,
it wax declared that j any person shall, within
the territory or jurisdiction of ihe United States,
begin or set on foot, or provide, or prepare the
means for any military expedition or enterprise
t be carried on fVifm thence against the lerri
lory or dominion ofany foreign prince or State,
or of any colony, district, or people with whom
the United Stale are at peace, every person so
offending thall i be deemed guilty of a high mis
demeanor, arm" shall be fined, not exceeding
three thousand dollars, and imprisoned not
mure than three years ; and this law has been
executed andVnlorced. lo ihe full extent of the
power of the Government, from tha1 day to this.
. r.a.ionru oeiore a military in proclaiming and adhering to the doctrine
? 'ff .futem-ed 10 be publicly executed, of neutrality and mm intervention, the United
oiaies nave not followed ihe lead ol other civ
ilized nations ; they have lakeu the lead them
selves, and have been followed by others. This
was admitted by one of the most eminent of
modern British statesmen, who said in Parlia
ment, while a minister of the crown. that, if
Ts'tiiroiiijiiKing jt, however, were most
', iii lhi tinileil Stales.
"4 f e 1 he rteiiiKiti ge out, B'ul probably
. ,: Wi oiiz 'il, flight iusurreci ionai y
fi,iiii, which a(jers to have been soon
jf ;-etf, lud uken place in the eastern quar
i Cubit. The importance 'of this move.
uiifniiinialely o m.i- exaggerated
'9 iccotints nl it'p.ililisl.ed u this country.
)W hijvrnturern seemed to have been
U!iee that llie Cie.,le nonulatinn of the
1 ii.'l only ile. iird to ihiow ofl the authoii
i k in-.lher r.ninrrv. but had resolved 011
''' bad lit'X'in h well conceited en '
4 !.r . llei ting ji. The persons ei,ia'ed
ifi;i.li"ioii were generally loung and ill
It'll. Ihe if.vncr in which Ihey em
Wl'ii New Oilcans stealthily. and without
I-anrf. At'er l.Mi. l.ing 11 1 Key WeSt. she
M In the c.asl of Cuba. and. 011 I he
Wlwei-n ihe lhh and 1'2'h f Aig'il.
lli lllo.ilM nil Ixi.'irJ .-.I fk.t i,.a ...iil.:..
i I "! 3, Til
1 . t ....
f ivvenry lentil,., ,, I J :i va Hit .
ui. in I,.mv i,( iIomii proceeded to, and
hii inland village hil
liiait, leaving ..thers lo follow in
ihe Iwgjrage, as soon as the means of
V'limi.ui niiibl be obtained. The taller.
I.Mak'n ..p their line of march lo connect
with the main bodv, and having
"InM about f,ix league) into the country,
f mi the morning of the 13ih by
l i.l'Vrii.h iroops, and a bloody conflict
fl;f'er. which they retreated tohe place
-a! ami le.embuiked therein. They
J. Ui-iir, intercepted among the keys
'"li'.r l.y a Spanish steaUlei crui-ing
cii.nired hi. .I carried to Havana",
y "r'"K 'laininetj ,e ore a 10 iirv
'tr futenced to be publicly executed,
V-ntpiire was canied into elTect on the
"""". 01 wnai riin or.
Cmtn.KlMreJ'inhall A. Jarker was
H to proceed in iht- steam. fr igate Sa
tltaiia, and inquire into the charges
r'b prrsmn executed, ihe circumstan.
' hichthey were taken, and whalso.
V''& to their trial and sentence. Cop.
J iiiMrurtions from ,,)e l),ltiillmeut f
f '"Ma.,a,Hll hi, f letters lo thai Depart-
1 herewith submitted.
''2,o ,hp record of ihe examination,
".a'.l admitted the offences ,t
'111. Ill IlAlli.M 1.. " I m
., : - "o-iie invaders of ih
by force, if icesarv. ih U..w;.. r
f wvm.i' U tUTCQ-
1'2 T a-njr ,,a,lon on ,be ,s,a"d "I Cuba
Wllh hosll U J.O-..I TL. . v-uu
,1, . ,ue! copy oi a rnemoran
dum of a conversation on this subject between
the Charge dAfTaires of her Bri.anic Majesty
and the Acting Secretary of State, and of a sub.
s'quen, nwIe r lhe (rmer o D
ol iUte, are herewith submitted, together with
a copy of a note of the Acting Secretary of
fcta e o the Minister of the French republic,
and of the reply of thedatter, ,he same sub.
J-ct. , 1 bese papers will acquaint you wiih the
grounds of this interposition of the two leadin
commercial powers of Europe, and with the
apprehensions, which this Government could
rot fail to entertain, that such interposition, if
earned into effect, might lead to abuses in der.
ogation of the maritime rights of lhe United
Elates. The maritime rights of the United
States are founded on a firm, secure, and well
denned basis ; they stand upVni'ihe ground of
iNational Independence and public law, and
will be maintained in all their IjII and iusl ex
tent. K J
The principle which this Government has
heretofore solemnly announced it still adheres
lo and will maintain under all circumstances
and at all hazards. That principle is, that in
every regularly documented merchant vessel,
the crew who i.aviga.e it, ad those on board
! it, will find their protection in lhe flag which
- y.rr u.em. no merican ship can be al.
lowed to be visited or searched for the pur
pose of ascerlainiiflg the character of individu
ais on board, nor can there be allowed any
watch by the vessels of any foreign nation over
American vessels on the coasts of ihe United
biates or Ihe seas adjacent thereto. It will be
seen by the last communication from the Biil
Uh Charge d'AfTaires lo the Department of
Stale, that he is authorized lo assure the Sec
retary of State that every care with be taken
that, in executing the preventive measures a
gainst ihe expeditious, which lhe United Slates
Government itself has denounced as not being
enliiled lo the projection o! anv government,
no interference' shall lake place "with the law.
ful commerce of any nation.
In addition to the correspondence on this
subject, herewith submitted, official information
has been received at the Department of Slate,
f assurances l.y the French government lhat,
in th orders given to ihe French naval forces,
they were expressly instructed, in any opera
lions they might engage in, to respect the flag
ol ihe UnittKf States wherever it might appear"
and lo commit no act of hostility upon any ves
se or armament under its protection.
Ministers and consuls of foreign nations are
the means and agents ol communication be
tween us and those nations, and it is of the ut.
most importance lhat, while residing in the
country, ihey should feel a perfect security so
long as they faithfully discharge their respec
live duties and are guilty of 110 violation of our
laws. This is the admitted law of nations, and
no country has a deeper interest in maintaining
it than the United States. Our commerce
spreads over every sea and visits every clime,
and our ministers and consuls are appointed to
protect the interests of ihai commerce, as well
as to guard the peace of ihe country and main
tain the honor of its flag. But how can tbey
discharge these duties unless they be them
selves protected : and, if protected, it must be
by the laws of ihe country in which ihey re.
side. And what is due to our own public func
lionaries residing in foreign nations is exac:ly
the measure of what is due lo ihe funclionaries
of oiber governments residing here. As in
war, the bearers of flag's of truce are sacred.
or else wars would be interminable, so in peace,-
embassadors, public ministers, and consuls,
charged with friendly national intercourse, are
objects of especial respect and protection, each
according to the .rights belonging to his rank
and Station. In view of these important priu
ciples, it is wiih deep mortification and regret I
announce to you that, during the excitement
growing out of the executions at Havana, lhe
oflk-f of her Catholic majesty's consul at New
Urieans wajs assailed by a mob, his properly
... - r I " v iij a 0100, uis properly
he wished for a guide in a system of neutrality, j destroyed, the Spanish flag found in the office
he should lake lhat laid down bv America in narrLit .X? n..A . 11 . .
he should lake that laid down bv America in
the days of Washington and the secretaryship
ol Jefferson ; and we see, in fact, lhat the act of
Congress of 1818 was followed, the succeed
ing year, by any act rf ihe Parliament of Eng
land, substantially; the same in its general pro-
Up to lhat lime there had been no
1 I C 1 1 . l 1 .
, . " """vns ui mi' 1 similar iw in iugiauu, ecem certain niizniv
Al IT.f lim . I'.l . . 1 .1 . .- J
1 . ' "pir trial and execution oena statutes nasseri in lhe renrn of (.eorrre 1 1 "'.
nil IhxU li tVi- : I ... I ' 1 . e. - r 1 "!ju, ma, 1 uu iinlll OI3UC OTOVISIOIl IOT
, - iiiviu'ers was still in ill I nri.liil.inn.T l. .. I i K i.l. "1-1 iV..r .,1;.;.... r k j . l? .
, V : r- .."..1 t.H.5'iMS 111 sticii inueinriiiy 10 nim as a jusi rpgard lor the
liallii.ll AllthfirillAj ' l.iruliin .1 r ! 1 f lk.i nit.Linufl ..l.i..-t nC ...1.1.1. I I I - I ... ....
nonor oi ine nanon ana the respect which is
due to a friendly power might, in your jndg
1 nine Ctpanish authorities . f.ireign service, the avowed object of which
ii MitiM,.u 11,.:. ... 1. r ... . Jy. . .
t i' m!' f'er, and
carried off and torn in pieces, and he himself
induced to flee for his personal safety, which
he supposed lo be in danger. On receiving
intelligence of these events, jfforlhwiih direct
ed lhe attorn y of the United States residing at
NeW Orleans to inquire into ihe facts and lhe
extent of the pecuniary loss sustained by the
consul, with the intention of laying them be-
lore Vou. lhat You miuht make nrnvui.in f.r
; 1111113 ...
t ' i 1 e r" WPr Killed, or died of
nj Uti.'i.e' .,,! .1...
, veral ' lh,," were par.
.Jii t. - "i ineir inends and oih-
e hundred and sixty
Snain. Hi .fk
y ii ii 11 1
e no official
fi! r.'i .1 .
f ... , nooin one
4,Je 01 we hav
J '"Minrholy r,d, of , hi, illegal
f "Urfnr .', ,ncedf by false and
i-f(, e . " " uuiotinaea ex.
to accomplish noliiici.1
. f. w nd have lost their
. :,u,"'i: l oo .erere .,t..-
'''Paferl hv iK.
Ik. - - -i ww mio iiuiMrrmiii
- c..nnu,lh m
' r a ri i. i - ' i iv.' iov i.o.n u -oop m ii ii-ii
H.;n,, . tpse oi some siatutes was, mat loreign armtesraised lor the
.... "V iTCOIMt. .- .k- kJ . :. i . . . . . !
purpose ol restoring lhe house of btuait lo the
throne, should not be strengthened by recruits
from England herself.
All must see that difficulties mny arise in
carr)ing the laws referred to into execution in
t'"' Ofth- re1 were ,na(Je a country now having three or tour thousand
!ft.... ',,,IMI l,ar to have been miles tf seaeoast. wiih an infinite number of
port and harbors and small inlets, from some
of which unlawful expeditions may suddenly
set forth, without the knowledge of Govern,
ment. against the possessions of foreign States.
Friendly relations with all, "but entangling!
.ii- -.1 .
Hiimntad wun none o.urr ron a nuim
V''A riti' rp"lt f this illegal with us. Our true mission is not to propagate
ft., i. ''''Ml. hltS, hoil" h I le IS (ilir mill lulls or !miiia nrmii nlhar rnnnlria
our form of government, by artifice or force ;
!f "u,,,r.v, ihit.u.h,0,-"Kl" VI"Ule lh" law ol ,,ut lo ,,ach Uy 'tnple. and show by our sue-
i'.r.. V rash flful tJl(IUtwItH ft. noca miolratii.u a awl i.ifioo tka Uocin.ra nl
w-vrvtiifaviAifa it i iv i lie wivqiiio si
self government, and the advantages of free
institutions. Let every people choose for itself,
and make and alter its political institutions to
suit its own condition and convenience. But,
while we avow and maintain this neutral poli
cy ourselves, we are anxious to see jhe same
forbearance on the part, of other nations, whose
forma ( hmvu ni itm nl o ro rl i fTU ti t friiin our
?ft,icli"' i Lr ,M,n re,a,in own. The deep interest which we feel in the
hiu.-i. . nrreWh -oiriimini.oi-.l - i r t . . : . . . i- i
ppreau oi nnerai principles ana i tie esiamisn
ment of free governments, and the vmpaibv
t ' rnnieni m-. u Coun,ry' wiih whi h we witness every struggle against
oppression, lornio mat we snouia ire inuiiiereni
to a case in which the strong arm of a foreign
!'n ) 'upaihv for .k ""'' n laws, power is invoked lo stifle public sentiment and
! f'if",J'. at wel J,n"ff,,,,dn fr'ni repress the spirit of freedom in any country,
th... . wr, aa Teelinr? tif rnmin . I 'Pk . f . i:.t.. I
" "KU., ! .. .p i nr uovri iniirins in oirm Lrnuill anu
i ia L rtTordin v m I c l' .l i '
j i'i !-1 r rniii-p iinve umiru inurii ill inpir n:ivi corn
inf. t- .
t xirmtri . l . - . .u
; 7,"'w. have yet led away
?"lliW.v 'it" " i,l diCted love of
''t 7' lh"r"?pHndence between
'c.il ' r1 ,ha' W Spain relating.,,
:h...L . " Rrr,withrniriimin;.il'-
?kf'i'-d ihe "''nd,r,, H's the laws
JrPo.Mo tlV:':,.,,,her c"""ries, and it.
f . " and eniorre ihe b..
B .... . -". an
' "1 III i.i it .. r
reeling of compas.
tuaua;.f -7. ,m P'PT France
wu uoue wU be spared, mauders ou the West India -Matioo to prevent
ment, seem to require. The correspondence
upon this subject between the Secretary of
Slate and her Catholic .majesty's minister pien.
ipotentiary Is herewith transmitted.
The occurrence at New Orleans has led me
to give my attention to the state of our laws in
regard to foreign embassador's, ministers, and
consuls. I thfnk the legislation of the country
is deficie.nl in not providing sufficiently either
for he protection or the punishment of consuls.
I therelore recommend the subject to the consi
deration of Congress.
Your attention is again invited to the ques
tion; of reciprocal trade between the United
Stales and Canada and other British posses
siorjs near our frontier. Overtures for a con
vention upon this subject have been re
ceiyed from her Britanic Majesty's Minister
Plenipotentiary, but it seerns to be. in many re
spefts preferable that the matter should be reg
ulated by reciprocal legislation. Documents
are laid before you showing the terms which
the British government is willing to offer, and
the measures which it may adopt, if some ar
rangement upon this subject shall not be made.
From the accompanying copy of a note from
the British Legation at Washington, and the
reply of the Department of State therein, it
will appear that her Britanic Majesty's govern,
inent is desirous, that a part of the boundary
line between Oregon and the British posses
sions should be authoritatively marked out, and
thatj an intention was expressed to apply to Con.
grejss for an appropriation to defray the expense
thereof on the part of the United States. Your
attention to this subject is accordingly invited,
and: a proper appropriation recommended.
A Convention for the ad
. . . j --...... vl naiiuvoi
citizen, of ihe United States against Portugal
has been concluded, and the ratification fetTve
bee exchanged. The fir instalment of jhe
-mount to be paid by Portugal fell due on the
30.h of September last, and has been paid.
J he President 0f lte freflch republic, ac
cording lotbe provisions of ihe co4icnrT,n. has
been selected as arbiter in the case of the Gen
eral Armstrong ; and has signified that he ac
cepts Ihe trust ami the high satisfaction he feels
in acting as common fiiend of two nations, with
which France is united by sentiments of sin
cere and lasting amity.
Ihe Turkish overiimnl Ka. l
thanks b.r the kind reception given to the Sub
an s agent, Amin Bey, on ihe occasion of his
recent visit lo the United States. On the 28h
r February last a despatch was addressed by
he Secretary of State to Mr. Mr,h ik
rican Minister at Constantinople, instructing
him to ask of the Turkish government permis
sum for the Hungarians, then imprisoned with,
in Ihe dominions of the Sublime Porte, to re
move to ihis country. On lhe 3d oarch last
both Houses of Congress passed a resolution
requesting the President lo authorize the em
ployrnent of a public vessel to convey to this
country Louis Kossuth and his associates in
The instruction above referred lo was com
plied with, and the Turkish government hav.
ing released Governor Kossuth and his com
panions from prison, on the 10th of September
last ihey embarked on board of ihe United
Slates steam frigate Mississippi, which was se.
lecled lo carry into effecifhe resolution of Con
gress. Governor Kossuth left the Mississippi
at Gibraltar, for ihe purpose of making a visit
to England, and may shortly be expected in
New York. By communications to the De
partment of Slate he has expressed his graieful
acknowledgments lor the interposition of this
Government in behalf of himself and his asso
ciales. This country has been unilv reirarde
as a safe asylum for loose whom political events I
k -ii. . .
nave. exited irom their own homes in Europe ;
and it is recommended to Cougtess to consider
in what manner Governor Kossuth and his com
panions, brought hither by its authoi ity, shall be
received and treated.
It is earnestly to be hoped that the differences
which have for sometime past been pending
between the government of the French repub
lie and lhat ol the Sandwich Islands, may be
peaceably and durably adjusted, so as to secure
the independence of those islands. Long be
fore the events which have, of late imparted so
much importance to the possessions of ihe Uni
ted States on the Pacific, we acknowledged lhe
intfependence of ihe Hawaiian government.
This Government was first in taking that step,
and several of the leading powers of Europe
immediately followed. We were influenced in
this measure by the existing and prospective
importance of the islands as a place of refuge
and refreshment for our vessels engaged in the
whale fishery, and by the consideration lhat
they lie in the course of the great trade which
must, at no distant day, be carried on between
the western coast of North America and Eas
We weie also influenced by a desire that
those islands should not pass under the control
of any other great maritime State, but should
remain in an independent condition, and so be
accessible and useful to the commerce of all
nations. I need not say that the importance
of these considerations has been greatly en
hanced by the sudden and vast development
which the interests of lhe United States have
attained in California and Oregon ; and the
policy heretofore adopted in regard to those
islands will be steadily pursued.
It is gratifying not only to those who consid
er ihe commercial interests of nations, but also
to all who favor the progress ol knowledge and
the diffusion of religion, to see a community
emerge from a savage sJate and attain such a
degree of civilization in those distant seas.
Ii is much to be deplored that ihe internal
tranquility of the Mexican republic should again
be seriously disturbed ; for, since lhe peace be
tween lhat republic and the United States, it
had enjoyed such comparative repose that the
most favorable anticipations for the future might,
with a degree of confidence, have been indulg
ed. These, however, have been thwarted by
lhe recent outbreak in the State of Tamaulipas,
on the right bank of the Rio Bravo. Having
received information that persons from the U.
States had taken part in the insurrection, and ap
prehending that their example might be follow,
ed by others, I caused orders to be issued for
the purpose of preventing any hostile expedi
lions against Mexico froor being set on foot in
violation of the laws of the United Slates, f
territorial acquisition, imr any advaniages pe
cubar U, it.f . and j, wou!d e wilh e
greatest regret, that Mexico should oppose anv
. .lid a.l. .1 ... ' ' J
T 'wc.'u ,oe accomplishment of an enter-
peal of the restrictive corn laws in England, lhe foreim
demand for th, products of the American farmer h
steadily declined, wince the short eropw and eowaertHwt
ii -if V couipiraureTuwntlaocw of fi.
II will U seen, by recurring to the commrrritl statis
tics for lhe p. year, that the v.fue of oar dotnesllc
expurt fe&s fceeo increased in the sirtfe item of raw co'
toufcy 54000.000 over the rml.e of that exp r
lhe year preceding. This i. aot de u ay i.Wca
general demand fur that article, but t iK, .hort crop of
r JS.t nim.li irtairu mn increased demam;
and aa augmented price the cn.p laft year. Shou' '
the cotton crop now roin? forw ard to market le on!r
equal ,a q jaauty tu that of the year preceding sod bo
sokl at the present prices, then there would te fW
off in the a!ue of our exports for the present fiscal vcar
of at feast $40,000,000. compared with lhe amoani 'ex
ported for the year ending 30th Jone, 151.
The production of fold in California the past vear
eeras to promise a large suppl of that metal from that
coarter for oooae Uuae to come. , Th Urge annual iu.
crease of the earreBcy ef fae worl mart be attended
with its annual rr!t TV k. i i j
I Ually di;losed iu the enhancement of pricesod a ris-
prise which nimi... ' "x. L " -uaj'y ' lhe enhanc
he " CV0re?,CDCC 10 I ?twf Md .Jveumre. .ein O,
---- v..l l Crnm woriu, and such eminent overtrading, as well at home a. abrwd. UuLs soine
advantage, to Mexico herself. Impressed with chfck sh' be given to th.so tendencies, it u
these sentiment, and these convictions, the ! a.itr lhatJmfa
Government will continue to exert all orooer drifn ,U TT'r mia ,f d to oddfB
eff'orls I,, ,rn i . .. ail proper , drain of the precious meta s from us, Lriueuir with it. aa
meni w hK ,heSr M! ,hffneC.e4S;r a"a"- 'l h" ! tint., the u tlJZ
ment u jib the repubhc of Mexico for the s peedy i 1u,n to the business aud cat-it! f ihe Aawrricaa
compleltoo of the work. ' PP1-
For some months past the republic of 'm I Thf exP,irXot peie to IU;ujdate oar foreign d-bt da
ranua has been ih,. ilL.,,- tri)UUUC 01 C- mig the past fiscal year b.ve been 8-203.979 over
ronv I - ? " b(? !h?,r? f ',e f he Civil , the amount of specie i,n,uned dunaj tk. fir4t qa"
convulsions, from which the cause of free in- of th P" er they have bUu SU.ClT.
sliluttons, and the general prosperity and so. Sboud Pre continue to Ik- exp,rtt-J this rale
cial progress of the Stales of Central rnei ira ?,e rema,,,,n? lhre quarters of thi yet, it w?! straia
Lave so often and so severelv ...ff-r J IT I i m T11' currf"c djr" the yr l.n, 3Jtk
. J uuiii , -u:ir, ioj, me eiuniuKi mnoui.i f fc.T r-'lT Oil-)
j In the present prjeroiis cmdilioa of the nainsl fi
! nances, it will become the dutv of I'ongrrss to e.uider
the best iiKxIe of paying ofTih'e public d"bt. If the pro
I seut and aniic.puied surplus in the Treasurr hmM be
I absorbed by appr.fmations of tMruord. nary character,
I this surplus s!ou:d l? rmplo) od iu iuch u v, and under
i such rvKirictions. p.s (ongr-s mav enuct, m exdu'oisi-
ing the outstand.nc dbt of the nation.
uy reference to the act of Cor-ro improved 9tH
September, lti'J. it will be s.-en that, in co'nsidrrauon
of certain co:ice?i,.iiS hv the ;a-c- . f Texan, it is pro
vided that the Tinted Slates nha't pay lo the State uf
Texas the Rum of ten million of dollar, in a M ck bear
ing five per cent interest, and redeemable at ih. end of
fourteen years, the interert pivabTe hIf vearlT, at the
Treasury of the United Slates."
In the same section uf lhe lawu i further prvvid4
lhat no more ihan five m llions -,fa,J t.K:k hhall tv? is
sued until the creditors of the Slate h.idin2 tx.uds and
other certifieates of stork of Texs, fur tthtek dtir9
on imports tcere inecnlly pledged, shall fim tile st the
I rcasuiy of the L mud State releast-s ( all claims a
gainst the United Stales. f..r or en ac-ou:st of said bnds
or certihcate., in such form as thai! be pr.-sonb.-d by the
Secretary of the Treasury, and approved by the Pru
dent of tlK- United States."
The form of release ihua provided for has been pre
scribed by the Secretary of the TreaM;iv, and approved-
II has been published in all the leading newspapers ia
the commercial cities ia the United Sun-, and all p. r-
..uiuui ciaims 01 trie Kind specih-U in th; forego-
s. - J
null! fhull K.ix.k I. 1
o..n.. ua.c oeen restored, and a govern
ment apparently stable ahall hare been organ.
zed, no advance can prudently be made in dis
posing of the questions pending betweeu the
I am happy t0 announce lhat an inter-ocean-tc
communication from the mouth of the St.
Jjhn to the Pacific has been so far accomplish
ed as that passengers have actually traversed
it and merchandise has been transported over
it; and when the canal shall have been com
pleted, according to the original plan, the
means ol communication will be lunher im
proved. It is understood that a considerable part of
the railroad across the Isthmus of Panama has
been completed, and that the mail and passen
gers will in future be conveyed thereon.
Whichever of the several routes between the two o
ceans may ultimately prove most eligible for travellers
to and from the different States on the Atlantic and Gulf
of Mexico aud our coast ou the Pacific, there is little
reason to doubt that all of them will be useful to the pub
lic, and will liberally reward that individual enterprise, by
which alone they have been or are expected to be car
ried into effect.
Peace has been concluded between the mm
ties in the Island of St. Domingo, and it is hoped"jion !
a uuiau.e u.ibi. oucn is tne extent of our commercial
relations with that island, that the United Slates cauuot
fail to feel a sir-.ng interest in its tranquility.
The office of Commissioner to China remains unfilled;
several persons have been appointed, the lacehas been
offerred to others, all of whom have decliued its accept
ance, on the ground of the inadequacy of the compensa
tion. The annual allowance by haw 'is six thousand dol
lars, and there is no provision for any outfit. I earnest
ly recommend the consideration of this subject to Con
gress. Our commerce with China is slightly important,
and is becoming more aud more so, iu eousequence of
the increasing intercourse between our ports on the Pa
cific coast and Eastern Asia. China is understood to
be a country in which living is very expensive, and I
know of no reason why the American Commissioner
sent thither should not be placed, in regard to compen
sation, on an equal footing with ministers who represent
this country at the courts of Europe.
By reference to the Report of the Secretary of the
Treasury, it will be 6een that the aggregate receipts for
the last fiscal year amounted to $.1:2,3 12,y7j,7 ; which
with the balance in the Treasury 011 the 1st July, 150,
gave, as the available means for the year, the sum of
The total expenditures for the same period werej48.
The total imports for the year ending 30th June,
1851, were Q15.7'J5,'JJ5
Of which there was in specie 4,967,1101
The exports for the same period were J17,ol7,130
Of which there were of
domestic products 178,5 iG,5."5
Foreign goods re-exported 9,738.695
c. , 8217,517,130
Since the 1st of December last the payments in cash
on account of the public debt, exclusive of interset, have
amounted to $7,501,456,56; which however, includes
the sum of $24-J,400 paid under the 12th article of
the treaty with Mexico, and the further sum of 82,59 1
213,45, being the amount of awards to American citi
zens under the late treaty with Mexico, far which the
issue of stock was authorized, but which was paid in
cash from the Treasury.
The public debt on the 20th ultimo, txdu sive of the
stock authorized to be issued to Texas by the act of 9th
September, l!:50, was $6-2,56 J,395,26.
The receipts for the fiscal year are estimated at $ 51,
800,000, which, with the probable unappropriated bal
ance in the Treasury, on the 30th June, next, w.ll give,
as the probable available means for that year, the sum
It has been deemed proper, in the view of the large
expenditures consequent upon the acquisition of territory
from Mexico, that the estimates for the next fisc:.! v.-.-.r
J should be laid before Congress in such manner as lo dis
i tinguish the expenditures so ream red from the ..iheru. in
ordinary demands upou the Treasury.
The total expenditures for the next fiscal year are es
timated at $42,89,299,19. of which th. re is required
for the ordinary purposes of the Government, other ihun
those consequent upon the acquisition of our new Ter
ritories, and deducting the payments on account of the
public debt, the sum of $33,343,198,03 ; and for the
purposes connected directly or indirectly with th ise Ter
ritories, and in the fulfilment of the obligations of the
Government, contracted in consequence of their acqui
sition, the sum of $9,549,101,11.
If the views of the Secretary of the Treaunrv in
ference to the expenditures required for these Ternlo- , gratifying ev.dence f the -nvviu-
nes shall be met by corresponding action on the part of ' ty of 'the country.
Congress, and appropriations made in accordance there- i Si.iir.M .....J.. i i a j t
. . 1 -...wi ui-.uuji. in,r wrrii iiry I'T nunin-fir. ;'
wiiii, mere win oe an estimated unappropriated balance the survey of the pjbl.r land, n l ,r,.s d o---.n
in the Ireasury on the 30lh June, le53, of $2J,366,- , Survey,,, pmie. t,ve K-ei, ,.r -a -..2.-d. iH or.-
It) flM nLA ..... L A . - A .1 1 ... 9
.-.0,0, wnriew.ui to meet mat portion ol tne public , gress lias t-en made m e.ubU'i.n- iii. ,nw.u il t. o- and
iY''o..n .-Hid addtxcial
mg proviso were required to tile tlwur release (in the
fyrin thus prescribed) in the Treasury of the United
States, on or bofore the Im day of Oet.'.b, lh.1l. Al
though this publication has been c .ntitnied from the
25lh day of March, lr51, yet up to the 1 of October
last comparatively few releases had been tiled by the
creditors of Texas.
The authorities of the State of Texas, at the request
of the Secretary of the Treasury, have furn shed a
schedule of the public debt of that Slate created prior
lo her admission into the Union, with a copy of the laws
under which each class was contracted.
I have, from the documents furnished by the Stale of
Texas, determined the classes of claims which in my
judgment fall within the provisions of the act of Con
gress of the 9th of September. 1K50.
On being officially informed of the reerh.ne kv T..
. ( -. , . .
as ot the propositions Contained in lhe net r. lWr.J I..
caused the stock to be prepared, aud the five millions
tttk iaU i t
"..til re io oe iesued unconditionally, oeanaj .ui in
terest of five per cent, from the lt day of Januarv. 1-51
have been, for some tune ready to be delivered" to the
Slates of Texas. The authorities of Texas up to
the present time, have uot authorized any one to re
ceive this stock, and itremainsio the Treasury Depart
ment, subject to the order of 'Texas.
The releases required by law to be deposited in the
Treasury, not having been filed there, the n maiMt-jr fie
minions nave not been issued. Tins amount of the
stock will be withheld from Tv : until fh.- comi t.
upon which it is to be delivered !i VI h -oinplied tv'nh
by the cred.tors of that Slate. unler I 'onjrrew hall oth
erwise direct by a und,Jic.iti..n of the law.
In my but annual message, to which I r. -f (k ci rS. y refer
I stated briefly the reasons which i:id.ir,-d m U, recom
mend a modification of the present tariff, bv ronvertuo'
th.. .. A I .
o.c ou valorem nio a spec. tic duty, wherever the arti
cie imported was of such a d.hcritiiinaiH.n should be
made in favor of the industrial pursuits uf our ou n coun
try, as to encourage home proJucuou Without cxc!ud.:i
The numerous frauds which continue-4 le practised
upon the revenue, by false invoices and undervaluaiioi...
constitute an UHanwerab reason .r ad. pong ;.- .tie
instead of ad valorem duti. in all r is. s v. 1, r" tl'i- i.a
lure of the cmunodity d. not for'.. ! it. A s'.rikik-' il
lustration of these frauds w ill be e!i !..'.ed m t'.ie li-p .it
of the Secretary of the Treasury, showing tae fur;,rtn
house valuation of articles imjs.rud uieitr a firmer Itw
subject to fp'.-C.flC duties, wild) tlitr- u:u i.j l.lJoCe-
ment to unden aluatioii, and the casto.-ii-i., a-e alua
tions of the s-me artich-s, under th- p-vj.-nt cst.-m of
ad valorem dut,e, so greatly redured a to J-nvr r..
doubt of the existence of the most tiagraiil hhufr under
lhe exisiinc aw-. Tins practical t;.n .11 .f tLe preM-kl
law. Con. billed with the e;,-t n.t. res- ..f th- cm. try,
caused by over importations and co:. jn. iit d pi J-J
prices, and with the fa. lure iu (,!::,in.' a f..re!r-, mir'it
et for our increan.nj surp!u .f br-a Jsta;l' add pn.-.is-u.iis,
has induced tne aza;u 1 reComme:,. a uiod.fica.
lion of the existing tariff
The report of the Secretary .f th - Interior, which
accompanies this omtnuiiie&tioM, w i!I pr. s.-nt a run
de:is d statement of the operations u'. lhat import-:. t
partment of Gvernm-nt.
It wnl be seen lint the ra,.h Ka!- rt of the ulIic lands
exceed those o,r th- j.r-c, .!.,, y .-,r, a-, i ii, .t t!,.-r'- is
reason to anticipate a s'il! f.irth-r . i. ,: .vithtand-
inj the large donatio-, wh.eh have 1-. mad" to many
of ihe Stales, and the lib ra! ri.-i's to md viduV, as a
, iew.iru lor military n rvie. s. Itlti tae ., inir vnv
.h arid p.- Jrpri-
r - - - t m -m tm i-. ij ni'io' ill ' nt tuiir
A .Ui U.. r. I..I.. n . - '
... . . , . . . , "LUL uuc ' louowing, amounting io t.,- , meridian lines. H it fartl.T o.n .-hi. 1 add t
likewise issued a proclamation upon the sub- 237,931,35, as well as any appropriations which may j appropriations w,.l le- n-cary b fo-e ,he ?'., . T
jCt, a copy of which is herewith laid before j be mad beyond the estimates. j d.vi ons can be made, and the'g. ,,. ral la- d utn
vou. This anneared to he rendered imnerative Iu lnu8 referring to the estimated expenditures on ac- I tended over tiuv- rem.He oaxts of o.ir teriiu iv.
by Ihe Obligations of treaties and the general newly-acquired Territories I may express Oa the 3d of March last an act whs pa. d sftuj,,,,
,J.. r A ut u j b " ' ' t-e hope that Congress will c.jucur with me in the de- for ihe appointment of three coitim,.,-, i
duties of good neighborhood. 8ire that a liberal course of policy may be pursued to- ' vate land claims , California. Three ,.-r..,.. ., . r.- L-
In my last annual message I informed Con- i waids them, and that every obligation, expressed or im- mediately appointed, all ofborn. b-.w .-vt. d. cWd
gress lhat citizens of the United States had P'ied, entered into in consequence of their acquisition, accepting the oince, m consequence of the aiaj quaey
undertaken the connexion of lhe two oceans ! 6',a11 be fulfilled b mo8t I,bcral aPPlM"tus for ; of the compensation. OU.er. were pron,;. i, lected.
by ol a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuan- j XTofourdomestic exerts for the lastfiscal year ' ,7he ZllZ' rr
lepec, under a grant of the Mexican govern- compared with those of the previous year, exhibit an in- ' per,ns could be secured. A r.'.v of ihe r(IIl
ment lo a citizen of lhat republic; and thai crease of $42,616,322. At first view this condition of sioneni convened, iu this r ity, on th- 10th of September
this enterprise would probably be prosecuted our lrade wilh furei?n nations would seem to present ' last, wheu detailed mtrjcl.n were jf.vea them m
with energy whenever Mexico should consent I lhe mSl flatl"nn2 hopes of its future prosperity. An regard to ih-irdut.es. The.rfir.: .di.h; f.-r ii.-.-uans-Wlin
energy Whenever Mexico should Consent . examil,allon of lhe details of our exports, however, will action of business w.:ibe heM ,u h,:.cac on the
lo such stipulations with the Oovernrnent of the . 6how lhat the increased value of our exports for the 8th day of the pr -v,t month.
United Slates as should imparl a feeling of se- last fiscal year is to be found in the high price of cotton i h lTe thoa,hl h r,jr,r Ut TtT t lh f . .
.1 - ...U U A . 1. . : a-hirh nrerailed dnrinar the first half of iKhi vAr -K-V . . . ' ' .... '
tornv io luusr nuu siiuuiu uncsi lueir oropenv r--- . . , . - u exotam th ria-i nT th H v in fiie,.,
he enterprise. rw. . . I cotnnnwun, ut
m ine enterprise. m. i r . l j . cotnruiwun, ut io can your atUoUon U t s-i pr..pnetv
I lhe value uf nil r r i mirl . .1 hr.Hil n ff. . n J n,v..,.,n . .. ' r..r"wij
A convention between the two governments which it wa supooej the inceulivf of a XttlS ' lcTT. V c"''"'
. .l i:.i . -r.L-. ii l i. . , ..... ! I he otuce is one ol great labor and resoonsiL it v. an 1
to call your atUoU-n to lls-i pr..pnety
" ' "- 11 " wtowu mc luueiJiire oi a low linn ana , Th- . T,e .,r nr..t 1.1 . a - i , .
for the accomnlishment of lhat end has been I lar imoortation. fn.m abmad m-..,,Mh,v. Wr..,.v .n.. 1 V ,e UUce " on "f.gre.'.1 ud 'hi!.ty. ani
the deci.ion of Ihe Coogres. and lhe Eiecmie . 01 Ji3 m loaO, ud to Sil.94i.6o3 m ij. w.th . , iutn?y.
. i t rrn T n mria Ki 1 1 f v Anvuinf inrr r I a artinii- . .T .
of that republic.
Some unexpected difficulties and delays have
arisen in the ratification of lhat convention by
Mexico, but ii to be nresumed that hr deci
sion will be governed by just and enlightened
object, as of her own interests and obligations.
- :ii r I I..-.- : -i ' I lie DfODer Cismsal of th min.. I 1 r,. r.f Cm',t..
a sii.i iuriuer reuuciiou in uie current year. ' r ' " " - "
rp, . . - . " , , . subject surrouitded by ereat d.tlicu.ties. In rnv
The aggregate values of rice exported dunnj the ast .,t . ' K j j .7 ,
c ,. . . . . . r , ; last annual message I recommended the survey ;d
fiscal year, as compared with the previous year, also , - . . . . . - u
i-i-. i r, n . - : , , Ie of them in small parce s, under such res:r.-t: . as as
exhibit a decrease anioanrinjr to $460,91 1, which with 'm r ... m i
. , . u I , would eflectaally guird against monop-rtv ac st-cu s-
a decluw in the values of the exports of tabacco foe the . , n. r .l. . 7 . . , 1
- " - s j j n i . i , . . uui uuni luiuiri mn rmaiion, BU3 in CeTre-:e !o
views, as well of the eneral importance of the I JJJ wl 'U 1 the opinions of person, fsmhar w.ih the subject, Ian,
. .. C :..irAdt nit nl.lintilnnt I v ' i inclined Li ehtnre that rrcmnmf m4il,-i -.A m
";i ' " l,MC,rj" Tk. -h;-u A.,.,-A r a... . " . . -. . :
In negoHaling u,w .hi. impoMan, ..hjee.. ri3ZZ ZZZ''ZZZZ. 15 .S'E
id in view one, and only i ted and established it, would lend to benefit the farminir ntii.n.. umil f..nhr T.r, .k.ii .. ,i l..
ocean to ocean, the shortest and the test lor
travellers and merchandise, and equally open
to all the world, ll has sought to obtain no
4A S tWaV
- w - w '' t9 mini u c.Mi.,;rv rra i jti : in cr;
testiWy that no such result has followed the adopliou of wh.ch mir place the vtij suh ect b-vx,.id the fut
..... - w.ka, uvoiumiauuiDj lue re- : CQU'ra. i onress.