North Carolina Newspapers

    utt
t-rmn Charlotte. Chastising the torn,
lunSoiiie skiriuisn, oy uu-iiiiiciii. o.
...n under Major Cloyd, l Shallow Ford,
.3W. i j f... e.
L. 1 -falklU. 1U a SCIUCI1I.JII1.1.UI. Itu uvm niucn
'AH'ol. lirvan had raised and marched a regi- nightfall, on the evening of the 2'Jlh, the
t" v tli. v, " the
art-di 'iiiii' -l, may be honorable to yourself,
ieJI as satisfactory to the country," The
Vsdtxoi the conimaud was announced in gen-
ordt ou the 3d of December,
ein
;i ws-j SAMimsx.
A LECTURE
rCcED BEKORE THE NEW YORK. HIS
TUR'CAL SOCIETY.
H'ui. A. uraimm.
Concluded.
0f II
ti,a work at recousirucun , " ""
I rt"nrwl forward with all possible expo.
Y.t ffill-lwruu!,, the conimaid of Davidson
? iLuioh Vliocky River, in Mecklen-
.t'i : i,;a rtirwsnondcnce. he stvles
" ........ . .. .... m.
:,u M M"" AHm, ' bo much. th trt f 1.5. ra.i.:.. : .i.t..'.i ."V
J,,. system if observation on tlie Tf e J?"1 latter moved .mmcdmtdy, hoping
J J . 1 it L .1 1. L )
Editor Jf Proprietor,
" Ktlt P A l-UCCKKrns AH. VOI R
- , Uul.r.RS.
1)0 TUTS , AND LlMSTV-IS ajTE
Gen' I Harriten.
Ni:V SEMES.
Vp LU M K 1 X N U M U Ii I 42.
SARSBURY. N. C.. TFTURSDAY. FEBRUARY: 24, l83.
,. wiuhiuvw wwnv.u mv.ui sa WMavsv mi
passage in boats, be urged on his. march with all
In this manner commenced that fhrilKn
of military movement which was continued with
the activity of a stopple ehasejor quite two
months. llirTrrainnrTritirarmy lay at Turkey
Creek, some twenty-five miles south of Cowpens,
and Morgan may be considered to have hn.l h
V r ... . . . 7'.
ii, a..-iiiiiiaiiii-u
;n. i ... .. . . ... . .. ...
iviiowueilloi. worgau, wuo nau now
SoUth'Tii arinv, i.roceeueu west-
kilK'
(ikii tue
possible expedition. s Greene, resting b' wearied
troops for three day at Guilford Court House,
where many of them within a month were to find
their last reose, and calmly surveying his condi
tion, determined to continue his retreat into Vir
ginia ; and, ithiwenty-j6ve miles the advantage
Lin dtajijijk,wyxtH.l tW lirkkh
ieneral for the lower femes of yie I an. Long
mill wiVftrv iiftf.msw.l..biuin atirl t4nA
tore he should reach the fords of the Catawba in pursuit. Organizing seven hundred suitable
Aortli Carolina, for which it was presumed he troops in ajigbtcorps, under the command of Col.
would aim. Morgan, however, vigilant and Williams, subordinate to whom were Cols. IIow
warv as his great adversary, and fully compre- ard, Washington and Lee, Gen. Gre.-ne placed
hending his danger abaudoued Lis captured j these in his reart U watch juid skirmish with the
baggage, and, leaving his wounded under the j enemy, while the army, with its baggiige and
protection of a flag, on the very evening of the ! stores, should uursuo iu wav without molestation.
i .. . . i 1 .:... . .
. a n . "
r. ,ix....i X .r;:;;;. . J ti... ;Tm aiurgan encumtierea wim nr.sou.-rs and
L"s n
JJ'ocinp'J "Camp Yadkin" we-stofU.e
.tliatname.
r . malhvood accepting the command to
llliWOtell JimutJ lire .mr
. d l)V two nunureu regulars
matttradvafici"c
his famous cavalry, in nuest of tlio captors of the
picket, but Lieut C61. Lee, at the head of his le
gion, who had been sent by Gen. Greene in ad
vance of the main army,, to keep an eye upon the
enemy, and prevent, if possible, the junction of
any loyaUt to his standard, lhis was the hrt
day of battle, set ou' on his retreat; his prisoner
l. . ........ rv.iti rn..aa r.riir. i ....
dt.-m ""Zr"? jnjijjvance, escorted by .im WlhtHW. fnUuwtul im
.tk- Jv 'T l,MJ reMvo...u v.u- nieJiaUlv bv tfre regulars, under his own com-
The British General, with a like policy, sent for-
OTIara. (Ill their first Hiiirnviin:itiiin tile nV'ir-
iriand. This, it will be rf-coflectcd, was on the j mishinglietwcen these corj was brisk and active ;
1 7 th of January, 1781. For twelve weary days, ! but ex-rieneing no advantage in their results,
nec morn, nee rerjirs, the retreat and pursuit j they were discontinued by the enemy, and often
were continued w ithout intermission. Near thesp rvilnmm i,t h in nrimna lvniilil K.. luuin
aim, to receive his death wound iu the engage
ment after the battle of Stillwater, in October,
1777.
The effect W the baitla at Guilford Court
House, was decisive. It drove Lord ..Coriiwallis
from North Carolina, and led to his ultimate stir-
ward a vnwgwrd f HHlatrep umler Gun, i thV lkitihh-armaHd tW firoUawattMik. ufalicir
vieuerai, 10 lane service unuer uis nag, were on
their march to Hillsborough, with that object.
I VV t l li ir .1. nifuit -.-url.... n (liA.r o 11 i.t ..t. I tlwi
meeting of these renowned leaders," who co-ojie- 1 render. Bestowing proper care on the wounded,
ratea sa actively during the residue of the cain-
situation and movements of the enemy, and learn
ing that Tarleton had been despatched westward,
to encourage the loyalists beyond the Haw river,
and escort to head quarters any who desirrd to
join the king's army, they set out in 'pursuit, to
cut off the communication, and, if possible, com
pel him to action. By a complete surprise on
both sides, in the search for Tarleton, they came
suddenly upon a body of loyalists, under Col.
1 yles, who inspirited by the apparent success of
with his characteristic humanity, he issued abul
h-tin, in the form of apToclatriatiorT,,aiilioliiii irrg
the triumphant success of lits Majesty's arms, and
Iituiuising furgivejiess jfjiaslotleJiees, again, ex
torted all loyal subjects to join him in re-establishing
law and order. But when he surveyed
his shattered columns and thinned and crippled
ranks, whieh had sustained a loss of in-ar one
third, he discovered that tlie " victor was himself
owreoiiie," and tho scene immediately changed.
Thus far, his heart's desire bad been a general
action, lo obtam it, he had strained nerve and
l'rulii this Hiii l.e tt.ii ilnnie.i;iti h tr.ili-i.it. tl to
the Continental Congr.-s, of which hejiad ls-on
an aetivejiiid conspicuous member, from iccern
l-r 1 77ft, until his election to the tflice f Gov-
ernor, in the first part of the year 1781. He ap
jears to have left his seat in Congress, at l'hila
ueljdiia, and gone as amateur to the bntt'.ij of
Urandywine ; and his elwtion to the clnet aw-
to have been m some degree attributable to the
euergy and ardor of his nature, which might
have rendered him a successful leader in the field.
Being some thirty miles distant' from the nearest
of these marauders heretofore, he was completely
surprised, and without military attendants, in a
small village, was carried off without difficulty. "
Hurried, by long and rapid marches, through
rleppi fomitsrimd pfithlpss tracts of iirterfniitgled1
;uid and.swamp, lhivijLci!edr with jiersonal vio
lence, and pilhigcd of e er thingexc.pt the clotlw-s
lie wore, he was delivered by nis savage captors
to the custody of Major Craig,, on the 23d of
September; sud, by an outrage on every princi
ple ol justice and public law, lie was committed
to" close coiifinein'ent, uudi-r preljnce that he Was "
IVing Irans-
ral Ijeslie was
in command, he was iaroIed, as a l-risoner, to
i. ii jtniiu- nun j'liuiiv inn, hit n
to clos- eoiitinein'ent, uuder prelum
a prisoner of state and not of wal
ferred to Charleston, w here Geil-r
sinew, and aH the resources of military iniwnuitv, L James's Maud. This island was, at this time
.7 "' 1 1 Ml rT r-eiTi-j t Nlv.mi... Uj I ...1 J -D 1 1..,.U.1 J1.
(SUlUH Hie taiawoil, 10 waicu ure curu
,J rivw support to Ueiierai jumpier, uien ma-
5 '. . 'I'.. ..!... ... i.i .li.i iiiti..r itiufrii'ta
curing agaiiisi loiitkou j'j .
Jul Mate.
Lntnl Gates, with tho main army, subse-
rttrv took the same direction and had oeeu
4 tWlotte, when he was superseded in the
(ieiieral tireene. neeu I ald,
f-Ualits, uum.-aiteljr. mr --.P"' gwrd of the royal army-, under General OTIara,
j iCL.ul stoii, and joinec. uie cnusn in gained the Island Ford on the Catawba, on the
Jj enroling he advanced u uie- ironyer oi jre8ent roaj froln Statesville to Morganton, but
discovered that Morgan had crossed over with
all his prisoners and forces,' alioiit two hours be
fore. Halting and encamping on the shore,
with the purpose to renew the pursuit early in
the morning, the British Geueral was tantalized
by the loss of bis priae, at the moment Jw!
supposed he was alsjut to clutch it iu his grasp.
During the night the river was swollen by heavy
tk appointni.-iit of this illustrious man, (ap- rains, was impassable in the morning, and so
lim in his characteristics, so much nearer remained for two days, at the expiration of which,
it .frt-at ooiiiinaiider-iu-ehief than any other Morgan's militia, with his prisoners, were far ou
' i . .. ' v . . i.. I,... I ..' il. ........... ,( .1. i. .i . -:, n.. ..: u-
tiff IU tlial nlu,J lo iiUV iirtiia ji iiiu ti iiij v., luejl l.jilicil lowuiu.s llllllil. 11C llllUSl'll,
Siutli. till' d ail hearts with gladness and with his regulars, passmg down the ktt bank
. .The Hoard of. War, in a corresiondencc"j.f the river,, to SberiU's. ford, there nut Genf
ii m iinuiedialel) 'opened, expressed toj him Greene, who having been advised of the'move-
Ti-at satisfaction upon this event, and engaged ment of the enemy trom v innsliorougli, and
inw forth all the powers ot the State, aud the victory of the Cow pens, had hastened for-
iiitessarv resource in it, to supjsjrt bun ; ' ward, with an aid de-cmp and a few militia
cotii'uiaiid with which ; attendants, from his camt on the. l'edee, -to
concert measures to secure its fruits, and to act
against the adversary as means and opjiortu
nity might permit The swell in the Catawba,
which the pious feeling of the country could not
(kii Sinallwood having been promoted to a but ascribe to providential TTrterpwition, and the
Generalship, about" this time left the ser-Consequent interruption in uie pursuit oi uie
.(,.. Smith' and Co). Davie. beimrout of T enemy," JeWniiTneJ Gc'ri."" Gm iie to dispute Ills
itarr emi'loyment by the expiration of the en- passage across the river, and thus gain time for
autut ot Ins men, accepted trom tue uoara oi me unn.u o. .n.i inu n.............
ir the utiice of SuiH.-rinu!udeiit Commissary ha I ordered it to hasten, under en. nuger, oi
wal, made vacant by the resignation ot Col. oouui Carolina, anu coi. vmo ia. .fu...u v.
iUma I'olk, and aceompauied the army of ; Maryland, with the hope of there forming a
twiieiu tharStpacityth wim Jiorgjin. irr exw ;vi Ms
l- V(.....,.-u li.rli. .r.wliA lj.ill..l Kv. n few
tLvmgtlmsibccasiontomanUonthenameofff"
. . ? . . 1 - lK-iviilson.. u ho. iu this critical- beriod. was ever
nnoKUicn Mr. Lossing lias fallen, in uis r ieia
i, 'uiD the authority ot the papers ot Uener-
jatts, au.l which utiiutc-ntioiiallv, 1 have no
aUJurs gn at injustice to his memory, It
u imputation of disaffection, at the very time
IkM the othoe ot Suiier lutuudeut t.ommis-
OcutraL -Fortunately, the Journal ot the
jii of War explains the whole matter. 1 tiere
e some complaint of iftutteiition to duty on his
Llialik iuipurtaul office, whicJx. he explained
oriCui alurt, had called out tlie imliUa force un
der his cotiimaud, aud while watch was kept at
various fords ou the. river, with directions to
give information of the approach of the enemy, a
considerable body of his tro.) was placed at
Beattie's ford, ho himself taking position at Cow
an's ford, with about " three hundred and fifty
men, ou the evening of the 31st of January.
Lord Cornwallis, in the meanwhile, foiled in his
i.iirsnit hail eneamiied at liamsour's mill the
' -" l-tr1- - 1-: "!. M.-A7 W;jk.
iiiiaunly;
csailll autUUOJl lO lUB-lilUlll , .UVi . . 1 Y ... tl.,. ln
' in Ina luta nifireli tnini the ln-
hikiiiUt of tl. Board to which be was a-.i i"-.'" -- -- -
.11. : :. . ; f.l.l... i CUUlOrailCe Ol Ills oa"a-z-,
uwe, iiin mg s icu wie a. iim iu jicviui- . - : a l . , if
' O V i 1 1 .1. II 1 .. 1... I ll.utl-tli ,11.1 llllll..t
,Ul..r..s .., . i.nlJie I..U..1- rer.led .in its W VUHV COUW uerrjIMWA. ,
jiils, that in
iireiiiiisl.ihi'
ice as neii us ciicuiiisiaiices uum auuuu i j :- j.-,," r ,- , .,.
iftcrwards entrusted, by newing the pursu.i o org-.., o,
t rrtHMiM ui mi muwn.' ,
, in a public letk-f r'ecorded in iU I all that could be regarded as sujairnous, i
., Ins 'opimou, Col. I'olk, under Ug the example by casting into the flan e.
kvs; had lulluled the duties of ; the baggage of headquarters, and converted his
71 ;iL ,:M,,..:,;o1( ,.,n.r admit f whore army into hght troo with a view (if re-
was iiiiniediately
ral Greene, w ith the tenntorary command of
ingaJicr General ot inihtia aud in all alter,
Mpnur tune, was regarded as a hrm aud un-
wnng patriot
surveyiug his troops and supplies, uen. (ireenc
miimaelf at the head of about two thous-
Minea, one half of whom were militia w ith
jvisiuus on Land but for three days, iu an ex-
tw country, and but a scanty supply otam-
Mion; which could not be reidenished short ingiii' TZII'.'.a
I ii- . . i ' r e. a m i. w i e wit I Its Waters noi yei UJisuuiii-u, uu;
V ltn U quick eye of military go- ?'; w,Jt" , ., .u 1a ,T.fe,l
determined to dmde his force, small as i TTZTZ " il Fa, but. sue-
IWving upon Davidson's militia, to U u,".U"i Z - ww.u.
iii i . . : iIpiI in maklIi'"(KXl vneir laiKiini;, ii" -"
fruni tk-ir homes when Uie emergency dcJ "mHh. . .......... .i. i ?.,.,i.,.ii.,
tr.iuire, as a central tore, he sent out ; ? "oriv k ueu -;
now promoted to the rank of Brigadjr J -u.
' continental service, across, the M li . eu j
wne
lost no time iu approaching the Catawba uiwii
the abat-ment of the flood, and while a feint was
made at Beattie's Ford, the most public aud cl
irnble pass, by a detachment under Lieutenant
Colonel Webster, his Lordship, moving with the
niairi army in the night, was ntdawnof day at tlw
private pass of Cowan's Ford, where he h:l eeii
anticipated by the vigilance of Dandwii. Hung.
tola aA W..aA -Kil l. l.im.lf!.-d SO". 8,'i,,, a w,""".'.V.,.LlI,Lu!a4a.
... ... , . .v . ...; ,.r i,A iiirinyie. ami w incii ne
C con Lieut CoL Henry K realously maintained by hve years o, serv.ee
tlie author of the " Memoirs of the War
'J South,' subseouentlv Gorernor of V'ir-
in tlie field.
Our repulsed forces retired to Torrence s tav
n. six' miles distant, on the Salisbury road,
in i !. i I : . .riv..i,',.aiii .n civ mil. mi distant
--.im uie ruuera panegyrist o. invmugwii cm, . ,flM ,,.
! appointment of Co.. By U.is ju- where they were joined by heir comrades from
Hositiou he secured abundant supplies j Beatties Ford, who retreatea ou -
miu iiaii-i.in
l'isiuiw lor his troops, interrupted coinmu-
oiisbtUvecu the BritUh army and the loy-
tail put it out of the power of Lord Corn-
nntiural !
:.i;.;.l.,al ssn.ninL- command, they were sur
prised by Tarletdn's cavalry, who had bi-en sent
I : -i tLtmiL. but witliout serious
r.nn now hastened eastward to
avmsr mm in ins . ioss. wu. - , ,
MUr,a,, by coioerl was strengthened by i Salisbury with the troops under "org . - -
Fwf militia under General i'ickeus of;Spatched orders to ' Huge r ana h.u - .
Urohna. aud Majors M'Howell of North ' to advance to that place, but ton., e wUh nn at
: , . . . " .... . i j- j ii.iiu artmo niiv
ffUiiiora vuiin w-t v
driniL' h:u fc M.irirnn or lenvinir him in his'! loss.
ma, aud Cunningham of Georgia.
lr: remfirrnf-TTKints' nndor Gen. Leslie, hav-
B rivlvSd:Jby Lord Cornwallis, in his po
" t Winiisborough, he despatched a sujieri
under Lieut. Coh, Tarleton to oppose
Tf, himself following with the main arniy
'"wsame dinvtiiin Th Kattl nf the Cow-'
bich immediately followed, and in which
'T was tnimi.hantly defeated by Morgan
."""Moss of one hundred killed, and more
miles runner
east Pressing on; pursued eagerly by the lJrilr
fshT he crossed tle Yadkin M the Trading 1-ord
eastward of Sftlisbury. Atd here aga.nlleaveu
smiled on thelmericau cause. U y)ryMr
ed the stream at midnight of the 3d of February,
n,l theinfantry ed in boats at dawn the next
morning, a ft of their wagons being cn off by
.i "..... H..I it... boats were: secured at the
HIP I UIMItl .
mc j.u. u :., . , riv. r during
. ..r ..lmiiiKr una h i km: "
V V'l 'w,,J"i
place
O' . r .1 .....I
&:e hundrp.1 -i.K ,m -rtillerv the niirht arrested the passago ot u.e i .... .,
gsiliury. beiflg fought SontlUW-l
fc. miles Uiyond the larder, is not with-' thirty mil, to the sha KW ford, ff
unn...U... ........ ..t ..... ..u;.w.. i,t. it. f I lunlsvi e, were, m- -p.
.. ...... r, , -..Tw-- :......,;,. ,.f the two divisions oi
oiise, and lost
but being
lmnie-hate scoi of our subWt,. but it of llunUvilie, were, .i
It back the nemy into North Carolina, the succes.sful junction of the two
i2ttelly this hifmihstionof his- arm, and Gfevue's army at.Gudf.r.l Court iio
in tho wide plantations by the way, moving for
ward at a quick step without aigw-of hostility,
except where a curve in the road or the crossing
of a stream promised some advantage to the pur-
i i
army of Lee and Pickens to be his, until they were
overthrown with terrible slaughter. Jfinety lay
dead upon tlie field, and nearly all the residue
su.irs. With a single meal a day to each army, 1 Preston, with three hundred men from the moun-
stratagem and skill : had marehed'TuTI bVe tn'in
dred miles, through deep rivers mid broken and
ruinous roads, in heavy rains and in the depth of
winter; and had denied himself and his army
the usual comforts of the camp, by the destruc
tion of his baggage, to give greater celerity to
were wounded. Lee and I Vkens, hurrying foH ,lia "ovwnenta he had .attailM4.it; ...Ue had
ward, espied the camp ot 1 arleton 111 the even
ing, and were at the same time joined by Col.
and slight intervals for rest, the pursuit aud re
treat continued three days and nights. By the
masterly disposition of Col. Carrington, of Vir
ginia, the Quartermaster General of tho army,
who hsd ijreiyioiisly urwyed this river with a
view to such a result of a campaign as the pres
entj boats were in readiness at Irwin's ferry, and
the ariny-of Greene passed over the lan on the
1 3th of February. The division of Williams elu
ding the enemy, crossed over the next day, swim
iug the horses of the c'avatry, and pursued by
OTIara until within a short distance of the river.
Thus ended this -celebratI retreat of two hun-.
dred and thirty miles from the Coweiis, diago
nally across Noj'th Carolina, into Virginia, and
which composes oue of the most interesting chap
ter in all military history. Contemplating the
romantic Piedmont country through which it was
made; its projecting mountains near at hand,
and loftier ones in the distant view; its lovely
vales and noble rivers swollen by floods the bat
tles and skirmishes of the two armies, and exploits
of the partisan corps andindividuals literally
"hair .breadth., 'satpos and adventures by-flood
and tield,"-au imaginative mind could not atr
tempt its description without bursting forth into
song, and crowning its heroes w ith unfading am
aranth. But it leaves the British General on the
nothern frontier of a third of the Southern States;
shall that State , , be added to his comments ?
Frustrated in the object of his long ami wearisome
pursuit, he had yet the eclat of a victor, in com
Jielliitg his adversary to floe, and wisely conclud
ed to make tfio n6st "effect uat "use of this "attri
bute. After a single day's reiMise ho proceeded
unoposed to Hillsborough, where we have seen
the Legislature, and afterwards the Board of War,
had been recently iu session. It wa, perhajM, a
fortune for the ttate, at that tim, that she had
no great city to be struck at by the enemyas a
vital part, and by impositions upon which gener
al submission might have be. ii enacted ; but that
her wealth and population were diffused over an
extensive territory, intersected by mountains, riv
ers and monissesnhe ' inhabitants of whieh-were
as little deiK-ndent oil '"each 'other, " except for good
neighborhood aud mutual defence, as they were
upon the enemy. There was no permanent seat
of government,' and the Legislature rarely assem
bled in the same tow n tw ice in succession. The
occupation of Hillsborough, the recent place of
j'uueiiUg of the General Assembly and the Gov
ernor, therefore, was of itself a ciieumstance of
little importance. Lord Cornwallis, however,
erected there the royal standard, and putting his
printing press again in requisition, issued forth a
proclamation, assuming to himself the air of a
coii'pueror, offering protection to persons and prop
erty, and appealing to the liege subjects of his
majesty to prove their loyalty and duty by wrn
ing to the aid of his cause, and thus contributing
to restore The blessings of order iw good govern
ment. This appeal, accompanied by the most
rigid observance of order in the restraint of his
troos from all trespass on person or property,
was not without its effect upon the inhabitants of
the country west of the Haw and north of Heep
river, many of whom had beeu leaders in the re
sistance of the Begulation iu 1771, and having
lieen then overcome aud forced to swear allegi-
'Lu4CA,to tl!ow.ere
tains of Virginia, who, having beard of the straits
of Greene's army on his retreat, were marching
to join him, ignorant that he had passed the 1 'an.
But the united forces postponing their attack un
til the. morning, Tarleton eluded their grasp, und
made good hjs retreat to Hillsborough.
Gen. Greene, having rested his wearied troops
and replenished his military supplies, and being
reinforced by a brigade of militia under General
Stevens, recrossedbe Dan 011 the - 3d February,
again to manu-uvre with the enemy. At the
same time, Cornwallis, tilled w ith chagrin at the,
disaster to-l yl'M, 111 the brst considerable insur
rection in his favor since, his entrance into the
State; moved westward of Haw river, to be near
er to the settlement of the loyalists, and prevent
the recurrence of a like casualty to Lis majesty's
faithful lieges. The British (ieneral, it must lie
noted, throtigltoiit the campaign, had two ob
jects in view, alter failing to overtake Morgan's
prisouers J the one to destroy Greene's army, the
other to augment his own by recruits from among
the loyalist inhabitants ;" and the ahn of the A-
jnericau was a well U impress the loyalists by -1
an exhibition of his torcc and spirit, as the safety
of his own army and the annoyoiice of his adver
sary. Taking position between the upper branch
es of Haw river, General Greene e-cstablislied
his corjis of light troops, under the gallant
and sagacious Williams-, w hich he kept between
the enemy and the maiu army.. ' Tn a series of
interesting movements,' assaults, skirmishes, and
and "retreats, he baffled all the efforts of his oj
jKitient to bring eitheFdi vision of his army 'to a
geueral engagement, until the arrival of a brigade
of militia, under General Lawson, from Virginia,
and. two brigades from North Carolina, under
Generals Butler and Eaton. His force being
now numerically uwrior to that of the enemy,
he ail valued to engage him iu battle, aud select
ed an eligible position; at Guilford Court House.
Lord Cornwallis, accepting the defiance, also
moved forward to the conflict, which look place
on the 15th of March, 1781, and became the as
sailant. Neither our limits nor your patience
wfll allbw an' e1
haps, greatest battle of the southern war. It is
well pourt.'irved by Marshall, Lee, Johnson, and
Ii0Rm. Sutlice it to remark, that tlie order of
driven his adversary from a tairly fought hi
and tasted the sweets of victory, but found theiii
like " llead Sea fruits." The loyalists had not
risen to join him, as he expected, and, mortifying
as must; have been the fact, he discovered that the
salvation of his army depended upon immediate
retreat.
The indomitable Greene, on the other hand,
refreshing and arraying his discomtilted fore. at"
his first cimip after leaving the field, advanced in
three days to renew the conflict, and now expe
rienced the proud satisfaction, of seeing his late
exultant eiiemy fleeing before him to a place of
refuge, and that he bad delivered a State from
conquest by his long suffering patience, prudence,
coinage., and the. -Lrarery and fortitude of hk
troos.
We shall not pursue the retreat of Lord Corn
wallis by way of Cross creek to Wilmington, nor
his march thence, nearly with, the line of the pre
sent railroad, into Virginia, where, in less than six
months, he was obliged to surrender to General
Washington ; nor Genpral Greene in his subse
quent march to the relief of South Carolina.
But there was another invasion, iu a different
quarter, without a brief allusion to which our ta-jk
would be incomplete.
" As a part of his plan for ,Uio subjugation of
the State, Lord Cornwallis, about the time of
breaking tp- his camp at Winnsborough, had
sent from Charleston a laud and naval force, un
der Major Craig, to take and hold the tow n of
Wilmington, as a convenient port through which
supplies might he furnished to. his own. army,
which he expected to bring into CoiiinHinic.'itioli
with it. The expedition succeeded, and the town
was occupied ou tbfirstof February. Tlie-wily
advantage, however, that it afforded to the army
of invasion by laid, was a convenient retreat and
abundant refreshments after the disastrous bat
tle at Guilford Court House, lie reached it on
the 7th of April ; aud ou the 25th of the same
month set off to unite in the attempt to over
come Virginia.
The xst at Wilmington, which was occupied
by about three hundred regular troos, and a
numerous but varying force of loyalists, gic
great encouragement to the disatiicted in that
region, of the. Suta : -Fwra ;die: finunessi with :
which the republican cause'had becn'maTritaiiKd,''
! and the more than doubtful 'success' of-the Brit
! ish arms in the late campaign, tin y had b'-eii
brought to olserve a prudent neutrality ; bufiuf-
into Ninth
and be
came a formidable foe. "A "detachment ot this
mixed force, under the immediate command of
Major Craig, traversed the country, with occasion
al skirmishes with the militia, as far eastward as
the valley of Neuse river, and seized the town of
Newbern ; and the war between whigs and tories
raued in the district Isitween the Caie Fear and
(lecnftrtTr, ?t, nmbsfmmarv, mtested wtb -
large inimliers ot tory refugees, who had soiigbL.
protection under the British arms, by reason of
the' recent success of General Greene in recover
ing South Carolina, and driving in their forces to
the garri-mn of Charleston. To these Governor
Bui ke, from his past history and official station,"
was an object ofshch Jeep hostility as to endan
ger! his Viersoiial safety. To an application for a
parole to his own State, or some other Southern
State, or to be exchanged for nn equivalent, or, if
all these should be refused, then that he might
be transferred to some other place for his person
al safety, no direct answer was made, but he was
given to understand that none of his requests
could be allowed ; anil that, at the solicitation of
Major Craig, he w as to be detained indefinitely, to
I. !,. il.n ci,fi..:ii. tl cutih selt'-TVisspssinn 'rea-
lldLlll , llll. oiiiimii, .... v . . -, ,
dv resource, and courage of both Gen-rals, was 1 ter the departure of (.reeie s army m
admiralJef that few engagcwuU . aluhit iu- j. t-V ac-qmred new c.m(..l.-..c..
stances of greater daring and -rsevering bravery
than were manitested by individual officers and
men, and whole corps ; that rarely have militia
withstood the shock of veteran regulars, sup
orted by artillery, bettor than did those of Vir
ginia, Under Stevens, and Lawson, and Camp-
1 o 1 ....... .K.I ...Limn. . in aii' fii'lil- lM'ltir
o II, auu 11111:1 viiu . ..I... ... .... j , 1 .. 1 1 1
illustrate-heroism nd-tliwmhan-m
Maryland regiment under Cot. Guhbyand Lieut.
Col." Howard, and tho I Klaware troops under
Capt. Kirkwood. And but for the panic which
seized the two North Carolina brigades, under
Gens. Butler and Katon, who had recently joined
the army, were posted in the trout line of the
battle, under the booming of cannon, and an ap-
lilnir eharye of the British under Lieut.
der contests: Gewerals Brown, Gwn,
Willis, and other patriot leaders -in that region,
basides encountering this domestic enemy in
skirmishes and assaults without number, fought
with them an unsuccessful battle at Beattie's
Bridge on 1 drowning Creek, a branch of the IV-
doeud General Butler, with the militia of Or
ange county, met and repulsed them, but with-
mills, 011 Lane
iiroacniiiir ciiil:3 ui ...1...... ....v.. . ... . . . -, ,
Col. Webster, and who broke and. fled with only ot a dycsive result, .Lnky,
. Al,rv fie: and the wavering and flight of Crwk, ... the county of Cl.athan
,tliMsiXaryland
; ov au iiir, rii.F ti.ii.iW .f.ilin hean llis movemein .1.1. -
JiftiiUUaC.his neari to .tne uM;f ;"'--v
enemy s cause. ;
The-quiet of the conqueror did not long re
main undisturbed. After the fall of Gen. David
sou, 011 the 1st of February, we left bis command,
consisting of men from Mecklenburg aud Ilowan
routed and dispersed by a surprise . from Tarle
tous cavalry, at Torreiice's Tavern, six miles from
the Catawba. Reassembling, after the passage
of the British army, they collected a force of sev
en hundred men. and follywud the pursuing eiie-
li.yr"t1iereleiug oWWniaffOf pinlitew among
the field officers as to the chief command, here
as in the case of Campbell at Kings Mountain,
on the 11th of February they elected .Gen. An
drew Pickens, of South Carolina, to the head of
I iavi,lso.i' Brigade. This distinguished partisan
officer was at the surprise at Torrence's, Bnd bad J
continued with these : troops trom tniu time, uui
without conimaud, except of a few followers from
South Carolina. Doubtless they could not have
found a more skilful, gallant, and efficient leader.
But the effect of this leadership has occasioned
them to be mistaken by Lee and other historians
for militia of South Carolina. Passing leisurely
throti"h the country after the British army, they
eflittually kept down the loyalists, and nt dawn
of day, the morning of 1 Hth of February a
detachment" of two "companies of this force, by
ord.fof.Ge. Pieki-ns, surprised and captured a
picket stationed at Hart's Mill, within a mile ami
a half of the head quarters of Cornwall, at llills-
borough. Keireauiig 10. a .".. " v
1:...;' t:rivk. . with some five andJ
4wirtsOairfISie bA
imuw. "those -efl'Tared in the night's expedition to
nrhlplf
or
late in the action, General Greene
jtfhlevetTa complLtc victory.'- At tlie commeiice)-
ment, his force numbered more than two to one
of the enemy, and after the flight of the militia
of Eaton and Butler, they yet stood in the pro
iortion of 3,200 to 'A000. Well, therefore, has
it been observed by Marshall, that no battle in
the course of the war reflects more honor on the
British troops than that of Guilford. They, how
ever", were nearly all veterans. Those of Greene
contained about five hundred of this class.
lltilLr111!''" from tlu; carnage of the day
northw-ard,"aeross 'the KcTy Fork oTflaw river
to the iron works on Troublesome creek, he ef
fivted his retreat in good order and safety to his
troops, leaving to his adversary a "gory bed
and barren triumph on the field of battle. His
Joss, in killed and wounded, amounted in all to
about fbur hundred ; while that of Lord Corn
wallis, according to tlie official . account, was hye
hundred and thirty-two, includiug..Li.eut. Cl.
WebsU-r, the Ajax of his army, a friend " w hom
he loved, and who leaned ujhjii his bosom. He
was mortally wounded, and died some days sub
sequently, in Bladen, on the march of the army
to Wilmington. The Memoirs, of Leo mention,
that in a sharp action at Whitsell's null,. on nee
dy fork, wluch occurred with Williams s light
troopa (W days-before Jlik.biittki jhjrtViwo
rifle shots were deliberately tired at Col. W ebster,
by some- of the best mountain ritleinm und r
nninliell. who were r laced in a loghouse, with
iri.MiM to fire onlv at "six-cial- objects.
...i.;i.. t,a i.V the BrifistcViTHimi ac nss the t.tre
but all without effect. I Iw-Uminatjon nis
Suit ;jattbaUV.ManjBC .
' i-lt.A ;A .sliiuljii anecdote is reJffed of f n-n.
r Col. Ford. One of the chiefs, of the tory commanders, if , .llL,Ustin,. Florida
...... : 1.;. .iHiiiinBidvU hinw If " Colo- 1 TTie clr.te crfnftneme.Tirr
J CUIUIII mmtt mi" vn 1 .-1 .... v v--,.- .-. I'll
uel of tlw'lloyaf Minttaan'F wmennewas 1.1 c
character in the traditions of the state associated -mnt dang, r ot as.namtirtr-tlwrretwro
the end, tlmt if the notorious Fanning, or any to
ry leader w hom this British officer had employed,
should lie taki n, and suffer punishment under the
laws of the State, there might be retaliation upon
him. It Was now the seventh year of the war,
and the. siftth after the national. -declaration of
independence ; the American cause had recently
acquired renewed confidence and stability from
rthe surrender of Lord Cornwalliiat Vorktown,
w hich occasioned the evacuation of Wilmington
by Major Craig ; from tlie result of the battle at
Kutaw Springs, and the consequent retirement of
th. British army to Charleston, and from the
arrival of large rciuforcemeiits to Gen. Greene
from the northward, under Generals St Clair
and Wayne. The individual thus subjected to
degradation and "insult w;as a high spirited arid
urbane, gentleman, accustomed to the observ
ances of refined lifi and the deference habitually
yielded to his position. Officially..!., was the
First Sfagistrate of one of the thirteen indepen
dent States, and the third person in succession
who had performed the functions of that station.
In-tlie outset of the war, Great Britain had af
fected to treat all' Americans as relicls, without
regard to their governmental organizations; and
rhe dignified 'reply of General Washington - to
the haughty note of General flag.', at Boston,,
justifying such a course, in which he announces
to the British Coii)i:iander-iii-('hietj" "if jour
officer, our "prisoners, .receive from me a treat
ment different from what I w ished to show them,
they and you w ill r ineliiU'r the occasion of it,"
will readily occur to life reader of history uHn
the statement of this question. But in the j.ro-"
gress of the content, this pret iisioii had Is en re
laed into the ubscn ane.', for the most part, of -rubs
of cililized -warfare; and the duty of bu
iii;t!iity to pris...in rs, amj d f. n ncc to tin if rank . .
a'unOlii3jt?i3ll'Ovrym.'ri,-' liad been recogrrizfV, -not
only in not enforcing cTo 'coiifinenieiit; but
in exchanges of rank for rank, or its equivalent.
But in this -iuMauc", . hicaiierv was resorted to,
and it was alleged that although continental of-'
tic Tswere so far respected a- lo be subjects of
cclinnge, a ikv eharaxtt'r could Vt W extended
to the militii or State oflicers. The Colitinen
n.il Congressertaiiiiv had given no color to this
attempted distinction; on the contrary, upon the'
second invas-ion ot South Carolina in 1778-'!),
when llichard Caswell, a soldier of rcnowm, filled
the Kxcciitiie Chair of North Carolina, thjfbody,
at th,e urgent request of the delegates from South
C'n'roliiiJrrtfld, ; byresifilntiiiw, nulfd hu to
take command, in person: , of the militia fort he
hail ordered out to aid in her defence, with tlwi
rank of Major Ceneral in the contim ntal line, and
sulior.linate only to Cciieral Lincoln. And to
negative, in the most unqualified manner, this
weak pretension. Brigadier General Butherford,
of the North Carolina militia, w ho, we well re
member, was taken prisoner at the defeat of Gates,
had lieen recently exchanged, and returned to his
own State; alb r a coufm.-me.it ot twelve months
nftnementrnf rovernnr Burktvarrd
con-
in
1 n
: ramieitv reven.'eor' contravc.iti.m ol receul .recnleiii,.(is wen as
n 1 ui vici j line ri miiu - ... . ill 1 1 'I
cruelty. Always well mounted, and necompa- j all just principle, and con d Is- v.... hca cdily
nied by a band'of kindred spirits, he swept over by that new-veis.,,,, of pub he law, ately acted
the country like a Cama.iche chief. Surprising ! upon 111 the ( aroh.wts, by wind. whoUjtom.nu...
parties of Whis when off their guard, ho j ties of ,h aceable citizens were vmHU; t pr.son
ofton gaie no quarters; or lving in ambus!, or ers, and each man forced to afan. e of non-re-..ouueing
upon them af their homes, he seized stance or close confinement, and by virtue of
f . T. 1 , 1.1 1 .. .(,.;..t. n in. Ii llie aineiiteil 1 1 svfie I11.1I U-eli recent V nut
and murdered or tortureii uie ooiio.xiuus ,..i.,i, 1 - - - - - f .
:,.mAUUu:yorjj.er,jiam.:
tttl3lhei-finiH.leTT;d-Wr-bunrt tl.r dw.dUagf-to-a4.u.uoM.dirtjJ.
Br a series of bold adventures, he took the town out Htr.nl. IhinV.t die
of Cross Creeks, now Fayettcville, captured tlie
whig militia officers of the county of Chatham,
when sitting" iiT court martial nt PittsWoitgh ;
I I.... .....I.i..n .1,m.nt nil Ilills.Hirollll at
dawn of day, about the middle of Septeu,l,.r,si-ct with which le-diad be..,,
!, .n,. .i. otr.b Governor of the StatX. .1 day of his seizure, and the relic.
rK. MrfV V HUM .v - - --
He outlive! the war, and took refuge, in theioy
alist settlement of New Brunswick, orJOva Sco
tia. Mr. Sabine, whosesketefi of Fan., ing, i 1'ts
Lives of the loyalists, is cxw-ejJingly brief and
e .... :.. ;n.".. '..f Uu luiiactiT as an
lUHHJIlCCl.lll (1IU.-UUIIUII v....-- ; .. 1 , 1 11,1..
outlaw, relate that whence.,. Marion of South . orous punishment on th.-s., culprits should thc-y
CaroliiM, admitted tor.ns Major Gaiu. y,a c.l- , appre hend.-d, w,t bout regard to his own saf.i
ebratcd l.rv alist, arVfa party under him, Fanni.ig ly. . And U-.ng well satisfied that h.s own hie
1 not produce retaliation,
. 1
in a siinniartiiiti exemplary manner, can ouiy
accounted for by the near approach. of peace,
and tlioti'terniiniition of his captivity by the act
t jWti: prisoner 111. us. 11. .-stung ny uie warn. o.
hail Imo'Ii tivuti d lioin. uie
ctiou that he was
detaiiii'-d whliovit limit of time, as a hostage fr
the safety of bandits aml outlaws who had forfeit
ed their lives to the municipal laws, and whoso
del iredat kins were still continued iu the State,
under his government be advised the most rig-
.. .1 .. I.. 1 I II... luill.
was sneciai y nami-'i as cxcihmcu ho...
r
fits of I
x;.. 1. .nt 1 Ins mute eoi resiiollils
..ii.tii 1....- .... 1 1
corsair name he ha- left to our times, in
was in ie.-H iar.lv irotn tin- iic.iiiious lovaiisis-wno-
surroiiudi it liim oirJiim.-s's" Island; Fome- of w hum
were fugitives from justice ill North Carolina,- he
d hauTits imtbe ni.rth side ot the v amlina 1 eoiisuierci ius 'y- ....... ... .. vy .- n.y....-
. . ... ..1 1 :'.i,... In i liivli In. li:i.l Imt-n libiiN-iliiv tl. 4 Irit-
and caused HUH, wmi iwo 01.1. .s u.i... , .......v-v , -v -" 1 . , ,-' , . ...
to" be siveeiallv- excepted from the, .rnvMonsy .hU.couiiuauoer.ana re,.r.i,lo.,....I..t ,... ..
.1.. . r,;..l...i ...aUioii" i.assed by the ; from his custody, lhis liiriiose lie. ell.-tU.-.! oit
. ' ---. -. -.A'a .tn.c .1 itiK.ksw.- y v JrlT.....)..- T?V.-n f.-.m-'.-frwn li.-.'-ris.ii..r-..i .ivu.-
iiinuriuiiau; ;i ui.O'- I ' ... ' - - 1. "i I."'.....' ... . .M....vnr-
r n.i lAmrnrir mi r w . i?
than., wgivcaof t!w...Wroj.W
l'2fwrtM..jnfhe.icaiiMftwej :
i.M-v.'ltF.-... -'':;j:uiiV'iTiS'nl-S iirrfri'r-'" '- a-J :--MMM""M,aii,iMMiww"'''Tl 'i mmmmMmm mmm 'In -iiln ilm . '. I 1 ' 1 ww
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