North Carolina Newspapers

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! i;7m BEFORBfTflE NCW YORK illi
:IJTtt .oirir: simmf.TY. "
If H Wf rnhn nr.- - -
'tlrreot mis couphj w ucirrcu
j-.tieveoiui,.'t MetropohUm II; Jj, by the
7 Wm. A. Graham, on the above subjcc't-
'..1 !.. l.u.f nisir 'aee.-.miti.iiiiiit Iktr
iioiif ri""" ' -- i
I, jjt Lutlier iraaisu, i rcsiucui, ot iuo oocie
Dr fla"ki lr. Francis, Dr. Da Witt, an J
felinjiisln'tl gcniiemeu, presented inni
j, be audience,' n'ml," ' afurffic" jqflause. whTeh"
MmlwJ siil-id.-,!, said :
I ftuAnti "i ldit and Gentlemen :
Dunlin" the ew l ork Historical Society as
ITjfipf tTistmitroit, I have not -scrttpb-d to tm
ijttkftlf tsk devolved on mo this evening,
- conscious of mv inadequacy to its proit-
Lgfluent .; ail ;i riiiiary object of its estab-
Ijjarttbemi; ii'i s,n,,.v aiiu,uisseniiiiai.ioii oi a
0& knowledge of American history, t lie to-
IKOg fWCIl l prujuse 10 iii;ij;c win .hoiiiiuu
jritih invasion of North Carolina, in 1 780
rbrtrng leen requested to turn mv at-
jdBwiDi; subpvt pcrtaiuing to the history of
fcStiiiuVti Static, it was not until after the
eeofthw, and at too late a period to prcpa e
-soother, that I learned that a reverend and
IJtoultrfBiwk,hpn;ccded me
jfcienw of exercises appointed by the society,
Wtttde tie Hubiift of his discourse another in-
IgrtiK chapter in the'-Wstory of North Cafoli
u :.L .....I;... !t,f,.i.iiiti..ii -.r frtiii r.,,. T
& n lul rilllivi mivi ii.i.nvi. una iih i, i
ImU gWlv have chosen some, other topic, to
Ii jMKr.Wleiy ana mieresi to a course ct
jm which has thus far been' so well received
lit Ik public. ;
wtict is withal commonplace' ; but it is the
Iarrofour ancestors of their struggles and s.i
njrt their frcrdum and renown. The scene,
a.ieireumHriiK'il, but the actors were jierson
jj(Dsf principl -s and representatives of na
m, Mil ujoii the close of the drama depended
fate of an emjiire. If other apology bo want
for the election of this theme,
I 'rim native ihrrr, on J to the manor born,"
lidfruiii occasional access to official document,
Mtttwfrom Hie4ratHtloHS-Hrld legef k rs xf t bo-e
bynorable wars bor3 witness of opiiortu-
Iia Lr atxuaiiit.mc3 with some, at lcat, of
i- .1 - i ' i . i .i
ijteveuu oi wai jh riou, am iinprcstsca witn me
. that from u:aut..
Iffltaj presses ill the tlieu mtant Mate, at the
Ioe of thiise occurrences, and from uegli;pjce
r'Knleirt' inw; it Iras not rm'h'ed tuit j us-
J. J. iMiUaLii,
Il'lilor Proprietor.
' Kr.f.if l ctiF.cic ero.N ij.i, voir
Do-rnts, r f.TnctiTTfs att.v
O'en' Jlarriton .
m;v ksi:!;n;;.
VO LUM R J X-N U M U U 41.
d that the eriod to; w hich we reter is 1780
ti 1TS1, more thau tive years afU'r, the first
wiltW in th war of the Kevolution at Iex-
lagtoa, and full fuTir years after tins national Dc-
lantkn of Independence.
AN Aortli Carolina tma . wa indifferent
ridb'iBtiHor whrle other Httfev wr tbe tlrp-
mdl ar, of in rv-jjard to the common cansi' in
IkiKipiemy oi' the eoiiU't. A early an the,
f tin; jtymp Act, and down to the breuk-
ft of'iiostilifies. disputes" of a donv-otic na-
I!. tutkhiiy the rihu. of creditors in the i-ro-
Kif to pfix-ui-d hv att-u hni'-nt aijainst the lauds
h'i-Uwr r-siiliii' in Knglan J. and the mal-ad-
13tiijn of the provincial jjvemment, had
ntiritattd ktHvt-u the crown (throiiirh the
lull ruvrmirs and the iM'oi.Ie of tlw- mlonv.
yiiA, added to the causi of complaint of more
LjukftB4,,ltK!:,d- a free dWusstowtrf the
ituuon ot (ir. Bt Lntaiii, and f hariwiied and
p9StoiI..4lV fntirw-tmiirrl' iti-r4rrtirn to the
;tU of Iintisli Mil.jv. W in th ctdoiiic. Km
ifcneJ In tlu-w controversies,' the imputation
service uu,q tU rMuittions of Con-rreM, totnect
Uie common wemy in otlier St;te8 fand her uiili
ta were marched, by divisions, brijracK regi
nwnts, and battalions, to the hid of STcarV
Ima and Georgia ; not to mention Uiattberanka
of Sumter rind IVkens were ofUm filled wifti her
c.tins, who took service under thone famous
partisan officers, when those States were the seat
of war, and were computed among the troops of
Nmth Carolina. From Xe J... wi..i.
jncbwve there were few battle fieldinwlich
jK.rlion of the troo engaged in defence of the
IilxrtKs of tlie country were liot hers.
liwW,w thewi!oirtrtbtiin,- iijvir; forTnil
tary ojeratiins abroad, a coiisideratde force was
.WllrlnkrJor defence and safi ty t,f the
state. Altbough the great mass of the people
ere trhe to the country, there was no contempti
ble number who i... .1. .
....--V. IllljUll Ui IIK
crown, and stood ready to diT?nd it with arms.
I his was more conspicuously true of a body of
Scotch Highlanders, who had emigrated in large
nuinlH rs to the waters of the Cape IVar in the
incipient stages of the controversy Vtween the
colonies and the mother couutry ; and the sig
nal victory obtaim-d by Colonels Caswell and
Lillingtoti, at the bridge of Moon's Crwk, one
of the Western tribuUiries of the Cajie Pear, on
uie .'.th ot ft-brnary, 1770, with one thousand ,
men, over the toTj- foTCcs leTied lU tliat regioii,
under Gen. McDonald and CalL Mtd-od, mim
bering fift.H?n htindlFed men, who w,.re nmrciiiug
to relieve Governor Martin from his exile on hoard
an Euglisti ship of war at the mouth of tlmhir
Fear, and to briug him back, and restore hiin to
his authority in the eoloiiy, is one fcf tlie proud
est event of the war, in that year. . Pursued
with vigor, as this victory, was, in capturing pri
soners, arms, military stores, and munitions of
war, it so broke the spirit, and destroyed the re
sources of tne enemy m the State, and o cheer
ed the hopes of the patriots, that it effect were
widely and d.-eply felt. Still, the fit ling of at
tachment to the royal cause iufected individuals
and in many instances piervadcd w hole neighbor
hoods and districts, and required constant vigi
lance, determi nation and energy on the part of
the authorities and troops of the new government.
In tlie spring of 17 7C, a formidable invasion
was threatened by a military and naval arma
ment, under Sir IleWy Clinton and Sir Peter
Parker, at the mouth of the Caiie Fear, and a
JarJ,'jV'bary; Yot
Hut its attention was soon directed to the more
tempting prize of Charleston, where in June of
that year, occurred the famous repulse w hich, ha
astrous tidings of the fall of Charleston sprea 1
rapidly through the country, bringing gloom to
the heart of the patriot, cheerfuluess and joy to
the loyalist, and inclining the wavering and irres
olute to the cause of royalty. Early in June,
the militia of the counties of Mecklenburff nnd
uowan, comprehending the region between the j
rough, which is near the centre of North Caroli
na, and more than'tWo hundred miles from Cam-
dem, was an entii-e abjindoninent of one half of
the State to the depredations of the enemy.
'fins is mentioned, with regret, by Lee, in his me
moirs of the war iii the South, on account partic
ularly of the district between Yadkin and (Jataw-
ladkin and Catawba, who had so early and so ba. on whr .ffi,.i,.i., u nnA A.v.a i tl. . ...
consUntly signalized their devoUon to liberty, j riot cause he prouounces a high eulo-num. With
were ordered out under Prigadier General Puth- j the Pritkh in front, and the tories within strik-toopp-ose.
jhetjjum4JiM mard ouiu. righLauil.lcfi, Uie 4m-
HntiKh General. Scaa-ely had they asst-mtded , test now ' U-camc in that section, a warrc orW
at tto pdnintiin wiles north- 7 with noim.i.edialc resources ibr its i.roUc
east oi Charlotte, when liiteTligence arrived of tiou but tiuxse furnished bv 'itself, and these gn-at-an
ass.unblage of h.yalists at Pamsour's mills, v diminished by the melancholy events to which
some ..fortt miles distant, bevond the. CaUwVuk ' mIIiuS,.., .,ir.....u. I...... ... ..l.. 11...' .1...
in the County of Tryon, and within view of the of the country did Hot forsake it in this trviii"
preajent village of Linwlnton. C uwilling to hour, and it was, eihaps, fortunate that the l'.rit
weaken thi force be had L'athered to inmede the y i ii . 1 :.... t:..i.. .
1 . 1 1 . " ...j, in ii.-t 111,1. iiuwjiii lino iin- oiiili', ?l 10
advance of the Pritlsh tinnv. Genital liullu r- n. .11 . .r...l ,.t ....i...i .., 1
. . .' ' ... - i ' j vi tuiiiiini'ii 1 iiui tt 1 1011 iiiiu
lord despatched orders to Col. Francis Locke, of activity in the gloom which overspread the south
Kowan? and other faithful officers, to collect the . em country.
available force of their several neiirhWhoods. I A rmanv milX.'.;.i ,.i;..tJ ;..
and surpress the msurreetioii at the earliest prac- j this district, w)u "strugirUd with the storm's
iica or
M.i!e, iiiid a. .-ohitii.n r-i !i.-:.t,ig. eii. Siiiaii-
W'imkI, -of f!i" t 'I'li'lln htltl liflt,hil st ttrltil ill Colli-
maud to Gen. Gates, to a-Miine the command of
her militia 'hnt were'orj-hoiild le ca!l'l intoser-,
vice a. measure .originating. iJiiutith ss, in no
.CJiti'j of JLn,-j4-(.L W ttonrtur 'ah, tho ae--
tual (Kiipant of the; executive chair, and prompt
ed iy a sense of the tuomentous nature of tLe -cri-is,
but utterly at aiianco with the plain pre
cept of tho constitution, which then, as now, de
clared that " the Governor fijr the time being,
shall bo the captain general and coiiithander-in-
chief of the militia." The Governor, under the .
constitution.'liad no fxivyer of veto to arrest the . .
law, and, fitt'rrante Win, did not interfere with
the actiouof tho board, though, in a later stage
of its exist-nce, ho refused to fill a vacancy ot- r,
curring fmin the resignation of one of its iriem
b ts, upon the ground of the constitutional ob- p.
jecuoii. 1 ue ij-gisiauire oi .ouui aroiina, mo
, The main a my moving directly northward, in
the direction of Charlotte, Lieut. Col. Ferguson,
with a detachment of regulars and loyalists, was
despatchedwest of tho Water, or Catawba, to
advance in a parallel line to it, to 0en free-communication
w ith the loyalists in that quarter, and
incite thtanto eflective curojierations wiUi the
PritisTr "
To ojipose the mailt. army Ihere was no force
but the militia of Meckl -tibiirg and Powan, under
Pavid.siinaiiiL the legionary corps of laie,
'1 hose troops had b-eii UDoii tlut v the irrcater iart
of w umrluiVl!iaHy the-4.-til'relu! ycaruad,Jiyjt4. 4'ii;ictuienV xlothtd 1
ot tiates, had constituted a kind of national guard
and corps of observation. On his approach I 'a
vidsun prudeiitly retired hi the direction i,if Sali.
Juiry, but liavie, delighting in enterprise, and
b iiig peifi-ctly acquainli-d with the count rf re
solved, not only to watch the enemy, but haira-s
aiid annoy him whenever occasion should serve.
Ki-eping wdl advised of his positions niiduiove
iix ut.s, he struck ou every opcrtunity, .and al
ways with effect. Pv a heriloiis exploit, at the
John Iltitledel tlleh GovrTlior. with tho
powers 'of a dictator. Prcei dents thtse, nthtr
classical than colistitutioim!, according to oiir sys
tem, and only resorted to, umpiestioiuibly, in
those emergencies, because of A imminent dan
ger to the very existence of thiMtate. Thecom
inissioiiers coiistituting this board, by the elec
tion of the L gi.-lature itself, were John Pt-liu,
Alexander .Martin and iraiidates Davis. Their
se-km a commenced at llilllorough, ou tho
ptember, 1 7Ht, and coutiuui'd, by 4--
idantatioii of Cm it Wiilmli one of n i-i.ii. I Nth of Si
e nioiiieiiu 11 axiH'areu tnai one .loini int.. ' .! 1V..1...1.1 ii,,. c.11;.,.. r....i, ...... ,.c .1...:. ; .1. . c ...1. i- .. 1 - 1 1 . .1 .1 1, mini,,. .i t .,1 11. ,!,.,, m.i 1 , :inii,.,,r. i,iiarr
. . . 11 t ...v., ,u t,,, lulling 101 IIIU1.-3 01 iiii-n 1 in .ii me .-ouiii vtiroiiiiii oiiuer, lie coinj'iriciv ' n. ikh,, vlii... ,
Sloore, of the county of Tryon (now Linhdii, country, two characters desi rve to be eonspicu- I surprised anoutost,and,afu-rkillin'aiid wound"- ' 17h1- w1'' its aiilhoiilies were returned to tho
who liad jiHiied tlie enemy in South Carolina ously renvmU red. These are Prigadier Gen.' t ing about sixty of the adversary, da-he.J off un- ' L-gi-datm.-. Their joiinml, with o much ut
the preceeding winter, had recently returned, Win. Lee Pavidson, and Col. Win. It. Davie. j hurt, with a lar-v acquisition ofhors.-s and arms i their c.rr."-mdeiKv as has b-e.n pres. rved, Is
dressed m a tatU-red suit of Pritish uniform and j (i, ,,. Davidson, was of Irish extraction, and his r1tm tilu JttulUM iv:j. ; .?!..' the nio-t iutereriiig . ,Uuiw ias, in our
n SXrorit.:niTflrilirimieei! TilfflseTr a Iieuf..ii;iiil 1 "...i..:;.." III,.; t. ll .1 ...1 . .1 . : . . :. . . .v ,,;.. .,,...1,;. .. TI ...I ...... !, t.b A.t
n vv r f iivn;ui nil 1 it; - : .1
unteers, hastily nssciubli-d from the neighboring
country, under Captain Graham, and reiving 011
the firmness of his troops, made a gallant stand
in defence of this Carolina " cradle of liberty."
& tk peu ef hwtoryj- Lt it fee rme
me excepiiuii 01 a large uetacnmeiii irom tins
nrmamcnt, which wa landeil and committed
some depredations in the county of Brunswick,
among w hich w as the sacking of the private man
sion of tlie patriot General II owe, 110 Uritibh force
had entered the territory of North Carolina until
ifui period announced in the outset of these re
marks, th ltr half of the year l "ftO-- - -
Put, although the geographical osition of the
State, or tlie military -plans of the enemy, had
thus loug.delaycd his visit, he now came with a
prestige of succe-ss which threatened entire subjugation.-
- South Carolina ami Georgia bad been
overrun and conquered, and their patriot citizens
driren ,lo concealment, exile, or submissiou
to his victorious arms. Charleston had fallen on
the 12th of May. Irrrrrroring his uticeestf with
wdonel in the well know n regiment of North Car- region, were emigrants from Peunsylvauia. He
ohiia loyalists, commanded by Col. John Ham- was educated at an academy called ' tue. n's
"ton, of Halifax. He brought detailed accounts Museum." in Charlotte. hh,1 'tin .1 idi a m.l.l.
of the siege and surrender of Charh-s oii, and an ; ardor to sustain the patriot cause it, arms, was
... .or.u.Mve im-ssage. no... ira v., , commissioned as Major, in one of the regiments I tv a j,,,,!,,. dis,.,iti,,f his, und-r cov
unit he would march into that section as soon as 1 rmsi.,1 m V.WIiof 'iimiiini thri A.iit'niniiini ai.. 1 " rft ,1 v .
'f. .1 " 1 .1 ii , -T ....... ,T OI Ull! uuiMings ana enclosures ol lie vi I age,
- . .ju, s ua, .1.1. nntjjiuucuu, uuu'i icc, 111 i hi), ui mis Ciipacuv lie uiarcijcu norin
afford a sujiport for his army. A ery soon there- j ward in the brigade- of General Francis Nash,
alter, .Nicholas elsh, of the same vicinity, joined the main army under ('Jen. Washington, in !
l... 1....I 1 !:. 1. : . t - ..:..i . ".. i . .'....- '3 . Y-
" iiihi iji-en in me iiniptii xfiTOwr eifjineeii riew jersey, and served under tlie eommatider
months, and bore a major's commission in the in-chief throu-rh the three followm? cai'nuai.'iis.
same regiment, also returnisj, with splendid of- ' during which time he was promoted to a li-u-
cquipmcnts aild a liurse of (Told, which 1 teliaiil-eololielev. with the .-..iiuiihiiiI of n re.ri-
was ostentatioiLsly displayed to his admiring as
sociates, with artful speeches in aid of the cause
he had embraces-!. Ho also gave the first infor
mation of Pufoid'a defeat.iand repn-seiited that
all resistance on the part of the whigs would now
be hojH'less. Under these leaders, there was col
lated, in a few days, a force of thirteen hundred
men, who were encamped in an advantagi'nus
jiosition, preparatory to their being marched
to i'ffccL a. junction with. 1 the JJriti&b South.
Colonel Locke, and the other officers who had
nieiit. His presence at home, at this juncture,
was purely accidental. , The troojs of the North
Carolina line having been detached to reinforce
the Southern army, then under the command of
(Jen. Lincoln, be obtained permission io visit his
family, from which he had been three years sep
arated, with the exjiectation of joining his regiment
in South Carolina. Put Charleston being in
vested at the time of his approach, and all access
cut ofl .he.wai thas saved from xafitnre -.with hk.
comrades in arms, and returned immediately to
his home in Mecklenburg. He, however, did not
received the orders of General. Putjieifyrd, . al-. rgnlmnself to-repose-in -inartiv itr, but, taking
ready referred to, proceeded to execute them ; command of a . Unly of militia, rendered tabictive
with the utmost alacrity land' romptiludif. In f service in iiiiellnig the" torv insurrectilons rouse-
ls than five days they levied their several qiiiotas.
and, crossing tlie ( atawha at vanoiis lord, ef
fected a junction within sixteen miles of the
camp of the royalists, ou the 10th of June, with
three hundred and tiriy men. At sunrise the
next inoruing, with this unequal force, and with
out any etnef eiimiiider r understl rriigi--nietits
of battle, except that three companies of
horse, which constituted their cavalry; should
go in front, they assault's! the camp of the
tories. containing, as already mentioned, lliirteeii
liuudred nu n, and, after a- well sustained and
bloody engagement of an hour, compelled them
to retreat. The particulars of this action, did
quent on tlie tall ol v liarli stoii. AtuFr the cap
ture of (Jen. Pulherlbrd, at GahV defeat, Col.
Davidson was appointed a Prigadier (Jctieral of
L militia, and lllu lia.l immediaU command of the
citizeri'soldiers of the frontier county of Mecklen
burg, at tliHr tim'e w hen the services of every man
was required -wlio eaptiblu of beariagv artns.
His romantic devotion to the public service, as
rnanrfi'sted in a -continuous aWnce-of three year
from .1 young ami endeared family, his
w ith the Weir fongbteii fildds of Mohiiiouth.
Bradvwine and Germantown, and the fact that
he haii s.h-11 service under the eye, and with the
approbation of Washinarton, made him a star of
time j-rmit us to recur to them, are of much in- i. guidance to his countrymen, and inspired them
tcrcsL Ploud relatives and familiar acqnainlaii-
the kill of a veteran commander, Lord Corn wa I- ccs fought in the opposing ranks, and when the
centre of tho State ; and ou the 2Jtli of that
Vi;iiTiiiUiVit"iii.ti iilfii.r in tftii inlifll7.i iTlli tiirTi'Hj
moi:Jik"Jigltt"-teiop.".inidcr." L'mrtciHiiit-t-VA
Tarleton, overwhelmed and massacred a Virginia
regiment under Col.' Pufofd, at Waxbaw crk,
iaWlUgentand accute in their commelieion ."W tue frontiers of iorth Carolina. CMi tne
iiiiinvb.d, j-alousof uiKluecoutrol bv I 1,Cth,of1 Aujjust, hi a jutchtj battle near Cam
imother counln. aiid ready to board any coil- i Avn hc hit,i defeated and rout-d tlie main
tmia r,ir,g W eoHehmeute. This ""v, which had Wn allied for the defi nce of
m,,..;....,!...... . i - .i i -., i the South iirwh.r ( Jeneral Gates, the hero of Sar-
""Li" iiiiesieu in iut; aiacruv witn wincn T . .7
fwpunJid to the call for the first coutiuental atoSav And "Hhu!?" eonsoUtioii w-as att-
w,ml774 ; iu the pr.K-. dings of her ra- ""I!,st4irt'a U) u,e wounded spint oiine Aineri
proviiiial iniiirri sses ,.,l .Zil, tr. I can General under this crushing defeat, by the
aUMim,.nt of (!,e st-.t . . o.,.i ' success of (Jeneral Sumph-r, in capturing, about
ttkiti..r i..;l. i f; . .. li.:.i i the same time, a convoy of the enemy, vet this
er popular assemblies, among which ! tho sam0 tin"'' a convo' "f the enemy, j
i . .. , I. .. it. . 1 : r .. .. T' r .. fl..k.v t.
iiiirkad. tlift. ferld, mA ,msm tlinn Jfiff w era
l'Cumlier!atid, llowan and Trvon assfai
IWUlf niemuialil
and his force of eigh t
. i ,i:
me im moral ,le meeting in Mecklenburg, on j u,,ar I1"1 lo r"UM' ",m "'"r
MthofMni ittv .. i,;..i. .1...1......1 ..i. i.... ' the loss of his artillery, arms, and bs
J . 1 - -' - . '- I .1 . J..... ..I...........!.. ll.,! '
risinng creeK, iwo oays aiw-rius. un,
sav s a spirited w riU-r, " the tragedy of the Kith,
..J: 1 bv the dasIiTiiir Tarleton,
iiviuus . . . . . i e l .1.1.
hundred men put to route ana uisperseu, witu
.ggage, ai
A&J these iiroiript and decisive manifestations
'Wtimeut, had U.-cn sustained by military aid,
lJ wirfteditite scenes of danger, in a manner
ptuved.that she had no Htdfh, seitional,
Oclbive idean of defence and proV-cliou. Es
g a thorough military organittion at
nwineial Congress, whii-h assmbl.-d in
l"eenber of., tliat. .
.1 i. i t:jii-ioii ffin. mill, ' . ,. 1 1.a I,.
JJCo, of that province, whhavi.col-, &W treasur anJ f r " 'fe I
2J Wge army 0f whites and igroesT pro-! a the maintenance of Ua , a .ad oth
.martial law, and offered freedom to the I expeditions 5 f coi.tu.enU 1 tri ain
more than a mousanu o. nei i'.mi i -
i at the surrender of Charleston, and paroiea,
il.imr uilh the catastrophe of the 16th, tin
. ,
, armv of the South became a second time nearly
anni"hilat.'d To this unbroken succession of
reverses to our arms, it must bo added that the
' resources of North Carolina to meet the imjicn
ding danger, had been greatly impaired by the
20th of August, 1776, in ". "'V, TfZ , "h.
year an ex,edition was aent ' pi, mpr--v-
- . . . . - : .1 ..MuuwJinrr veiirs in tlie lOW
ITTwnceg and S11V, of the
'jmictign with a detachment of regulars and oner at
wearing their iv;;ll ktiowu badge of a greeii ,piue
twig in front of the hat, and the whigs a simi
Lr badge of w;hiU; .paper, which was in sonic
stance taken as a mark by the enemy, and wca
sioned the wearers to be shot in the lioad. These
were the only means of distinguishing .the two
parties in the acljon in which neighbor met
ueighbor in deailly strife, with the rifles carried
in hunting, and In the use of which Weapon one
hundred men on-mRer side-were as expert and
unerring as any like number of Keiituckians in
the time of ISoone. Seventy men, including
five whig and fourtory Captains, were h it dead
volved on them in the most devoted spirit of
patriotism, and with a proper sense of its niagnl
liiil , and exi-cutiil its duties with fearlessness,
ability, and eminent public benefit. Conducting
an active correspondence with Davidson, Davie
Jem-nil Sumner, and other officers, as to the o- "
. ... i . . i i ..
he thrice drove kU the liritkl, ravnlrv. t., r,.- ' M,UJ"S " u" "".V ol Uie, invading enemy, lis
c ive tl,,. rebuke ,,fth,.ir ,...ander-i..-, hief.and ia'1:.'u,c,-s',rkir,1'isll' s'. f,'"1 ,'ltr, ''t ; w,th good hi retreat, with a I., much inf. riof '"' pHmy ,e uppr oran- r.i. .... i .ie n- -i i cues oi uie v aiH- liar aim l edee, as io ine
to that ol the enemy. Lord Coruwallis occupied i . . ' ,. . , .' , ,.
the village, intending to advance to Salislm-v. j n"n)& r ,a,a,,,,"P f tones the d.s-
Put, with his overwl.i-lmi.ig force, he found it no I irll,"s '? U' ut 'l Ua f,"'
tie in, and iin a-uies tor Keeping mem in
j (luck; with the Governor of the State, with
j General Gates, and subsequently with General
Greene, in regard to the rallied troois of the
i i .- . .i ..ti , ..i -
kj . P - nvaiiwn im it' r ' ...... -
I, .tu on board a man of war in rh "c v' t . . - . i
tie last royal Governor of .North Car- kTr, T,Z in" nature
Muawulr, anterior had been ohhVed to over-looked fn estimating the appalling nature
' mini ' T1 of the crisis; and the merit of a brave resistance.
.m tb.... j... i-..-- 1 ti.... ... n imixHlimeht to the onward pro-
i S, i'Uk and KuuJrfbrd, marehed gress Lord Cornwalbs, tlie w a.nj 9f sup-.
' St,? Part of the State aainrt - tl j liS ' "I ArtSbu
Scoviliu., from a royallTemksary llis roadto Charlotte, U.epital Mcef
tt,i. nues, irom a royalist emissary un roau ui vu,.. r- j -;no:(MT
: m nanw. ;.. .1. ' ' ... V ..... .i ihn first ooint of his destination,
but t .' ' MM "onu-wesiern sccuon 01 , couuij, , ri, Amrfrv
Uolina- .l t iuu t. ..rellel to the great rivers of the country ,
,. "T'rr" t stt Wmndarv. upon an 1 mag-
j . iiiie. unuer (.. nerui i;i( ii:irii,ri auu crossen v"" ---r t 1
Cn 1 IIS,'n' lrove tl,,! tory c"nnd-i iuary 1,110
igiiain ami
-l ltiHte ..t
. rp 01 .
t .I... alaiotuw. of mans, so much of
rove the torv command- mary ime. - , . ,
Fletcher, fro,., the seige of geography as may be n7(1
six, and on their Jreat, 4e movements wh,ci we Sha demny
. c- - invir-Kix, ana on their retreat, me iuu - - nP,t a,l Ca-
JSg-jl t hem. with thecapture o
tr;i- t.Wr Jollovcrs. Tliis in known , tawba nvcrs we e ci -T , . . ,
miiaign, from Sae,,and t e --;
--- niiiiw til. .. . .. . ninrr .1. lh
In. , "lynus witu WU1CU 1W camps ; sircaiiis -"n
IVdee, i
the oec
S.. I. Carolina. 11e Catie rear uoa
the mountains ofNort
irutij v--.,.----. .. . ..,i1 to me oeccan, 111
i - - t iina- and runnniii j ...
h it.. . - r "na . . .- . p.. mirsiuw a like
JWo-T tumn of. 1778.afor f nineteen ! South Carolina. iue vai... , - . -
4kTH' dVsnatchM sinsf tK- (WliiWi bing tU&Vpcn and Hatf-or .'
1 ".lan. w ,!, .." ." , . -. Tl.. l)a s tUtt UCaasircam o. v"v
.1 -'v iiuij 1111. lini un AttiiHA riteia. - . f
woundetl, llie loOs betn shared aboirt equally by
the resjiective sides.
It is a remarkable omission, in the histories
of the war of the revolutioii.that no author, neither.
Marshall, Lee, Pamsay, Potia, nor any other, that
I have consulted, makes mention "of this inixr
tant battle of Painsour's mills. The only intelli
gible record of it, ' fxirnno, wa puldished in
tlie newspaers of NotLth. Carolina thirty years
since, and has been copiediy Mr. Wheider in his
recent collection of tnalrritt hixlorira of North
Carolina, It is likewise noticed by Mr. IiOssing
in his Rtent work, the 'Field Pook of the Pe-
volutiou.' For daring courage on the par of
tlie whij assailants, considi-nng that Uo eneiiiy
Sut huihbeWd therit iff the pro)rtiolirxf Rmrto
one, and had great advantage in jiosition, it is
surpassed by few events of the war; and as a
chastisement and a check ujon the rising and
exultant spirit of the loyalists over the recent dis
asters to our arms in South Carolina, the result
was of the same nature, and almost equal in its
salutary effects t the victory of Caswell and
Litlingtrinrat MW" bur years
i have failed, earlier, to mention that Colonel
Locke and his brave associates, after resolving to
engage the enemy, despatched a messenger to
carry this information to General Putherfold, and
request his co-operation if possible, but did not
make his compliance a preliminary to their attack,
and that this officer, having heard of the retire-'
ment of the Pritish forces from Waxhaw to Cam
den, had, without knowledge of the intentions of
Locke, crossed the Cataw ba, with the purpose of
himself dispersing the tories at Uamsour's, and
arrived with his brigade on tlie battle field alsut
two hours after, the retreat of the enemy. Pad
the assault been postponed for this brief space, the
victory doubtless have been more romplete,
nnd jHjewiblytnanyof the gallant dead would have
been spared to encounter. the invading Pritoii,
trained for the conflict by this first essay in arms.
Gen. -Rutherford, in " the succeeding mouth,
' 'joinrd Otwral "t?ate in command of a4irigad! of
I milifia, and in the "di fi-at at Camden, oti-Hiu Iptlt
of AiifmsL was wounded, and takeri prisoner hy
1 the enemT I Jtiut, therefore,docs not apjearjtt the ,
--iiuih':iaml1ffB Kt'St-Tf-
4,, " "...WimAo-r polnta ;S
K'tC1" ' 7r" uaws. not lo -iu- would nud-i
w ith hope ahd confidence.
Of t'ol. Davie, a less minute introduction is
ncwsary. Sui i iviug tin: wa.hb,'caim; sul
sequentlv known to the Union, as-,oue, of the
great A meriean ontUMss 4aw v. rs and staii j
a leader 111 every great enterprise lor ine improve
i.ieiti a nd elevatiwH. of iha. oharavUtK-itf -his. ,0 w u
State at one time her Chief Magistrate a 11.1-111-lier
of the federal convention, "a sperial -minister
of France, in conjunction with Mi. Murray and
Chief Justice KlUworth, during Napoleon's C011
solate, and one of the most accomplished anel el
egant gentlemen of the revolutionary race. At
tlie jieriod to which wo refer, Ik- may have ln-en
twenty-five years of age some four years gradu
ated at Nassau-Hall, Princeton interrupted in
Ins law studies, bv the events of the war
- ' r' Inter anna, siTetit If pus
he had gratified his early desire, and the itieliua
tions of his genius, and became a soldier of stu
dious habits he had brought his well furnished
and disciplined mind to the study of military
science, and had .mastered it. llis service had
been in the horse, where he had received the ap
probation of Pulaski. H had approved his gal
lantry at the battle of Stono, where he was se
verely wounded at Hanging l!ock, and on other
fields, and his. zeal in the patriot cause, by exend
ing an estate, constituting his chief, if not only
fortune, in equipping a legionary corps, of which
lw at.the. head. He was prudent, v igi
lant, iutnejiid and skilful in his iitove'iifag"airist
eloquence, and an undaunted spirit, he was among
the young men of the day, as Harry Percy, " to
tho chivalry of England."
Having received his supplies, Lord Cornvvallis
moved forward from Camden; on the Hh of Scp-
place of repose or security, llis sentries were -hoi
down at their posts, his pickets kept in a constant
state of atarin and annoyance, his wagons, with
stores, seized and destroyed within a few miles of
his headquarters ; and, in one instance, a foraging
party of four hundred nun was attacked and driv
en home with a loss tf twentv-sfvt-u hilled and
wounded, by an amlitishing partv of seven imli
vidualsfroin the neiglilK'ting country, all of whom
escaped unscathed; the Pritish officer di-claring
bis return-, ''-that li- Imdfooiel -a iae-ve..
ry bush, outside of the lines of the eneanipinerit."
It was luaniti -stations such as (lies; tlmt induced
Lieutenant Coh)if t Turletoii, liib's" '"History of
tiMi C .'uiupmigUMiu lhe CbtHes," t o honor t hese ad
joining comities of old Mecklenburg and Pow
an with the designation of "the iuo..t' rebellious
district 111 America.''
The printing press the first that had ever
'bet n carried to that region of country was put
in requisition, both by roval 'Governor and Gen
eral, j!
upon rebellion and In-a-oii: but without "ser'loii
effft. - - "
. hile llis lo.ribhipi w as thus occupied and enter
tained at Charlotte, he was astounded by (Tic de
feat and death of Ferguson, at King's Mountain,
aliout thirty miles to his Jeff, with the loss of his
whole force, liolh regulars ntn 'loyalists, killed,
wounded, or taken prisoners, together with all
tin supernumerary arms with w hich he had been
furnished fur the inhabitants of the country who
might join-1 he (orat.'.tiiiHrd;'H:f'th is" rrremo--ral-le
exploit, achieved within a mile or two of
Cie.'tiiUiliaKyrKak-uai JHus Caroliuos,, .011 its,,swu
iheru side, by the co-oj.iTaUou of Colonels Camp
bell; of Virginia v ll'fvel;md, SlK"lby, Sevier and
McDowell, of North Carolina; Williams, Hill,
and others, of Sotilh C.-iroliuia ; it would be but
idle rep.-li.ioirto speak in detail. Of the action
and it incidents, a full description . is coutuilicd
in I'oote's "Sketchi-s of North Carolina;" and
biographical memoirs of its principal actors in
Los.siiig"s Field Pook of the Kevolution." No
one can, however, contemplate the gatherings oil
.1 . -i.i.. nt.i l. .1 1 1
inese inirepni rsotis ot LiHK-ny, miner ine lead-
latcly defeated army, the rcinfoymeiits arriving
from other States), and being levied in their own :
the Poard rf War si-ems to have exerted its ut
most faculties in the department of the commis
sariat in providing food and clothing for the
army. And w hen it is m-'ollecU-d that the- State
had mj seaport of niiicli commerce, h'"t inhilU
taiits,then aVnivi "oTilamTug ftieir i-tiTef supplies "
of foreign goods through the neighboring States
that Wilmington, the principal, of these, soon
fell into the hands of the enemy, w ho also held
-South Carolina and Georgia;; "and almost Tsfmub
tiineolislv with tjie march of Coiuwallis o Char
lotte, had lauded a large body of troops m Vir
ginia, under Arnold, and wi re threatening an
invasion from them-i that there w as no internal
navigation, and that ihe lest nieaus of transpor
tation from 1 be feilile valley ot. the Koanoke and
huriutU.', w a,i by the ordinary wag-
0(1 of the planb'-r, hud that ho riiCimiifenrtjIepor- -lion
of the fciipj-ty of these had bet 11 lost in the '
route eii-iiing the defeat of General (iah-s, the
.furnishing the must iiidisptnal.ili.' .'uicessarfcrtif
life was a Herculean task. The ordinary protluc
tioiis of the earth had Ixvn v ielil-d, '.hough prob
ably in diiniuidied quantities in inatiy six-lioiiS,
by iva-in of the interruptions of labor, from the
heavy drafts for military -service,-in South Caro
lina, as well as at home, during the year; but in
The; chvnmstif rices -of --si egry w h ieh en viroued. the .
: Ijiute, the grcai privalioii was. in (lit want -of wdV
w ithout, ..w hkh jtuunal.ud cun'iittJUi reseryed
or vegetable enjoyed a privation which was a
like felt by th; army and the people of tlie coun
try ; and it is quite apparent from the correspou
deiice of this board, that an army essentially lar
ger than that which', was brought into the fiehl,
could hut have bva l :ig m uiit.aia -1. . In their
coiiimnnicatious with ( Jeiieral't Jreeiie, the com
missioners expressed their regret, that ill couse
Hiienee of the exhaustion of the treasury, tlie
legislature had adopted the policy of reiving on
Lthe militia for the public defence. This species
gorges and passes ot the Alle-
ghanks, and taking the field, without quarter
master or commissary, each man upon his own
horse, and furnished with his own arms, "the horse
to be sustained by the grass of nature, and the
soldier from tlie homely contents of his wallet,
made and filled liy-his wife or 'mother" their
concentration (heir arrangement of the tempo
rary command by election their long marches
their eager pursuit of the eneiiiy" his refuge
en the mountain top their assanlt, persevering
courage, and overwhelming victory without
ing" carried back, in imagination to the sublime
si.Rplicity and law
of the Sw iss cantons against thwnvasioti of -Aus
This victory, which was obtained on the 7th
Lof Octolier, was decisive of the campaign. In
stead of proceeding to his meditated conquest,
tho Pritish general was compelled, to address
himself to the tak of maintaining w hat he had
crs of their respective sections or neighb. "hood of force was usually called to tours of duty of
them, Irom tin
much was expected. In his train was the late
Koyal iovernor Martin, who, having lingered off
the mouth of Cape Fear, iif a ship-of-war : for
more than a year after his expulsion' from the
Prwince, in tlie hof ie of restoration to authority,
had p.ud a visit U Jtew York and was uow return
ed, and hoed to receive that dutiful submission,
under the guns of his Majesty's army, which he
hail lieen unable to exact by the aid of his pro
vincial adherents alone. A printing press form
teniber. with the assured expectation of conquer
:....xT....K r1. m 1u.r..rn t 'hihivisa i,niilil lu-imr
111 lOI III V-IIUIIII'I) m iiwv.v..... .... & ... ... 1 11 1 .1 -i.
another -army iiitoiUdWUkJiiMi
force there were adventitious aids, from which pursued by Davidson and Davie to t!,,, ( atawha,
with the Capture of a portion of his baggage ; he
rctreatvd to Winusbirough, some twenty miles
west vvajl of Camden, as the most eligible position
for thefireservation of his acquisitions in South
Carolina. ' -
Thus terminated the invaiion of 1780. Put
die end of the war v as not yet
Pv his detection of HillsborOugli as the pirint
for n'-fonning bis hinted arm'v, Jeneral (Sates had
the advantage of consultation witjthe Govern
This b
IV at
ed also a part of tlie furniture of the camp, with or of the Slate nnd the legislature, wlneli, in
which it was inU-nded to fulminate threats, ga-! view of the public danger, now held two aq.mnt
...i... . :...;.si .....l .iistwl.iili'jjariluiis. protections ed sessions in each year, and assembled in that
and promises. In his ranks was a regiment 01
tevahst-Sj -raised in North. Carolina under tiny
command of Col. Hamilton, a Scotch merchant
in Halifax, and connected in business with a
house at Cross Creeks, in the midst- of thejietlle-
nietit of bis countrymen ; a person held m greai
tow n on the 5th of September,
once applied itself tojiroviding for flit; defence of
tlie State" in .every iractIcaTl'r iueTKd. "'"A ( its'
prtreding se-ssiou i board had be. 11 created 4for
earryiiigoii trade, for jhe b-nefit of the State,"
tor the ptrriiose ot importing or -procurm- -ai in-,
tcem foTthevirtu.'Sof privHhi life, atul who,.aC- ( and "other .military sjorcs.tor.the army, as.vell
Norfolk. .From these, it was ho)ed that, dis- chandise, for the use aiid.coiisuiiq-tipu of fill';...i U J encouraircd. .toaf i.- Jtstato-, cood teot.k ot - tia, rue& . .A"" . l" l'""
r- ' . ... . . , 1 - ... ....It
.1 b.Ll k.Jiuil nftiufJ iu nit.hc tor the lanre- inmv;ii was noiwti
CJUiy; rCCFUIU.S wnuinm-r wM,
turned out on liorst back', occasioning a large con
sumption of siiljsistfiice, it seems to have lieen '
ai;ranged that but a limited number should be or
dered to his aid, except in the innm-dinte expec
tation of a general engagement. Accordingly,
l-irg - di-tachm -nls, numbering in all 4,000 men,
that had been, called out by tins Governor or
Poard of War, and were on their nirrch under
Generals Alb 11 Joins, uegoiy, and others, to
unite, with the army of def-nce, were halted and
disbanded, 1 'st, by joining the camp, they should
consume life scanty stores of the continental col
dier. A"t the next session of t-he Legislature,
which eonimencT-d rm tlie 1 Kth of Jmrnnrr, !7fll,
War, and "estaWi-di ft Council Extraordinary,"
to consist of " three jaTsonii of integrity amiabil
ities, such as the Gt iieral Assembly can have the
greatest conlid 'iice in," and to invest the actual
Governor (Abiier Nash) and this council, witli
executive powers of goveiiiiieiit. after the expira
tion of his official term, prov ided the invasion of
the enemy' should prevent the holdingof the elec-.
trons," rftid ". ther rtwlfng- of tlielgrslatum--'
at the usual time. -Put 1 hav e seen 110 record of
the organization of this eouucil, or any proceed
ings iind-'r these- statiifes. Tlie result of the
campaign probably rendered thein unnecessary.
' It is tu b- regretted, that among the documents
of this period there has been but a mcagrcr pre;
ervation of the correspondence of Governor Nash.
In the infancy of tlm government, no-law requir
ed the executive correspondence- to be recorded,
nnd, there being as yet no permanent sertt of gov.
cnimeiit, such- iap-rs had no other depositoiy
than in the private mansion of the incumbent.
IF; died some four years after the war, still high
ill the public coiifid- nee,-nnd at the tinre of his
fleiiiise a member of the Congress of the con fed-'
criilioii. 1 laving imiJtits altn4t'Jli'ft tin tfnWC1"
tires of d P nce adopted by the State government
inthjv'to her, the ikrkext hour of war, I cannot
'withiiotd the expression of my gratifieatipn,1hat
th rough'1 verv line of the public sMnteSi of the
mrmf fsnrti Tf
Poard of War,th:ofebf(!'ithe th"lotViiVf spiritof
.defiance - towards th en Miir. and hrt'iinquailing
det-rndnatirrrr tr r-iW ffihlr evt-rv entrgy f the
riWyti-v4r -Cri?i?( wi

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