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0 / 75
VOL. X.-NliW SERIES.
SALISBURY, N. C MAY 18, 1854.
f "J. "J. BRUNER, -. -.
editor asd MtoririrroB.
Tw bullr ysar, YA sntsia three month ftc
daM of subscript loa twd4lar snd My ete if Mil
Uid bslur th npiratiaa of th year, "'
tr sfl.i Mm ysar stpired. No paper diacontie-
d .Wit at) ttMlM "f"
..snf In editor .
Letter to lb. Editor asus !. "
ttsataav ! --;" : ' " ' .'.'j'
k; a i it a a "s ",Mi
T g -
' AfM lo-to. ' M.npi T 1 tiam
. Aa mdnnimtmt 1 itio 11 or It MMMt uuf-
4 i muPiMM to l mmn t Mtkint Si. or St V
khwnd m ptoMtrlMa loSoin. AS (IfmcUuo. of if.
,! to t r dwrfM ta fcupuruua 10 m. ,
WBttl I I VK1HHI pin
UcmaiiMial RHnh wtlaMit ULOHK
gnuud to Umm. b (dmrtiM trfuluiy Ihruujh th.
I kn. auHaia mmmwi moow.i n "inc..
Ooit OMera clumit Si M Oral hirh'f thu tlx
I W Uaw JiiJlf kWid
I I0 wo. .T..v "-J . ,
I rr rVnnoo odiM hi dwrtionw. rrirt-
I -4 to Mol. Um mot of ioorninm rrooiivd i ud if
I t'rts fcW i.t i-swoitT-i.oi Cr P""-
vtM. om to. koet tlw owd tUm. intwrwo
Ilk wilt Wjpi I JVJmJ!lfmetf
, Cy Ko dinoont w
Tat lb Wtlrbono. ,
Ertrtvttfrom Lucbio's Agricultural Che-
The object of agriculture is to produce
either articles of commerce, or food for
man and ismmalsf Jbut j..maximum"?of
produce in plants is always in proportion.
to Itha quawtitv lutw,turi,,ic(1 10
of carbonic acid, contained in the toil in
tlieforrif of humuV tvSe,"''e '"'''
and nitrogen fn the lonn of ammonia, both
of which must be supplied to fhelttnU if
the desired purpose is to be aconiiplisli-
leAlW formation-of -ammonta-cannot
be effected on cultivated land, but humus
mar; be artificially produced ; and this
must be considered an Important object!
in the alternation of crops, and as the:
The sowing of a field with fallow plant,
uch as clover, rye, buckwheat, kc, and
the. incorporation of plants, when nearly
it blossom with die soil, affect this sup
ply of humus in so far that young plants
ubscquontly growing m it find, at awnr-
tain period of their growth, a maximum
of nutriment, that is, matter in the pro
cess of decty.
We can scarcely suppose a better means
of producing humus than by the growth
pf plants, the kaves of which are. food fur
animals S for they prepare the soil for
dmjvrcscnce of hlimus is theTmost cssen
t ialiflnili tion s4 gr4lluJiej;caatt why
this Interchange of crops is so advanta
geousthe principles which regulate this
part of sericulture are therefore, the arti-
mciir production of tiiimns, rand the cnlth
vation of differeut kmds. of .plants on the
Lame field, in such an order of succession,
that each shall extract from the soil only
certain components, whilst it leaves
behind or restores whose which a se
cond or third species of plant may require
Dor its growth and twrfoct development
Kow, although the' quantity pf humus
n a soil may be increased to a certain de-
Bertie by an artificial cultivation, still in
pite of this, there cannot be the smallest
loubt that a soil must gradually lose
Dhose of itsttoustitutents which are remov
Id in the seeds, roots and leaves of plants
raised upon it . ,
The fertility of a soil cannot remain on
m,lMul h " 1 .... hm WMiln'nA in if nit tliioA
nbsunce. of whieh It has thu. been def
-rived now this is effected, ny manure.
V high degree of culture requires an in
3 'i S 1 RJ
- . 1 i
M M A Li
1 g -3
:r- wo ,
corn and cattle jtelll augment, but must
diminish wiUi ili deficiency. And where
a manure U required to yield nitrogen to
the soil, the greatest value should be at
tached to the liquid excrements of men
and 'niiitIsV'rn,neu tfts cohitiaered that
with every pound of ammonia, which
evaporates a loss of 60 pouda of corn h
sustaincfli and that with everr pound of
lunue a pound of wheat uiiglit be produc
ed, the indifference with which these li
quid excrements are regarded is incom
.If we strew the floors fcf our stables
from time to time witlfgypsum (jJunter
of Fans) the will lose all their offensive
smell, and none of the ammonia which
form, can be lost, but retained in a ser
viceable form fur manure.
- Fiuoi Oj NurtWrn Cultiftur. "
TOBACCO CULTURE IX THE NOR
THERN STATES. .
Htsssaa. Ewtob8. During the last few
yeara the weevil or wheat nn'dire. ICecv-
uvrnyui tnitca,) uas acstroyed a large
portion of the wheat crop in many parts
of the wheat-growing district in western
New-tork. heat has Lceri our great
staple, but the midge annually spreads
more and more, uulil finally th whole
wheat district will prdbably be more or
less infected by this'iiest. The wheat
crop in Yates county, is at least one-third
below an average yield. If we cannot
make money raising wlreat, jtcrliaps oth
er tltliiga Eiay be growin7'eaW if not
.. n. -t I . ". I
more profitable. Among these we Tank
tobacco, which, if rightly cultivated, will
yield large profits.. According ta the
census report of 1850, there were produc-
ed that year in tlic UnltuJ,' lia,JiJ,76
His. of totacco, of which tiliire ttiiiii one
half was rainl by Virginia and Kentucky.
Ohio l.roduccd 10.454.41'J His r Connec-
ticut, 1.2C7, 644 ; Massachusetts, 108,340:
Kmrisylvania, 912,051 ; Illinois, 841,394 ;
Indiana, 1,H4,6'(; N. York, 83,189 fba.
Ohio produces more than all the other
Connecticut has long grown toliacco.
Accordfng to Ih-S HV W snow, in tlieCul
flvator of 1844, about 500 tuns are grown
amnnally in the valley' of tfie Coiinecti
cnt, of which the town of Kaot Windsor
produces 300 tons. Mr. Watson states
that the yield of 1843 was less than usu
al,: 1,500 lbs. being alioutthe average per
acre. They cultivate two varieties of the
weedr tltchroad and narrow leaf. The
Mnlr'ibmitlirarwleett the '"''earnests
arly atlupted to theproduction of a su-
jcrior article, one pound in market being
worth nearly as much as two pounds of
Virginia or Kentucky tobacco. This va
riety is known as the " Connecticut Seed
Leaf." In the All any .Cultivator ofl847
are some remarks or tlio editor on the
cultivation of tobacco in the valley of
the Connecticut river. He says "Tq
iva pr(M4)ecrijMlivrVj ftiirespret'
ty rich laud though the sandy soils
manured at njie rate of ten or twenty
common two-horse or ox loads of manure
per acre, produce well. With good
management the tisual yield is from 1,500
to 2,000 lbs. per acre of marketable to
bacco, and an average return of (100 to
(1C0 per acre. With the course that is
there pursued, tobacco is by no means au
injurious crop to the soil, on the con
trary it is found to be an ameliorating
one. . the (ilMjralmaiiurttiff and clean cul
tivation necessary to bestow on the to-
the soil admirably
crops ; ttiia it is lound that wnoat amr
otJifit graiiiaauiL grass- JuiriiilibeUftr
where tobacco forms a jartSf the rota
tion. Messrs. Lathrop mentioned an in
stance of their having put $U6 worth of
man tire "on an acre aiid imtflnidredroTlgiif;
land w hich they planted with tobacco.
They got a ton of tobacco which they
sold tor IfloU. ihey sowed mo sam
land to wheat got 30 bushels. 1 ho next
crop was hayT and gave at two cutting
four tons. The stalks of tobacco. 'after
the leave have lieen taken 'ft,-ym scat
tered over the ground am! plowed in, or
placed in the manure heap tjrot. It is
known that their ashes coiitain a large
proportio.il of potash. AV'e are told hat
where two or three stalks are left on
grass ground their effect is very visible
in tho rank growth of the grass around."
The following estimate of the cost of
rB,8,n pne ,obam; ' f1
N-w-York Farmer and Mechamc.-
It is estimated from several acres which
avefagod one longer acre, which was' gold
. 8 00
. 1 .00
Setting plants, ' " "
' 3 00
llwing four times, . r
Cutting and hanging up to dry,
Stripping from .talk and packing,
Rent of- shed to dry in,
Freighting to Warehouse Point,
, t07 so
DmIucI $670 from 160, Wares 92!0 profit
Mr.jrELso Tiiomwox, the President
of the Yates Co. Ag. Socfety, has cnlti
vated tobacco during the last two years.
The last year he had planted between 13
and 14 acre, of which he estimates the
average yield between. 1,800 and '2,000
lbs. per acre. His soil is good, and he
manures highly. He estimates the val
ue of his tobacco, at present prices, to be
at least $2,000. Admitting that one-half
of that. is for expenses, which is too large
an estimate, he has a clear profit of at
least over $70 per acre. ' '
The Northern States have millions of
acres well adapted to the culture of to
bacco, nor is there any probability of too
many engaging in it. Irr Virginia there
is said to be a large deficit in the yield
during the last few years. Its use in
creases jn spite of autitobocco societies.
In projiortion to the decrease in the use
of ardent spirits, will that of tobacco in-,
crease, becausevery many" will "use some
thing te-eeitewpjict the nerves. '
Those who wi&h to obtain information
concerning it culture, will find -a de
tailed accountlof the method practiced
in Connecticut, in the Albany Cultirat'n-
of 1844, Yours truly" S. B. Bucklev.
ir? J)reden, YaU CO.r N. . Y. Feb.
1, 1854. "
'.' Hard II pad to Tkabi.e. We have
learned, that some of our "majors"
took exceptions to an observation in our
last Iaier. As our desiirn was purely
playful, we regret that any one should
nave taken it in sTscriouS mood.;-" As to tlie
strutting and fretting their hours upon
the stage, it is a Miakspcrian expression,
which lias often been philosophically s
plied to men in every station, but never
a . ... . .
re (that we know of) received with ill
fceliiijr. We are 1 sorry that our ioke
should be taken amiss. Amonir our ma
jors we call to mind oue at least whom
we rank among our best friends, and of
course we could not desiirn to irive him
ofTence-nor indeed arhv ie' else. " But
so it is an editor's is "a hard road to
trablc, 1 believe." ' , . . . ,
Agaiivm an article upon the decline
we Temarked that either of
our two coach factories could be carried
on with six or seven hands. But here
comes Mr. Leigh's agent, and savs, " Why
we work eighteen hands in all, (big, lit
tle, old and young, hemii;lithave added.)
So we Lave-stumbled again.--Wett; gen
tlemen, it we did miss the figure, it was
in advocatiuir a project which would, if
carried out, double all your interests.
Still, we are held inexcusable. Folks will
not look upon us in the right light 1 es.
Writing .for- a Xeicurxtber. Header,
do you know What writing for a news-
paintr means ?
it means writing in haste, Against the
n.c.....ioiit wiiuous, iippcipHliny 10r re
flection, correctness or
r a cnance w gel ni-
formation. It means dressing for a ball
in the dark ; painting a picture with a
single brush for all colors; answering
questions of fact from imagination. It
means attempting the impossible, and
making fools believe you nave- donejL.
Wore-thantharworse than' all it
means writinc? nnantitv instead of ounlitr.
dilutiniC Jiwksjjf fragxanXwuiut4aihi
Us of on acre of land one year
10 losds of manure at 12,50, carting
snd spreading S one-balf is
Harrowing and markiug,
7.000 tolwicco plauU, st SO cents.
XiLiiihfiidjilltastiiless water ; passing oU'WUw-tulies
lor solid- bars ot metal,
TASTE THIS UP IX YOUR MIND.
Let voti bo ever so pure, you cannot
associate with bud companions without
inning into nun inior. r.vu company is
like tobacco smoke you cannot be long
iii its presence without carrying away a
Our friends D. Sherwood & Co., have
handed ns a specimen of their Maple Su
gar;1 It is the finest and pnreRt we have
ever Beeni so fitr ns wo can recollect, and
much superior According to our notion,
to ajy imported' Sugar whatever. Wil.
CotilnUTCtal. . .
-4 Block for the Monument. The block
of Marble sent by the Sultan of Turkey
for the aslnngton .Monnment, has ar
rived at New York and will be immetli
ately forwarded to Washington
Let gentleness thy strong enforcement
Wine i tnada
to iome extent in Cam
e"';Tf'.f"''' . T -'v""'t'r'iy' "..V.-v-'r.' -.rr;-".' 1 z?T,jf'?
Doi. 8. n. Rogers, of N. Carollaa,
the Maws or KiriuiKTiTmi, Arit28, 1854.
Tlie House liavintr .under considerarion
bill granting lands equally to the several States
w miu iu him conairuvuon m ranroiuu, ana tor
the support of schools" -
Mr. ROGERS .aid : Mr. Speaker, I desire to
submit oome remarks in ngard to the policy
wbich lias been pursued in relation to the public
inu, onu w give my views, uuniuie so tuey
may be, as to wbat dupositioa should be made
of thai vast property by the future legislation of
VxMigress. - '.
In Joing so, I shall refer to the past lesridi
tioo of Congress in eonneetion with tliis subject,
and will newaoarily be led into a train of dis
course not only familiar in Um Capitol, but usu
al in political discumioa. I can scarcely hope,
then, sir, to say anything new in thui connection.
The greatest men of our country hSvs discussed
it J Years ago great solicitude was felt and ex
pressed ns to the manner in wbich silioold be dis
posed of tbe vast domain which then belonged
to our country, and that which would be acuuir-
cd'iu the Natural course of events growing out of
The great statesman of the West, who is now
no inore, when he said, in a speech, in the other
eid of tbe Capitol, Long after we shall cease
to be agitated by the tar iff, ay, after our manu
factures shall hare acquired a stability and per
fection which will enable them successfully to
coi6 with the manufactures of any other coun
try, the public lands will remain a subject of
deep and enduring interest In whatever view
we contemplate them, there is bo" (juesrioo of
sucu vast mijioruiicv, saw with a propliet a vis
ion the vast acquisitions which would be made
to our territory, and the great necessity, of set
tling then npou a system of jwlicy by which jus
tice would be done to all the States.
In my humble judgment gross injustice has
been done to the old States : and I verv much
ear, -friimrth -aetfon of Jongies for the fa few-
years, and Jroiu its course as indicated uunng
lliis session, no change of policy can be elected
by which the old States will be benefitted to any
great extent hile l hay a seatu0A thu
floor, I M that it is my .duty to use (very fair
meant iu mv annr lu .e&tict v?h f; ;nrrt
IWaul.Juo-iittra-laa to intwben-jpn.sen4-4
mg land" Males, lhall would not, if my pow
er, do them injustice ; I rejoice in the growth of
our whole country; j .rejoice in th growth of
every section of it. East, West, NorU, or South.
Ve arc realizing, in the growth of the West,
wliot wuk fiithers sow w he fwlorer-- Their lwh-4---
;:r i""t:,:"r: l ''i''::r 2 lLitt' i v:j- .1
est iiojieii are oeing iuniiit.i. vura is a great,
grow ing and powerful nation : and I hope 1
shall lie the last man to attempt to check her in
her onward progress. If Congress legislates wise-
.W, judicious!-, and equitably, in accordance. ith
the principles of eur Constitution, we see but the
beginning of the end. . - .
Mr. speaker, i am m favor of distributing tbe
lands, or the proceeds arisiiif from the sales
thereof, among toe States, accurding to their re
presentation upon this floor. I think, by the
Constitution, such a power is clearly given to
Congress, and that it is right, proper, and just
to exercise it, 1 tie language of the Constitution
this: . , -
Cofirrrss shall hsrr power to ditaott tf, snd make
sll nn-dlul rules and rrrulatwMM respecting, the terri
tory u other properly aeloaiaf 10 the V. Stales."
In a speech delivered upon this floor by the
honorable' uif mber from South t'Krolina, Mr.
')iit,"ou tlte 24th of February, 1852, when m
to the State of Missouri for constructing railroads
was under connideration, aAer reciting the clause
of tlie Constitution which I Lave just read, he
used the following language :
I suponsf that the power conferred bv ihis ebuts
upoo tbe Cuuress u( to UsMed Histrs is as ample,
full, snd complete ss any other power vested by that
instrument in Congress. And the only liraitsuoa to
that power, in my opinion, is an implied trust that
the Congress, in mskint; that disposilion of the public
lands, shall dispose of Ihem in sugh a manner ss asosl
effectually to promote the intereslaof ail the Slates."
After siieaking of the bill then under consid-
erwtioii, he--ert--furtfir--te'Say ;-------
Tdo tiot tTmia17fngreas would have power to five
sway all the public lands ; for in that way Khe Gov
ernment would not be carrying out lliia implied truat."
I agree with the hohorablempmbcr from South
Carolina, that it would be a breach otXrutt in
this Government to'give all of the public lands"
either to the States in which thevJie, or to jndi-
.hluala.mtofmiiorati.wuL----H- wrmM m a vml
tion of the ,erilM
Upon which Virginia, North
Carolina, and other States ceded the lands Claim
ed by them to the General Government; and I
say,, further, that it would be giving to particu
lar States, or coronations, or individuals, land
purchased with the revenues raised out of all
the States vf the L'juiun. lnd-1-go utill fnrllier,
and say That Congress hai no power, with
out a viol.-ttion of trust, to give away one foot
of the public lands, aconired either bv Cession
ur liuriiiiiae, uiiLss it be fur 1 1 to "uoiiiiiioh feen-4
efil of allihe Sutes."
To ascertain three positions, it will be neces-
aary lorecur-to the-fiUta i:onnwt-d with UoKUr-i
cumstanees under which the General Govern
ment aciiuired title to the public lands :
On the "Hi of July, 177'J. the Articles of the.
Confederation were entered into, and by theae
articles it was- provided " tliat no Slate shall be
deprived 'of terrltorvTor thff'henefit -of the Vm-.
ted States. At this period the State of ir-
ginia,in addition to its present boundaries, claim
ed all the territory now embraced within the lim-
i,o( th.eStates tif lhio, Indiana, Illinois, Mich
igan, and Wiscolisin. .
Aorlli I arolina claimed Hie territory eniorac
d within the limits of Tennessee ; Georgia claim
ed that which is now Alaliamaand Mississippi ;
and other States had unsettled claims to terriUe
Oetolier 10, 1780, the Congnsa umler the
t.-oiifi!ileration, for the purpose of mdueing and
encouraging such' of the States as laid claim to
western territory to o-de to the united States
the pulilic domain, passed the following resolu
That the unanpmpriated lands which may be ced
ed or relinquished to. the Cniled Slates, pursuant to
the recomuiendnlhHi of t fHigresa of the bin of Sep.
tember last, tkall bt dttvaaed af far tkt 'caiaa Sra-
rS'f lr I'mitrd Statra, and be settled and tamed
iuUi distinct repubiicsn States, which shall become
members of I4ie. t-deral Cuion, and have the same
rights of sovereignty, freedom, and iodeDendeace as
the other States."
The resolution just read contains this distinct
proposition : -
-. "Thai ssid aiWs tkall at diafattd af far vaa c-
ko ssunT af tkt laitt flare.
'I' '- - - '
On the second of Januaryr l781, tb Legisla
ture of Virginia resolved that they would yield
to th Congress of the United States, for the ben
efit of the said States, sll right, title, and claim
which the Commonwealth had to the lands north
west of the Ohio river, upon th folio wiua con-.
ditions, among others : -
That- the lands so ceded should b considered a
man fund for fas um mni Seacfl of sued of the U.
American Slates as bay become or shall become
meaibers of lb Confederation, or Federal allisocs of
amid States, Kririius lacajive, acoordinf to I ar sm.
ml rt9fetm aw rtins in ikm reueni ekarrt and
Siftntiturt, aoS SBonld be JaUAJutty and bans jiot
ftpii for til fmrpt, mmd ft as vtkir fur ft
March 1, 1781, the State of New York, in
compliance with the resolutions of Congress, of
September and October, 1780, in tlie old Con
gress, by her delegates, executed a deed of ces
sion to the u nited b tales of ber claim to all ter
ritory lying twenty miles west of the most west
erly bent or inclination of Niagara river ; and
the deed contains theae words :
" T te soW mart far tkt use mf tack tf tkt Unitti
atatet at Msu lnu Humbert tf tkt aaid ataltt,
ami far ao othis !' oa rvarosa whatsvxs.
Congress finding tlie other States slow to come
into their recommendation, in April, 1783, or
dered an address to be imued to them, which
-was drawn up by Mr. Madison, urging them to
complete meir oeasions 01 lano. iu vciouer 01
I .1 5 - I J I. ... 1.
tlie same year Congress pauses! a resolution, " to
ppoint a committee to rrvort a plan, consistent
with tbe principle of tbe Confederation, lor eon
necting with the Union, by a temporary govern
ment, the purchasers and inhabitants of the
Western Territory, until their number and cir
cumstances shall entitle them to form a perma
nent constitution for themselves. Arc In April,
784, the committee reported a plan of govern
ment, in pursuance of the preceding resolution,
Inch, among, others, contains tbe following pro-
" That when anv such State shall hays scqnired
twenty thousand fret jnhabitanls, on giving due proof
thereof to Cougreas they shall receive from them au-
thomy, with appisntmenu or time ana place , to can
a convention of reoresentatives to estsUisb a perma
nent' constitution and govertirnent R.T themselvt-sl
Pret-Kfs", That biHh the temporary snd Acraiauent
(ovemmeBf be esubliahed oa these principles among
others ss their basis :
" 1st. That they shall forever remain a part of this
aC?s30fst4'evT!j-fl tfoit -9t4vt4Vttf (rf AflwJvJflsl?!--''"""
" 2d. That they shall be atAjact la tkt ArtieUl af
Caaftdtratiaa. ia all tkaat faatt im wkiek tkt arigiaal
Stattaakall kt at miri-f. and te-ill -Ow acts and or
dinances of the United States in Cougreas assembled
confts-mable thereto. ' !
3d That they ia aa taat tkall nlrrftrt witk tkt
primary dttfaaal af tkt toil by the United States in
Congrcas assembled, nor with the ordinances snd reg-
ulatKms which Congress mav find necessary fur e-
curing the tilhi to the asaa fide purebast-rs."
Believing that the Congress of file' tTnite3
States spokW ntrtf violate the trutt proposed by
tbe resolutions of September and October, 1780,
and pledged in tbe address of 1783, snd theje
port of the committee of 1784, but perform it
sacredly according to tbe term of the deeds of
cession, which should be made consistently with
them, the State claiming lands, with a noble
magnanimity, relinquished them to the United
States, to be held in , trutt for the use and bene
fit of all the Mn, according to their reprtamt-
altun upon tint floor. Tins is not the language
of tlie retoluiiont of Virginia of tbe 2d of Janu
ary, 1 1 8 1 ; . nor is it tbe language of the ocrdt
of amon from Virgiuia and the other States;
but it u the meaning of -them, and tbe only
meaning which a lair construction af then) will
allow, as I expect to be able to show before con
cluding my remarks.
Mureh I..I18I, Virginia made her used Of
cession lu the fulluv. ilig words I
-"T-be hujds wrthni th ternbTv weeded
to the Lnited Htstes, snd not reserved ttir, nor appro
priated to, any of the beturensentione'd purpurea, or
disposed of ia bnoaties to the; officers snd soldiers of
the Aniencaa .army, tkall at eanaidrrtd at a eamatta
fund for tkt ate aad ktaefit af amrk af tkt failed
Statra ma kaat sereme, sr tkall became, atemkart af
tku CeaeaVratismar Federal AlUaact if said Huua.
Vrrgiaia iaelaaiat, aecardiaf ia tkeir rttptetiat aad
uaaal wrtpartiaat ia tkt general tkarft aad-trptadi
tart, aad tkall kt failkfalla aad kaaa idt ditaated
of far tkat jarpoae, and far aw atker mat or pmrmat
November 1 3, 1 784, the Legislature of Massa
chusetts, passed an act authorizing a cession to be
made to the. United stall cd'aW Jaiid. claimed
by that Stole between the Hudson sik! Missis J
sippi rivers, tor tne purposes mentioned in the
resolution ot Congress ot ictober 10, !eu : and
iu the deed is contained, these words : j
- ' To be disposed of for the outnntoa benefit of the :
September 14, 1786, Connecticut ceded to the
United Stales sll her interest iu the lands one
hundred and twenty miles west of the western
line of Pennsylvania ; and used the words :
" For the common use and benefit of said States.Coo
necticut inclusive." I
August, 9, 1787. the Delegate of Sonth Caro
lina ceded to .the United Slate her clairq to her.
putJit) domain uJ -their deed recites :
' " Whereas, the Congress of the United States did.
on the 6th day of September,. 17r0, recommend to
lbe.se vend Stales ia tha. L'uiuiu .hviug.cliui.to tSt..
lull leimoi, lu inake a ftSerof .essiss lu tbe I'mted
aitataa of a pnrlssi of Iheir srepeetive claims lor the
common benefit of the Union," dtc
.February 86 1-790, Xorlh Vaiolina, by hert-
two Senators, eecially empowered, O'ded Her
vacant lands; after she had opened tier land offi
ces even, to the United States ujion the esprtit
eomlition : -
tue 6f tbia Set.-to thet'rmed ttates of Amrricti. and;
not appropriated as brlorenientioned, shall be cimvid-
ered as a couimorl fund, ftir the use and benefit of the
United Statea of America, North Carolina inclusive, 1
according to their respective and usual pmpurtion in i
the 0-eneral chanre and expenditure. and shall be faith i
fully disnxeed of for that purpus. snd for no other i
Now, Mr. Speaker, I appeal to every member
i.:. it .... i .......... I ............. ..d;..... ..fil.r..
ti. , i, " ii,i i
qtUHin, OiV UO nil. ,"-il iii.imro, anv
grossly vtolted,"by "the past legislation of Con
gress! 'Millions of acres of the public lauds
have been given away, not to tbe States accord- i
inir tn their renresentation utKin this foor: not to I
the State aecordina to theie retoect'tre and ',
mui proportion in lie general charge and eu
penditurt," but to purlkular. State ami eorpn-
rations and individual, for imjtroremrntt and
(MfwHu.jrttrj.; particular localities. ,
Is this right ! ls it eouilable f Is it carrying ;
out in good faith the frarf reioed in the gen
eral Government, m aivordance with her rrnolu
tioos and in the deeds of ceuaion from the sev
eral original land States! ' -
It has been iusiseif, upon Ibis floor and else
where, that the conditions contained in tbe deed
of cession which I have rc-ad, wert reseiBdcd by
the States when. thy adopted tlie, Constitution,
and that the power of Congress over the public
lands is not restricted by them. Especially has
it been so argued with regard to the sixth condi
tion contained in tbe resolution of Virginia, of
the 2d of January, 1 781. It has been said that
that eoudition, sad the condition upon which the
trust was made to the General Government by
all tbe States in their deeds of cession, had re
ference to the eighth article of tbe Confederation,
which provided that " all charges of war, and sll
other expenses that shall be incurred for the
common defense and general welfare, and allow
ed by the United States in Congress assembled,'
shall be defrayed out of a common treasury,
which shall be supplied by the several Stales, in
proportion,'' dee, and thai by tbe adoption of
our present ConsUtuUon, tins article of the Con-
federation being repealed, that mode of taxation
was abandoned, and tbe conditions of th trust
ought not, and could not be fulnled.
'The condition of the trait hare not beea so
rescinded, and do fair construction could lead us
to any such conclusion, even if the Constitution
bad been silent Uion the subject South Caro
lina made her cession but one month before the
adoption ofour Constitution, (Sept. 17, 1787.)
North Carolina made her cession on the 25th
of Fehuruary, 1780, over two yeara after the
adoption of the Constitution ; and it is to be
reasonably interred that her two senators, who
were especially empowered for that purpose, un
derstood the terms contained in her deed of ces
sion to have some meaning, when they declared
far tkt use sad rarf af tkt t ruled Staff
aa, ntrtk I artiim melmmt, aetardtag ta tkeir r
aftetia and amsf fraaartiaa ta tkt general ckargt
and txataditart, mad tkall kt faitkfuUa dtavaatd tf
jar taat furpaat, mam jar a sfr ate tchataatter:
Now, sir,.what is th meaning of the. language
nun i nave just read F
At the time the doed containing those words
was made our present Constitution was in opera
tion ; our present system of revenue was in ope
ration ; the old system under the Confederation
had been abolished. Why, sir, the meaning is
plain that it was intended that these lands should
bel is Hosed -of at bat- time: when-our-Goi ei u-l
ment owed a large debt, to bring money mto
tlie Treasury to defray in so much the expenses
of tbe Government, or to go towards the dis
charge of her debt. Hut hat else does it mean :
The conditions did not limit tho Government
of ttie Tuite'd States either to discharge the pub-
ernraent with the proceeds of the lands,
onlv limitation was, that they should be dispos
ed of for the iite and benefit of all the JUlatet,
according to their respective and usual proimr-
tions in the general charge aad expenditure.
What is the meanim? of this lamruain. 1
cording to their nsual and respective prupurtious
in the geiierat charge snd fxpemditiire,'''aS""Used"
in the deed from ZSortb Carolina 1 It must have
reference to the first clause of the eighth section
of the first article of lb Constitution, which
" The Congress ehaH have power to lay snd collect
tsxes, duties, imptsHs, and exewes, to pay tbe debts,
aad provide for the comnion defense and general wel
fare of the I' oiled States : but all duties, imposta, and
excises tkall te uniform tkramgkout tkt (Vailed!
And the fourth clause of the ninth section of
the same article, which says :
" No cspitatjpa or direct tax shall be laid, ualett
in prapertian ta tkt etnaaa ar eansnratan Serei'a be
fore directed to be made." .
If it does refer 10 these clauses, it means that
the lands ought to be disposed of accorJing to
tlie representation upon this floor, either by pla
cing the proceeds in 'the Treasury to pay the
iublTo debt or to defray the current exiienses of
the Government," or by' distributing tlie lands, or
the proceeds arising from the sales thereof, among
all the Suite. For if our revenue laws are right,
by the representation upon this floor, the near
est siiproacu w can make to the proportion
each State bears iu theAjW.
and eipendtturt will be had ; and if lliey are
disposed of in any other way, it will be a yrost
nixafivM 0 iruti. -i t
, Tbe remarks which I have made in regard to I
the conditions of the deed of cession from North
Carolina apply aa to .tbe case of Georgia; for
her deed of cession was made April 24, 1802,
loagafter- the present oasiuution was hite.l;
ani when the lerms used in hw deed of cession
must have had relerenee to the clauses of the
Constitution which I have read. i
' 1 think it equally clesr that no othdp meaning
can be' given to the Umguage, "shall b disposed
of for the use-and oeneht. of all the suites, ac
cording to their retptetivt and Htuol proportion!
in the peueral charte and expenditure," used in
the deeds of cession made by. Virginia and the
other States, prior to the adoption of tlie Consti
tution. Tbe condition in the deeds had no re
ference to the particular manner in wha b the
general charge and expenditure should be impot-
; but they referred to therojuor
thai "general charge . and-. expenditure., should
be 6ore. All the Mate are bound to contri
bute to the general charge and expenditure
whether umler the article of tlie Confi-deratioti.
i.italiini U in duties oiriiiiimrt.-. or ill ulutT-'
ever way our revenue may be raised. And it
why should tlajy not be benefitted in the ae
proportion out of a common fund
No reasoning is necessary to come to tbe con-
elusion which f have come to w ith regard to the j
construction which should be given to the deed !
: A. 1...: -I- 1 ' u:.K.l.i;nA -
w" "' -jbm v-? v v - ---2-f
10 tne lanrts.. ror, mr, rne nnir-joi anrcir:"T.vf--nn.tT .r , irii, uii.,uini, uuu
sixth of the Constitution declan that ra-: millions have been given to some of the Slate. ... .
a(ementt yttWtvi into under the Confederation Thus far I have-' spoken with reference to the) ,
shall be valid under the Constitution. The lati-cost of th public lauds snd have endeavored to
" All debts contracted and eagsirerfie.ls entered .
.he af Tl I
tuMon ssiinder-tli t oufedcMUuo.
! IHd not the Gwcm
mrf, rinder the CilifVjdi-Kitiori, with: Virginia,
Massachusetts and the other Sfcites, w ho made
their cessions previous to the adoption of the
Constitution, that the lands reded should bedis-.i
Jposc4.of ,f .r tbe use and benefit of all the States,
and faithfully for that tsu, and for none other
' w Imtsoever I And dnrs not the Constitution, as
I have just read, declare thatjtliat engagement
ai oe jaunjatiu Kept :
with equal fort that the debts contracted . un
der the Confederation were disv-liarged by the
adoption of the Constitutwn, which T supjMise,
even in this dyopprx)gress,noonie will cxntend.
I have thus f)tr spoke with reference to the
Unus acuiied by cesio from the State. Let
u now es howvstaiids tlie case with 'regard to
the lands wriihssed by this tievrniuent, and
for wbich a pries, in money, was paid ; which
money baa been raised, or is to be raised, under
our revenus laws,' operating on-all the State.
At th lowest estiinat. th public lands in
th original purchase, and th management of
them bare cost this Government about liOO,
000,000 over and above what has been received
from their sales. " -
I have here a statement showing the cost of
lands up to March, 182 :
Faid to Franca for Imhsumw
Interest paid thereon
Hsid to Spain for Honda
Interest paid thereon
. Interest paid lb.
la buds ia eickaage, (estimated,)
Paid fur Um Yaauo claims
Paid fur sijaVaiaf boundaries of lands, dk.
raid to ladiaae kx land to 1S3!)
Appropriated aad paid since, to 1849
Since, fnc tw years, (estimated)
Lead OAos eipesns to 1849
Biace, fw two years, (estimated) '
Paid to Meuco , -Paid
to Texas tot her tills ' V
AddiUoaal Army sinenses, yearly.
Hama, far three previous years
Received for sales of load, ia all
Add tbe east of the MsiHraa war -Add
tjt the Florida war, tbe Black
Hawk war, aad aU sipaaae of the
Indian wars, and to suppress India
hostsities; fur treaties aad removal .
of Indiana, &C, Sec, sad it will be ,
I get these facts from Um speech of tnr hon-
orable friend from New York, Mr. IIcssktt,
which he delivered to this H;iH during-the first -
session of the last Congress ; and I have ascer-
taineu trom oluer sources tltat they are true.--
And we still owe many millions of annuities to
Indians for land under treaties : aud the exnensa
of Indian treaties, Indian agents, coinnussioners,
eke, amount annually to a large sum.
Now, sir, who pays the money into votir'
Treasury wirt hic1i tAeWUfeliaseav5TKn
made, snd withhichryoWlandrTiystcm has
been kept up f North Carolina, South Caroll
na, Georgia, and all the old States, pay a pro
portion Ajidr l tuiiJtJ will W able to show
that they pay a much larger, proportion-" than "'
t,h.- h.v m thM ri.r.t.lj(. p.. flIK-i
ami yet tney receive notluug. either iu th wav
of lands or of the proceeds arising froiii the sale .i ' '
thereof; but tbey are giva to th land Sutes - : ' . ,
States which bear the smallest proportion n th
general charge and expenditure. " J - t
I will take the case of North Carolina, and
make the estimates ss if she pay a proportion
itito4lawTrosii .. ,,'
represetitntron upori tlif flobr.THow muuh ill 7 .
theae public kind have cost tier F ' They hava " . '
cost the General Government 300,000,000 over
snd above th receipt from their kale. ' . " ,..
There are too hundred qd thirty-tour mem- .J
bers of this IIouss ; by arithineu'c yob can see '
that they have coat each district .baring a mem -:;-
ber here 2,130,755. North Carolina . i nti ? . ;
tied to eight members,', then eight times, that , -amount
is what she ha paid for public lands, - - - '
amounting to tl7,OM,018T;-." ' . , " '
But is this sll I No, sir I Until the last jcen-" r
sua, North Carolina had tea members upon this . '' .
floor, and tbe calculation should W mad for -" - -.r
ten instead pf eight ; for nearly tbe whole of '
this Outlay was made nefbre the"spp6rtfonmeTit f
under the last eehsus, which ; would make her -,
shara in this charge upon trie' general Treasury '
2 1 .SftSjiaaerfiw-it- is-with: y:iiii,''&-4JaTOlw,fci
n Mawtachusetl, and th other old ttatee, c v , .5 .,.
reliable, I think it can be shown, 'and clearly ... 1
shown, that . North. Carolina, Virginia South " J ' .
Carolina, and Georgia, have paid a much larger - .
proportion of this 1500,000,000 than they should ' ,
It ia a generally admitted principle of eranrjiercial
law, that th amount of imports ia regulated by th
amount of export, and" since our-Rveaoe is lamed
from duties apoa imports, it buows.if it ca be show
that Iwo-tbirds of the domestic exports of this coa
try an the prod acts of alar labor, that th propuai .
tion is sastained that two thirds of the antire rev ' 1
nue from imports ia paid by the labor of slaves."
. The va)uf eur.dwri .
was18t.8,984. - Of this amount, 12,40l.
601 were the products of the southern States-
more than two-thirds. 5 It is impossible tossy .
with positive certainty what amont of these pro-
ducta was raised ia any particular State, because :
states bordering upon each other will export tba '
produce of each other ; but we can make near
approximation to it- , 1. ....
Xurtb Carolina has two hundred and eighty
eight thousand five hundred and forty-eight
slaves within her limits, according to the last ,
census ; which is about' one eleventh of the en
tire slave population of this country, and we
rait WW elev r
enth of the entire products exported from the
South, and therefore pays into your Treasury
one eleventh of two-thirds or two thirty-thirds ..
of tlte eutire revenue arising from dutie oa im- - -
caicuiauon . a near apptxaacrt jlo in train, .
,Huth Carolina, and u-ginia, according to the
same calculation, must have paid each a much
larger amount, aud yet not one of them has re- ,
eeived any grants for internal improvements, or
for educational purposes, or for any other pur-.,
iwH hrKhH-h thM rMM,vt. rtf tl.u. ttlal.. t..u -. '
- trrififr;r 1 Ctrasr
s-how the proportiou which the States, and par- ' - -
li.iitiirlv fliM t,Miw,ri.,n rl,Lli V.-ll fA-i.ltn
, .. ,1' t J ,.,i, ,1 .
Now, let us ee U thev have beel dUo..1
oC and which of the Stales have been beuetltetL
rrvna -a sUteuienl which l- baeL from tlio-
'C-oiumiwiooer of Public Lauds, it appear that
the amount granted up to the 30th of Septera-
ber, 1853, is one hundred and twjnty-nine mill- '
ion oue hundred and uiuety-tive thousand nine '
hundred and eighty-three acre ; and Urn does
not include the grant of many millions of acres
of swamp lands to California, of which there has
vet been no return. The mnU mro. C,p lh
.i.. - , . , . ' , .
It might U-argueil!"1" "'y " 5? . M .
land, granted to the land Slates aiid Territories
been sold at the Government price, it- Kild
have amounted to 161,494,978. The share of '
North Cafolina, according to the rejievMenlatiua,
would be 5,52l,l2. . . - v 1
v.. .m.v wv,. "imi, in... ,. , 1 ... 1 L 1 1 1 a.
- I have another stateroent vrhfch bw that tha r
auMUut of pulrV lauds told up to the saute data.