HALEIGn. II. 0. WEDNESDAYi SEPT:
VOL. X2I2 NO- 7
THOMAS J. lEMATi
DITok awp rgormiKTQK.
IrMmrrtf-. ' dollars la-anneo-on
Ww- live fcate will W
,. ,.r ibo siaouBt of the jwl
. :.. tk
For very "eT,, . i.
- J tvlii "ret M.Mwt"". on dollar i
rT Th advertisements of Clerks and Sheriffs
Hill be b-Mecl P" '" n
Juliioa of i Pr cent, will he made from h
l-Miw sdvrtisr r yr-
jYters to the KJitor nmsl bo yoBl-paHT.
TUE FAK-nEH'S ADVOCATE,
J.rUftllure, Jjittraturi, Science,
yf chamt'il drte, Ihe cnntry't t
ami the ..
1 1 Wirhfc,n'mmblene rietT of ne.
.'' uernwiMl,HWiihd Ihrouglioul th
JZnUfrim th diMWHf .pf Uwrtia
(i it nbviom to ry ralioul ml r
L;,. mind, hl IIib conductort of IhoM !()
rftfl. ' " r'h''7 (tuided, Ihote luli7
ipformmnn, lie been Coo generally tt'
titA Sj MT moiitn and itml piliitul coiilritl
fecn epried to lucli in ilarminiF rxlent, M
te(firo"n ,,,e titoliilii)n f nur anble in nil u
,.1! a,d tubjreK rcUlinK to ARi'lraltura, Lil
araiarr, Seienw, afl the Mecbanieal Arta; tbnae
aalMali iramedijlf l)r eonnc(d with oo beat
yurnt, ind which would eeoulljr plaecat
ia a independent litualioo, b meaaunbl; re
tutted, therefor by Ihete viewa, the tub
iir tr ' publithiat in Jameatuwn, N. i',
t acriodieal under, and aom porting with Hie
abon tltlei in tbe axceution of which, he detixt
itltw6rl place, to ate all laudable eiertiout in
aroMrinx and diaaeminiiine praetieal iiifornia
lioa, etwnlial to the HilereMt, and calculated to
ittrraie the dignity of the farmer.
SeaMHily Kdoeaiion, and the literary Inililu
tttMof Ihe country, will find in hit columntt
etratand Irlendly tuppnrt.
ThiHtt." Seiener, nd the Meehenteal Art,
will alto be tulijeett of ditcuttion. Bad intaruibly
rMcite a liberal thare of attention.
Fonrilily. Due attention will be paid to iub
jecti ealMlated to promote Ike cause of vinae
Fifthly. A briel notice will alto be taken of
pauing event t. of an impirtanC and interfiling
nature, both foreign and domettict excluding ill
polnieil toa'ettt, and tuhjectt calculated to ere
1 J 7 .... . . 1
HI a sparea, to renner j
the Adroeal a valuable and intereatinr viaiter in
ftrr taruilf , awl In every virtuooa and intelli
gent clan of the community.
In order therefore, the more effectually to
pedtreute our piirpnae, we reapeetlully tolicit
ll.e (rienillv aid of every intelligent farmer, M'
ikuiie, literary and acienlifia gentlemen, who
mtj have talent and inclination, to communicate
to ai tiieh diacoveriet and praetieal hinti, on
tnliji-tti within nur province, at mtv enrich our
eotamnt, and by a reciprocal interehange of
tlioagbtt, become a valuable lource of inlorma
lion. Commiinientiont alto on tubjecta either
Belig iout or Moral, will be thankfully received.
The Advocate will be -publiihed in monthly
amlirrt, eontiiting of thirty-two oetaeo paget,
twoilmtt) neatly primed, on good paper, fold.
cAmd Hitched, and promptly mailed to aubecri
Verif nwking in a year, a neat volume of SM pa
pt, and lurnithed with title page and index, at
l ,23 per year, in advance. '
Any pertoa by forwarding $10, free from
ttinrge, will be entitled to ten copies.
In tnnteqnenee of the difficulties and lottet,
hnu-itM) attending the aollection of amall tumi
at t ilittaaee, nn order for the paper will be at.
t'O'leil to, until the tubtcriplion price la forward
ed, nrthe payment secured by some know re
All lettera, cnmmunleationt, he to the publith
er, aw it some free from pottage, or .they can
not be attended to.
t Aa we intend commencing the publication
Some time ia the month of Augutt nest, all per
mm holding sobseriptiona are requested to lor
etrd thenrtt early at ponible.
AH eiliiors favorable to our ileiigns, and thnae
bt any feel diapnte1,lo exahnnge with us. Will
si favor by giving our pnaieeus an inter-
j u sttEittnuui'.
C. June, H.18.
Souihern Literary Messenger.
AW itrmt for the pmeni Volume only.
In anntrqueoee nt repealed spplienticatioas lor
tk Miiiswokb for a lu peripd than an cd
it year, Ihe ruhlither haa cnucluiled to alter
the eonrti'inni, fr tht prtient year nly, so tir
s is resrive new suhsuibert for the remainder
st thu volume to commence'' with either the
ttay or July number : the iioht numbers will
on 34 ; th tin numbcrt, or half year,
The lieav riMm. which ihe nublieatioa ol
lae Metsenger in its-present style renders una-
wniuie, ano the with of the rropnetor sun
BMlherio improve it, maket it abtolotely neees
sarv that he should hereafter receive all subserip
tioni mvaiiablv in advance.
Appeal afier appeal ht been made to delin-
saestt, stid still ninny withhold Iheir just duel.
"nj inn it so, cannot be conceived, since it is
Btknoelcdged, on all hands, that the Yiit(Qia
J rielily onh the amount charged for it t no
hnter evidence of which need be mentioned than
the but that the subscription price ia known,
ae been Ireoucntlv nsiil lor old volumes.
hesvy draflt have recently been made on
?' 'Pnaloe, for expenwi incurred in establiih
r Mil conducting the MxHtKiQER, it ia hoped,
rwnssritiers who are still in arrears, will
; -"""ssawaij hand in or remit the amounts Ihey
i"lllllv owe 1 shi.k ll...n.k .m.ll ah..
eodderei separately, yt, taken in the aggregate
frefle,rt t,n Bmoont of sontiderable irapoiianse.
"et, il'siie An the amount due bins could be
"tased, th Proprietor would be enabled todit
it? CTrT claim against hit publication at onset
IJV0'' b would bring out the next volume
w tbe Mrsaenger in a new dress, and improve it
" of Irsnsmitting tubseriptiovi by msil,
Z h .M,e" hy the Proprietor. But every
. . "r nws transmitting payment, la request
ed 'besides tab in. V..J li .v.. c.
J t rsvtwai niiusiv vm '" bsbvb)
IT; w "Bailing ,) to retain a memorandum of
7L ou pnrtatnlar marks of the note sent.
la impossibility of carrying on the Watch
vjm ae aonnuMcq while absent ea
Jw'iBg expeditions, and Ihe impossibility of
.-. winww tn isrg amotsot due me
M years of labor, bsv determined me to
entbs establishment at the end of the present
1W- The subscription lis) is about 800, and
imYm tbe i- b printing .nd adver.
7 for at least five hundred dollars a
lf . lntletnan of talents and a sound whig
Mil have ihe nanr . ik. : i . ?
I .... "" hhciii avriH- 1
'j mvywmmm rraucaieq.
. . COMMITTED
o in Jail in Richmond county, N. C. on the
M.I . "e,tro m,n " himself Tom.
" reel 10 mehes high, tlender built, da. k
TTP eimn, and about 4 1 ,Mr, ,,e. ,lui MM
s Moo,, to James Hsrper, of Pbm field district.
- . ... .nr h reqaested to tnm forward
r- property, pnj sJnwees, an I t.ke him away.
a. II. ObVUCUKx, Jailor.
The BMheariber bviog i at ally locate
uiimn. iwu nun walk of l.h.lk LaeeL will
attend te Ik receiving, forwarding, Odd Betllng 7" f
II kind of produe that nsay b eontigaect te""?
..J iu . ro. ik. 1j . . reaoeetfu
am, w-t par rar we nroooce that aaav
emruateatobiteare, at b offieeat Hendcraon.
aa nut at a return eaa be had( or will cnake
liberal adaanart oa reaiBM wbea required.
He witl alaa-Mtemi to tbe lur anting el metv
ahawlrae that maf lat tba Railroad at Ha-
Kront hit etlrni!e eqnaintanea to both (ho
oootry and Northern wrkeu, be Palter bias.
aett tlwi hi aatantage m butmeu will net be
transcended, ilia particular and andirided at
teattoB may he relied oo.
D. t. YOUNG, ,
STttrota Mjob, HilUboro'.
ReferetiMC A Hiciia I Smiti, Milton.
t,STrni M. Dickiki, Knxboro.
llendertoa, Cranvitl Co. N.c.uly 6, IMS, thtt separation of government from
? ' banVl and the eitabliahment of an in
Raleigh Reginer till forbid. O . E. Y. dependent Treasurr. and oDosed to
t OUR YEAR OLD
tFor Sale at
BROWN k SNOW'S,
Sept. ia, ms
Head Quarters, 7
WtaBixTox, N. U. July 18, 1838. J
Ofpeera eommanding the different Regiment
comprising the 7ili Division N. C. Militia:
You are heitbj notified and commanded to
have your regiment, formed on the u.UHl ground
on ihe fnllowinr riavs and olacet. aamelv! I"ha
Jil.! Regiment, in Loui.burg. on S.i.inl.y (he
iWn.l September The 35. h and 3tb Krgimenta
in lialloh nn MnnH.. thm oiih i i,. iw.,i
Kegiment in Naahv.lle.nn VV eduetday the 86th.
i in mi nefimrm n nnujeri, in r.ngccomiie
in the town of TarborouKkTnSaturday the
Oih of September next. Tbe u.h Regiment in
ihe town of w iiiitmtton, on MomiavKthe ut
Oeiober. The Kth Regiment in Jacfcinn. on
ISr . -I I .1 . a.. I eiv o t.l .r.L 1
The loth Regiment in JW..n. on
it rfJuewT ne aru. i ne iwn mm rjtn neci
mem. in .he town oi H.iif.,. on Th.rsd.y th.
4th. And the 83rd Regiment m the town ol
Warrenton, onS.lurd.y the Gth ol October neat.
The eommittioned offieera and muiiciani of
each regiment mutt be drilled on d., . preceding
1... f tm aat.anBlit In lawa anil mililiuw
.i c : I : ... l. M
" ii"i u w - .
Hy order of General M T. HAWKINS.
SAM'L K. FHILLU'S, Aid. f
July 18, 1838. 31
State of North Carolina,
Jn Equity March Term, 1838
Charity Uolliut, "I
vs I Petition lor divorce and
David Collins and Alimony
Kennel Collins. J
It appearing to Ihe aatisfaetion ol th Court,
that the defendant, Davitl Collins, it not an in.
habitant ol thu State, It it therefore ordered b
the Court that publication be made in the Raleigh
Star and Roanoke Advocate tor three months,
with lea to take testimony and U it ordered by
the Court that advertisement be lorther made,
that notice left at the last residence ol ihe-drlend-snt
David Collins, be tufficeot notice as lo him of
3i 3m, JNO. H. DRAKK, Jr. C. MfV..
LUMBER FOB SALEX
The Subssriber has now oo hand, st his Mills,
(late Blake't) 17 miles East of Raleigh, 100,000
feet of ehoiee Lumber, of every deteriplion.
tawed out of Long Leaf Pine, th peculiar ex
cellence of which it too well known lo need any
pun. rertont desiring to purchase ill please
make application to Mr. William Peck, Raleigh,
or to Henry Morton, at tlie .Mint
ilswii'lbe$iperhundredl15',Jn in joining with you and them
1 he price at the M i
hot, if a large quantity be bought, even less than
that will be lakea.
Wnkeeo., May 31, 1838 Si tf
ftjhocco Land for Sale.
The subscriher being ahoat
tn remove to Mississippi, often
hi present resilience lor (ale.
It is on the Stage rosd 10 miles
from Warrenton, If from Lou
Hhurg, and three from th
Shocco Springs, and eontaina
800 acres at guod land-.- A a
healthy and pleasant residence it has bat few
Sept. 8, list 38 4w
DAXCIIVO SCIIOOI- 1
Dions. Ponce M. Nitchtern -
Resiwetlully inlorms the eitizeos of Raleigh
and its vicinity, that he will return in October
next, to open schools gain, and return tbe ex.
Jane SO 88 If
The Subscriber has oa band an assortment el
the above Carriages. Some very richly (nished,
which will, be thinks, btinr a comparison with
say manufsctured elsewhere. The work is war
ranted to be taithfully executed, and wlilbe sold
a aa favorable terms as ean be snoriled . T hose
wi thing to supply themselves, will please call
and iuJg for tbeiasclve.
J ' 1 HOS. COBBS.
Raleigh, May Si, IS38 If
17JVI0.V HOTEL FOR SALE.
llring desirous of removing to lbs West, th
subscriber oners lor sale the
now occupied by him. It ia aitnated in tbe City
of Raleich, on the comer of Morgan street, and
sooth east of Ihe public square. The hoes i
lerre. and is smply provided wnh rooms and fire
places and the other-aeeommodatioiis are quite
convenient. 1 ne eoamgan7 w inn notei to in
Capitol, its ample aacommodaikms, and tbe ins.
prvwmrntl which are progressing mi Raleigb,
render it a desirable itahd te those who mar wish
to enraee ia suck an enterprise. The hotel was
lormerlv owned bT Mr. BUteWord. If the per.
chaser desir it, he csa have all tbe stock and for.
nkare on band, and immediate poisetston.
ALEX. MORI'HIS. .
Raleigh, Sept. It, 1838. 39 tf
Application will be made to the
nest (rneral Assembly for an ael Is emancipate
Tom, tote the -property of Mis. Bsrsb Mitchell
Seilrmr 11, 1838. J 4tp
Earthenware, China and Glass.
TXo J, Barm, Tmprtrr, ''
9 3IHLLI,nCW YORK,
T - : . . " - ,
be (old; the country trade, wpen the atott
terra a. I a aueatum of Mrcbatcra ia
twpeetfully aolkited, with the bop of being able
itemim Mwsiacimvi m rrerj parjarurar.
te York, July $1, 1131.., JJ Iw
" Columbia. Son. id. lg.lft.
Tt CtL B, tU CawoVjra, Cha'n. Ca . t
Dear Sir: l atve had tht honor of
receiving joar letter, of the 6th alt.
in which, u Chairman of a com jiittre
of arrangements, joo inform me that
the Republican and State Rirhta cit
izen! of Richland district, in favor of
the eitaoHnhment of a National Bank,
and the advancement of the Fetleral
partr to power being anxious to be
! further enlighened by a discusssion of
j those principles propose giving a bar
I becue dinner at this place, on the 8th
of next month, in honor of oar two Sen
. a tors and immediate Representative in
, Congress, whn we may have the ben
! efU o hearing them on those impor
tant and agitating subjects.
The committee, therefore.
liail ll ICUHUIIblll 1 Ci 1VIKIIII
citizens of the district resnectlullr '
" .k-. lif V i
I k inn tir in hili.va I am '
. f thm . ; w
' . j -...v.
am thus unilprl with m V rollrnvu in
thn Senate and our imrtiei ale Rimre.
- -.j r-
.,.i;., ,., 1 ,u ,
highly this lionoraole te8timonir, in-
fsrach as it is apparent from the tlef-
as it is apparent from the
. l-l r .i.. : :
inmon w men jwu pw ol uie pnnci
bfvI Aa nf ahe vail ridainvnalo an tl.a DA
iita ui nun j uu u-rnttiiiaic as mv j-c- .
publican and State Rights Party, that
,l . i;,:..i ki;ffV. ...
Jhere H.,t,C' U,Brence on, ome
important points between me and those
whom you represeut, as I know there
is between me and those with whom
you have done me the honor to asso-
ciatetne. Those who offer the testi-
..i k . .i w :. -...i
UIUUIV1I, 11IU IIIVOV IW TI IIW1I1 II IV UI1CICU
eiir n in vbcii -ai c ui iuc Bailie im I -
That I am thus remembered
I U T
H 1 1 1 1
thus associated is a source ( the high
est gratification tome, for I regard it
.i :-i tr br.n
citizen of Richland districtof the
personal kindness I have ilays re-
. i,.,i. . j i. tt,-
ceived af their hands -and df their
generous disposition, notwithstanding
a difference ot political opinion, to bea
this public testimony tq the" purity tf
i..: i .A i.-
mm iiuLiirrr lariiai iirutii irum hit istiiuw .
iii y iiiuuvca biiu uicicuy iu icuuae
n .f i.. ..a , , i . . e
me laiBt? auu niaiiKiiaiii. aiBijvjiBiuiiB Ol
lL i - i- t. ... .ii
tnoae n..o uo no, anow me .. we. a.
too same jusi auu canuiu juuiriiicni. , . . ., . r
, . ur - -L banks, and by the imposition of proper
I repeat it, sir, that I receive with penalties. Banking institututions by
pride and pleasure, the proof of kind- univer,a consent, are the cheapest,
ness implied in your thns associating .afetest. and most convenient agencies
me with those to whom your political for the custorfrSnd transfer of the pub
sympathies and appropriation are ri- lie mnnnv. Kv.rrmtn who ha. ,n,..,v
inacommon iestivai.i snoaia rejoice by his own conduct, in regard to his
in sn occasion of showing that, like own afrytrg. jo effect these objects,
those you represent, I am incapable of 9 one 0f t)ie purpoael 0f their creation;
of making political differences cause of anj t,e- ,ra, therefore organized to
ol personal alienation; orthaileould aCcompliah them by the most skilful
for a moment consider my principles, adaptation of means. Large resources
compromised, by accepting your civiiWg;TC Ahtm a more extended credit than
ty. In dectinmgrfherefore, to attend fn general belongs to individuals, i
your Barbeeue,I am luQuenced by very anj ,t one ma1cM ,nem mon efficient
different considerations, I have already agentl, in the transaction of exchanges,
beeiLpresenf at such a meeting, yerj arid ntore-responsIbleTToT the fulfilment
an parties in mis oistnct, wnen mail
" ur ui Buuinniiii iiij
perlect unreserve: and now understan'-
ding that our immediate represents-
(ve U the only member of Congress
likely to be present, I am inclined to
allow him the same unchecked communi.
cauoa witn nia cniiBiiiueiiiei niiii s iiiaT
tied to siy that I acquiesce in
4 t-aa aMH a aa 4tiaa mnra ft mi 1 1 1 V
1 III V v, vu t Db l a t IIIUI V 1 V. s v s a w aa wauvn
that I may not seem to be drawn into a ,
canvass in this district. Which would
be inconsistent with toy position, and
add to an excitement, which I would
much rather allay. .
As, however, - yon have intimated
that my fellow citizens desire tag hav
rrty views, I will briefly set down such
as are suggested by the opinions which
Sou attribute to the "Republican Sfate
.ishts citizens" whom you repre
sent i.i mr- '
With many of them I am happy to
say I coincide, and will", before Icon
elude, point out this coincidence, but I
take up at first the less pleasing task
of slating tbe points on which we dif-
In thj first pi ice,, then, yon say that
"the Republican State Rights party" is
in favor of an independent Treasury. In
this it is utterly out of my power to
concur with them I am opposed to ad
Independent and in favor ol a Depen
ded' treasury: dependent for its or
ganization and controul upon the law
of the land; dependent for its conduct
sml administration upon scents as
much removed as possible from exec
utive control dependent upon all the
circumstances upon whith the general
prosperity of the country depends; de
pendant lor its health and vigor, upon
the health and vigour of the commu
nity; operated upon, influenced and
controuled by all the great causes
which affect the accumulation and
distribution of public wealth; deprn-
J Jant upon the jiate of the country, and
indicating its condition with ai" deli-:
cite a sensitiveness as the Thermome-'
ter does the state of the atmosphere;
of Commerce and Agriculture; in a
word, I would have the Federal Treat-
ery identical with and absolutely de-
pendant opoq the common destiny; so
lemnly believinjr that to put it on a
distinct footing, would tend more to
consolidate the gen. government and '
seauce 11 it into : uespotism, than annuo not participate. Does the Govern.
has ever been propos
The Republican State Rights
ty," is aiso in uvor nt a separation ut ment better than the people r Are Up
government from banks. If bv this irfiniercst anl success more to be consul
ts meant that the executive ot the u-tted than theirs? Is the Government to
..:-jOi--L.. iii I . i r nii i
uiie-u oiates sntmtu ue uepnveu ui an
influence or control over these ttutitu-
tions which might be abuseJ fur politi
cal and purly purposes, I fully concur
in such an opinion; for a ssi experi
ence has admonished the country that
!the part in power at all events is not
to bu trusted with the use ot such in
nueiices:nor would I be Unwilling to see
the money of the government kept a
part from the business of the Hunks in
such a way is not to be used for Hank
ing purposes. If we could promise
ourselves that the expenditure of the
iriivarnmanr anil Willi it Him rvimi
, , . ' ' ' , ' " . ',
icouiuoe reuueeu to an economical
, ,. 1 f
n? ?reat "JurJ CHul J rcsu,t f,:,,m
ther of these Sources; lor the few
of government money on hand
St Ony one time. Would not
- Jg - . t- couer mucU cxecuti ve
...... u l.l ; .i:......u
exirill llie tiruiinry oailMlIX OIKT4 1 tons.
. ' nowef.inePPP'Ytni01
V'"."18 "lo of uolUrs at Ihe last
session ot (Jonsress, notwithstan(lmr
, . ,Ubl
. . .
" P;P"i raising me money, warns
us that as Ions as our present rulers are
! nower rJul.toa UF ex.
!.. J ' . i
Pen.!,tiu1re is impossible, it woul.l be
l at SI aJ Talaa in f It A n irO m A n Ilia
tr"8UrI . 6rd agatnst the mixing
ftj6 Pf l,e. fund w.Ul? iU of ,l,er
bgriks, thereby authorizing; the use of
t. I I . t .Wit
mem, at au niutii uaun. taiiuai. t lie
Hma. ... . 1 . ..... . M
iiiBiuuiccu vit. iuc iircvcuii'Ml ui ri
ecutive patronage, may be effected by
- " .
a law tlenninz what banks shall ue us-
. , "
ed, either by
express designation, or
Dr 8ner", "cnPt,onJ ,or am-
& ' aS ' ? ,,r,?ed blh!
States in their fiscal opera '.inns, or are
UBr,ntiej b- ,he p,eje of 8te f,ith.
,. , ., r.. K !. n .
l,ott f tho Coymnt'
W.aT b wbtained by. express Btipula-
i - . w.
- m. ,i c .if i r r i i
tions, the faitnlul performance of which
j l ... . r
maybe secured by a requisition of
- h, ffi . , ,tf;t of le c0
business of the selectee
dealings, practically sXahlUlies this.
eminently true, is constructed out of
them, is no more conclusive against
ih - m. tha il,. hi.kinr ot an .no-inn
js again.t ,j,e U8e 0f wo01 hn& rou.
But, Sif, while I should adopt, as a
mattter of exoediencv and convenience.
the nse of hank ancr. aelecled -oh
10m. o-.nrral nrincinl.. so as to ex
cu,e Exefutive patr
.nr. to that nf nftireaat the Prraulrnt'a
Wl( anfj ( our nwn jH-,ir experience
shows usj down tojvilhge postmasters,
devoting themselves to electioneering
lor the dispenser or their bread, I do
not rearard the tprestioo as to what sort
of agency shall be used to keep and
transier me puuuc luntis, as or- sum
cient magnitude to produce any very
intense interest, or at all comparable
in it consequences to the proposition
that the Government shall exact in all
its dues, gold i.nd silver, to the ex
clusion of the notes ot specie paying
I cannot conceive of anything more
preposterous and revolting, than that
the Government should have on cur
rency and the People another. Uutil
the present period of intrepid specula
lion, such a notion has never been a
vowed, much less been acted upon, in
the'whole historry of the world. No
Government, barbarous or civilized,
has ever pretended to separate its cur
rency from that of its citizens or sub
jects.. Such a project would have
been considered equally preposterous
and dangerous,' even in those times
when government was regared as some
thing self-existent,- independent of Jhe
People, belonging to a superior and
privileged race, and having rights ami
interest in opposition to thoe of the
community at large. Whst, then,
should be thought of it when Govern
ment is understood to be but an .-etna-nation
from the people, and the govern
ors but their servants? .
It is admitted on all iiands, that
there cannot be in this xoun try an ex
elusive specie circulation. Paper cred
it it our currency, and its destruction
most Infuriated partisans of the new
theories of finance. 'Their declared
object is to leave all the vast moneyed
transactions of tocietr to be conducted
by naner. while the Federal Govern
ment is to protect itself by the use of a
peculiar medium, in which the citizens
ment wit'idraw itself from the curren
crof the country because it it not
guuu ruiiun tut ur ii ini
fttent better than the people?
nsve one interest aim the reople an-
other? shown bv the last fortv veara'
experience of the Uovermneut, during
winch tune banks in some form nt
other, have been its fiscal airentst Mr
Wootlburry himself declaring that the
treasury n.is lust less oy ; , tnem iav this
long genes ot transaclions, thin by
the defalcation of otic -single individu
al; and now that the batiks have re
resumed specie iiayinctits, and have
silr need the unmeaning clamors ol
political partisans, it i ascertained
that the Govtvrnmviit has lost very lit
tle by its connexion with thus insti
tutions. The temporary suspension ol
specie payments having .ceased, and the
lortunate tletcat ol the Independent
Treasury" having restarted credit, and
renewed the general prosperity, these
institutions are anin performing their
regular functions, and proving, by a
more earlv anil tl-ctstve recovery
than ihe most tiTtgrtine hatl -calculated
oi, how worthy they are of public con-
It is said that the plan of using State
banks as the agents of government has
failed, and that it is madness to try it
azain. If this be true to the uttermost
extent, the State bank system ha, in
common with every thing else, failed
in the hands of the present Adtninistra-
,3. . . I . .1
Every' experiment, rnndm ind
bv such men, is doomed to inevitable
failure. If the ue of the State banks
turned out to be injurous, what was
TheTresult of the sub-treasury system
which succeeded it? Ever increasinj
embarrassments and difficulties, till
Congress decided that it should, not be
The hard money system was fried in
in regard to the'public lands. Did it
succeed? Was it approved? But
how, and to what extent, has the use
of State banks failed? Has the Gov
eminent or the People lo,.t anything
by the suspension of specie payments?
un the contrary, that measure was
wise and salutary, demanded br nub
lie opinion at the lime, and vindicated
by the result. Any failure that has
taken place, has been the effect rather
of mal -administration, than of the na
ture of the instruments used, itktase of
disaster, it is natural enough for the
engineer to attribute the explosion
the defects of the machine, rather lhan
to his want of skill. There was un
questionably, hot ever, erereat errors
in the pet bank svstem, which ought to
be altogether reformed. Hint the af
fairs of the Government can be as well
conducted as the alfairs of the people,
by a judicious arrangement of the Stale
banks, I tlo not at all doubt; and the
fuliure of the machine 3hall the Gov
ernment prosper while the tVopfeT suf-
letT ljiesvjrejuestionswhicn ought
to be answered. In my opfiiioS7"lTie'
Government and the People should be
bound up in the same destiny, for good
or for evil; or, if we must discriminate,
save the country, and let Ihe Govern
ment perish. For my own p i t, I can
perceive nothing- in the nature of
things, or in our Constitution, which
demands or authorizes this separation
of the Government from the governed;
but on the contrary, the whole spirit
of our institutions is hostile to such a
policy. Unquestionably the fiscal ar
rangement of the General Government
should be made to work as a portion of
the financial machinery or the country.
It is but a part of it, and should always
be preserved in harmonious co-operation.
- Instead of that, it is proposed it
should revolve upon an axis of its own
striking occasionally, and at certain
points, upon the great complex machin
ery which ia conducting all our affairs,
in such a way as to isr and discompose
it The result would be enternaf dis
turbance and confusior, inconsistent
with the well being of the country. It is
very obvious that the channelsof circula
tion being filled with bank bills,answer-
ing all the purpose qfsociety .except the.
single one of paying government duet,
for which alone specie is competent,
this article witl be used exclusively for
that purpose. It witl cease to be mo
ney, and become a : commodity . in
which Government taxes are exacted.
Its price, therefore, wilt fluctuate ac
cording to that demand. Heavy in-,
portations will make it dear; with light
importations, it will became cheap; and
this operation, it has been said by the
advocates of the experiment, puts the
banks in an antagonist relation to a
large revenue. Unquestionably ' it
does, by placing them in opposition to
CTwmerce. A large commerce
a laree commerce win
produce a ruin upon them for specie to
pay the duties, and thus a direct oppo
sition to commerce is engendered.
Now, unless commerce be considered
an evil, and to cramp and' cripple it
be a wise policy, this result is to be
depc4texW f am warethatTnanr
who regard the late embarrassment
as the result of overtrading, are no,
unwilling to a system of finance shall
be adopted that will curb its excess,
I think, sir, that we have struggled too
long for an unfettered commerce ,to join
now in a restrictive system; and ifjoe
large a revenue result from our ""pros-
perity, let us not destroy the pros per U
ty, but reduce the revenue!,, , y
Another obvious consequence which
will result from the fluctuations of the
value of spec'iB when it is made a tax,
paying commodity, will bejhe distur
bing influence upon the vafoe of , the
paper circulation; for, although specie
does not enter into the circulation with
paper, yet it is the standard of its val
ue, ami the change in . the -standard,
vary the relation between it and palter,
and thus effect the currency with uiiy
tvaiuiig mutations. . . -
These checks and difficulties in the
way of commerce wi I, ol course, in
jure the whole community, ; and wilt
bear with a more deleterious energy
on the commerce of the agricultural
States. With us, it it comparatively
feeble; we have just now taken ' it in
hand to secure to ourselves a just par
ticipaliiin in this iinportant braMch of-
national industry: and the spirit to on
dertake it, and the means to tecum,
plish it, have both resulted ' from the
removal of commercial embtrrassinenta
by the reduction of the Tariff. 'Tltei
embarrassments are oppressive in pro-'
prt ion to th1 weakness :of Jh- com
merce to which they operate. " I he:
fixed rapital, the established habitudes,
,i.. r v . v...t.-
ihv viiniui iimiiiuiiiiiis ui iievv svin,
can survive a shock or sustain an op
pression which would ruin Not folk or
It has been objected that under the'
constitution the government has not the
power tn receive lianK bills ,ln . pa
tment of its dues, or any thing but gi
and silver. This motion has not gain
ed much ground; for those who sug
gest Wat the same time contended
tint the government ha not only the
right to receive nper money, but ' U
create it.' Mi. McDuffie, In his very
emphatic rejection of this novel hypoth.
cms, asserts that the government might
receive its dues 'in brickbats; ' and
surely it would be di fault tt conceive
that the receiving of this article , would
confer Upon it the qualities of money
tnioaao endow tua government with
tnp, power ni regal at! ng tHe -aJ w-f ,
brick bat. To believe in . such a fi
nantial transubstaiitiafuin ' would te
quire a more devoted faith than has e
vrryct been exacted by atiy. politictf
papacy in this country. , . ', rr!
If the policy of exacting , specie be .
just, or any of the arguments used to '
maintain it be true, in regard to the
general government, they are equally
ppiwsiae-.tP the stale governments,
and the experiment cart be most safety
tried upon them.: Let the divorcer
then, of bank and State, begin in the
States, where ihe success and ". pheno
mena nf the experiment upon the
wealth and property of Uie country ,can
be minutely watched. . ".o" "
I will not trouble ysu, sir, with any
observations on a proposition to create
federal government paper,' as a perma
nent medium for the . government or
the neonle. Such a project will hard'
tjrgitn fivera ltmga-trr-ntiiTen-tal
paper is re. ..em be red; and having
been tried by ", very modern govern
ment, in every variety ut form, ; with
al Way the same result of aTnost tni
chievout deprecation, we mutt be to
tally regardless of the lessons of ex
perience, if we adopt it. There i tin
exception, in the history of a thousand
attempts to make paper a circulating
medium, to its totul and ruinuuj fail
ure. The reasons ia obvious; men will
nt take in exchange for their proper
ty, any thing but property, or what
j represent it. - Government paper li
neither the one nor the other; it rep,
resents the will of the Legislature, and
nothing more. - It has not what u es
sential to currrency t-convertibili
ty, Uence it destiny ha been uni
4 It i a characterutici and - to my
mind a fearful, circumstance attending
the new financial measures, and ' the,
arguments brought to sustain them
that they avowedly set all experience
at defiance. They scorn induction
reject facts and, abstracting u en
tirely from our concrete existences
propose to remodel society by the dei
(ructions of and abstrus logic, and ; to
subject the real affairs 'of life to the
doubtful decision of polemical theses.
It is, I think, safer, though a- test
brilliant course, tn adhere,, to experi
ence, and to take it for granted in pot.
itics, as we do in nature. ' that what
has happened always, will happen' a
It gives me pleasure, - Sir, to turn
from topics on which I apprehend there
is a considerable difference of opinion
between us, to others, on which. if
we do not fully concur, there is at least
less discrepancy. ; ';- t .i ; s
Yomsy lhat the gentlemen whom,
f oe repreariit are oppose'l to the establ
ishment of a National ' Bank, 1 con
cur with them. Sir. I believe such na
- -- ' ' , u
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