Page A2-The Chronicle, Thursd*
'puts you right
By HENRY DUVALL
Special To The Chronicle
Alter poring over more than 3
million documents in a locked
vault at the National Archives,
five historians have produced a
documentary histopteof slave
emancipation that ^Puts you
right on the scene."
"The Destruction of Slavery,"
an 852-page book published in
January, paints a scene'that has
gone largely unrecorded, based
oa. documentary witnesses to
The book chronicles the
transformation of the Civil War
into an unintended war against
slavery, since federal authorities
under the leadership of President
Abraham Lincoln had originally
insisted that the conflict "must
be a war to restore the national-*
union and nothing more."
But southern black slaves saw
the sectional conflict in a different
light: a war for their
And from this perspective, the
documents reveal the major role
slaves played in their own emancipation
? a role that "saved"
the nation, says Joseph P. Reidy,
a history professor at Howard
Reidy, one of the five editors
of the book, says, "We are trying
to make the reading public and
historical profession aware of the
essential connection between
Afro-American history and
American history. ...
"We are trying to convince a
wider audience that AfroAmericans
saved the Union and
destroyed slavery, and did them
both at the same time. This is the
only wax could've been accomplished,"
he adds. ?
"The Destruction of Slavery,"
published by the Cambridge
University Press, is the second
volume of a projected 10-volume
series called "Freedom: A
Documentary History of Emancipation,
>From the estimated more than *
> million documents examined most
of them previously
unknown to scholars - the five
historians selected, catalogued
and indexed some 50,000 which
thgy h*lif!Vft tffll the stnry nf
The voices of slaves, as well as
slaveowners, Union and Confederate
soldiers, government officials
and even President Lincoln,
are captured in the
documents. "These documents
are so vivid, they put you right on
the scene," Reidy says.
A fugitive slave named John
Boston, seeking freedom by serving
the Union Army, in 1862
wrote a letter to his wife,
Elizabeth: "... I trust the time
Will Come When We Shal meet
again And if We dont met on
earth We Will Meet in heven
Whare Jesas ranes (reigns)..."
In an 1864 letter to President
. Lincoln, a Maryland slave named
Annie Davis pleaded: "Mr. president
It is my Desire to be free, to
go to see my people on the
eastern shore, my mistress wont
let me you will please let me know
if we are free, and what i can do.
I write to you for advice. ..."
is not enough
By The Associated Press
LITTLETON, Colo. - A
special prosecutor said that an
apology was not enough and
charges may be filed against a
prospective juror for her racial
slur against a black man on trial
The father of the woman had
asked the court last Thursday if
his daughter. Andrea Hnfnowi
v , -? ""RVJ,
24, of Aurora, could apologize
for making the remark.
She was jailed for several hours
last Wednesday for contempt of
court after a judge learned what
she had said.
But special prosecutor Craig
Silverman said last Thursday that
Please see page A16
ly, March 6, 1986
ry history book
on the scene'
Led by University of Maryland
historian Ira Berlin, the
- . . . -...w MUW wvitiuyiu kIWIVIJ
Project began in 1976.
The research found that the
slaves "put their loyalty, their
labor and their lives in the service
of the Union" to place the issue
of their freedom on the Civil War
For three years the research
team, which also includes
historians Barbara J. Fields of
the University of Michigan,
ThavoBa Gtymph orthe UtiHter- ~
sity of Texas at Arlington and
Lesbe S. Rowland of the-University
of Maryland, worked in a
vault at the National Archives to
explore the possibility of writing
a history of emancipation from
the perspective of those emancipated.
Examining more than 3 million
documents took its toll at times
on Reidv. who was recentlv
honored by the American
Historical Association, along
with two other editors, for their
work on the first "Freedom"volume,
"The Black Military Experience."
"It was emotionally exhausting,
and I was drained by
the horror," he says.
Then he would feel a "sense of
exhilaration" when he saw how
the slaves persevered and made
gradual achievements. "The kind
of power in these documents is
Through persistence, the
historians found that the slaves
"forced federal soldiers, Union
and Confederate policymakers
and eventually their own masters
into positions they never intended
to hold - (and) became the prime
movers in seeming their own
"We are telling the story of a
number of emancipations, which
are part of the overall process of ,
slave emancipation," Reidy says.
H. Rap Bro>
"Allah (God) will not chance
the condition of a people until
they change what is within
themselves," he said, again
quoting Muhammad. "How do
we surpass what the reality of this
country is? The struggle begins
with the self. We must change
ourselves in order to change
society. If you are not willing to
struggle, it doesn't matter if
Al-Amin became known in the
'60s as a militant, primarily
because of his stand that blacks
should arm themselves and control
their own communities. But
he said the title was a misnomer.
"If a man steps on your foot,
is it militant because you scream,
or is it militant because you push
him off?" he said. "We must be
careful that we do not let the ones
that oppress us define us."
"I have always sought truth,"
he said. "My involvement in the
'60s came as a result of believing
that what I was doing was right."
Al-Amin said he converted to
Islam for the same reason.
mm mmmm |n>wpiV JI1UUIU IIUl OilUTT
themselves to be defined simply
by color, he said.
One of the tools of oppressors
is taking away the ability of a
people to define themselves, he
"How do we define black people?"
he asked. "They have tried
to define us \>y color, but the
strongest bond between people is
belief. Peoplehood is determined
by belief. This is not a struggle of
color; it's a struggle of right versus
Al-Amin described Islam as "a
program of austerity that enables
one to deal with any situation you
may encounter in life." Islam encompasses
faith in Allah (Ood),
prayer, fasting, sincerity and
seriousness, he said.
"It is a simple way, it is direct
and straight," he said. "It is a
state where men are applauded L
A Fourfold System
Members of the delegation reported glaring
differences and inequalities in the education
systems provided for South African
The South African school system is divided
into four separate systems for whites,
blacks, coloreds (those of mixed racial
parentage) and Asians.
Thompson said that there is a "high differential
in funding and a high differential in
"We found that, in the schools, by state
policy, for every $1 a black African receives,
a colored receives $5, Asians $9 and whites
JlO," Thompson saicT. "Additionally", dRT
state government controls syllabi for each
program taught in Africa. Blacks are being
taught the basics. That means that blacks are
taught arithmetic and whites are taught
DIUH I Tk- nit ?
I no 0MIIU Loaumy l I1C9 Dlinu
Thompson also said that black students
are hindered by the fact that, until the fourth
grade, - they are taught in their native
languages, not English.
Moreover, only 2 percent of the teachers
in black schools have baccalaureate degrees,
and only 20 percent have completed high ~
school. Thompson termed the situation "the
blind leading the blind."
The delegation found that, not only is
there an abundance of white teachers, but
the ratio of students to teachers is much
lower in white schools.
There are 33 students for every teacher in
black schools, while in white schools the
ratio drops to 10 students for every teacher.
'The Way Things Are'
When the Americans, who met with South
Africa's minister of education for African
schools, questioned the inequality of the
school systems, Thompson said they were
told simply that "that's just the way things
"Officials offered no apologies, and they
often said, Tm for that; however, our
government will not agree,' " Thompson
said. "In some instances, they said apartheid
enabled blacks to lead a better life than they
would otherwise lead. They told us they caniv
9 I EAST
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" " "" a* 5. - Etna
f* .!_ *
ior meir gooaness. ivien are com- 5, ores
mended for struggling against 7. smii
wrong. * Rcy
"Islam represents the only true 9 Suni
revolution where man can truly iuori
be transformed. If you can effect
change within yourself, then you 10. M<
can effect change in those things J'* *e
around you." 13
- 14. Fa
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and From Page A1
nnt K1a/<Ue uiKa ?? ? ??
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and that if we wanted to help we should send
someone to help them."
Thompson said the school officials suggested
that the delegation arrange to have a
center set up in South Africa to train black
They also asked that Americans bring
black South Africans to America to study
and send them back to teach in the schools.
Members of the delegation visited Cape
Town, Johannesburg, So wet o, Pretoria and
the University of the North.
A Nation Of Contrasts
passports, delegation members were afforded
privileges that black residents do not
Thompson said he was impressed by the
scenic beauty in South Africa.
"It is a beautiful country,'* he said.
'There is not a pothole in the street, no ttash
and the country is very rich in mineral
Even though its members carried white
passports, Thompson said the delegation
was carefully monitored during its visits to
Men with walkie-talkies were never far
behind the group during visits to the colleges
and discussions with rectors.
The signs of poverty and unrest, Thompson
said, were never far away.
? "It was hard for us to sleep at night, and
(iim to 1 V-m/A /* ?a?k -
"V lumvu IV MVU VUICI IU KCCp OUTSC1VCS gO"
ing," Thompson said. "We knew conditions
were deplorable, and we knew the economics
were deplorable. But we didn't know it was
by design. That was inhumanity like I've
never seen before."
Thompson said the black Americans saw
young mothers who chewed part of their
food before giving it to their children and
residents who walked nearly a mile for
water. He also said the group narrowly missed
viewing black students being shot in the
streets by soldiers. 1
A Lukewarm Reception i
Black students were not entirely receptive >
to the American delegation, Thompson said. *
Many felt the black Americans were out- 1
WINSTON OGBURN .STATION
iel Pharmacy 34 Laundry Center (Old Rural
M'Pay (Claremont) 35 Paragon Food Center
ldry Center (Claremont)
it American Foods 36. Etna Gas
h Cleaners 37. N.W, Bted. Pantry
lolds Health Center 38. Hazel's Beauty
ise Towers 39. Real Food Bakery
40. Ray's Fish
HEAST 41. Joe's Shop Rite (Patterson)
42. Great American Foods
!rit? Breadbox : 43 A cleaner World
cord Boutique 44 Brown's Produce
nit Market (13th & Liberty) 45 Ervin's Beauty
Lem Seafood 46. Bojangles
ver Front Cleaners 4
f jfMP I
M ff^>mn/r^/| I
I H -/ BEItr* *
in y By wJKwl > ?
Soji ui I
y ^T. r.-^S*' A
Jfer Pv ^1
I'f CA$ ^ I
lma Chris 48 sicfe F^jk w A
SiorooK s -'*
nit Market (27th A Liberty) 53. Tickled Pink Cleaners (Oh
tak's Drive Inn 54. Food Lion (University Plaa
ick's Orocery 55. Fast Fare (Cherry St.)
3irls (Northampton) 56. Maytag Laundry (Cherry S
op Rite (Northampton) 57. Forest Hills Curb Market
Cleaner World (Carver Rd.) 58. RJR World Headquarters
rver Food . 59* Jimmy the Oreek
5's Shop Rite (Bowen) 60. Fast Fare (30th St.)
irett's (311) Super X Drugs
Ico Oas (311) KAW (Coliseum)
rden Harvest ?. OoWen Comb
nurd's 64. Best Bookstore (Reynolds
nes' Orocery T
siders who could do little to help the cause of
black South Africans.
"Some of the blacks said,.'You represent
Ronald Reagan, who is not in our favor,' "
said Thompson. 'They had the attitude that
if we, as black Americans, could not help
ourselves, we could do little to help them.
The feeling that we got was that blacks in
South Africa want socialism, not capitalism
and not communism. They want a system
that will allow the masses to rise."
Black South Africans also appear to place
more emphasis on equality than integration,
Reports And Recommendations.
Following its return to the United States,
the delegation met with Vice President
George Bush and Secretary of State George
Shultz to report its findings. .
The delegation's recommendations included
making more books and materials
available to black schools, sending American
teachers to Africa to upgrade faculties and
offering black Africans scholarships to study at
Thompson said the delegation is confident
that its proposals will be acceptable to both
the American government and the blacks in
Literacy And Liberation
"Blacks in South Africa say, 'Liberation
now, education later/ " Thompson said.
"We're saying* 'Continue your education as
you fight for liberation, for, once you gain
liberation, you must be literate?* They said
to us, 'Do not send big bucks and free the
government of its responsibility. Send things
that we can use at the grassroots level.'
"We have no firm commitment, but we
think the American government is loooking
at spending about $20 million in attempting
to respond to the recommendations."
Other members of the delegation from
North Carolina Were Dr. Robert L.
Albright, president of Johnson C. Smith
University; Dr. Robert J. Brown, a High
Point businessman; Dr. William H. Greene,
president of Livingstone College; Dr. Isaac
Miller, president of Bennett College; Dr.
Stanley H. Smith, president of Shaw University,
and Mamie Thompson, consultant to
:he president at Shaw, __ __
66. Paw's Grocery
67%^ - Amoco (Fourth & Broad y n f'W
Hall Rd.) 68. Hop-in (First St.)
69. Food Fair (First St.)
70. Baptist Hospital
71. Amoco (Cloverdale)
73. Hop-In (Stratford Rd.)
? 74. Papers A Paperbacks (Haner Matt) I
75. Crown Drugs (Hanes Mall)
76. Forsyth Hospital
77. Rainbow News
78. Crown Drugs^Peters Creek)
M 79. Marketplace
80. Gulf Gas (S. Broad St.)
81. Garden Harvest
82. Post Office (Waughtown Station) j|
83. Hop-In (Stadium Dr.)
84. Revco Drugs
85. Belview House
86. Gold Fish Bowl
87. Joe's Shop Rite (S. Main)
wry St.) ' gg Chronicle Office
89. Lincoln Barber
90. Post Office
91. Benton Convention Center
92. Cecelia's (Hyatt House)
95. NCNB Building
96. Wachovia (Main St.)
97. RJR Plaza
9S. Brown's Restaurant
Shop, Ctr.) 99 Forsyth Seafood
100. Sanitary Barber Shop
\ M ? *