North Carolina Newspapers

    'I-
Raleigh, IT;; C, June .8, 1871.
THIS PAPER,
devoted to Politics, Ne-b, Xjtera
titre, Agriculture, and Manufac
turing Interests, and to the deyel-
opcraent of our many Industrial
Resources, rillbe. published in the
r'tv of Raleigh, from andafter this
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d.;to, Tei-Weekly and Weekly by
the Eiia Publishing Company.
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- Conducted politically, in the interest
of the National Republican party, the
" Carolina Era" will support the
policy of the President in hi9 adminis
tration of the afiairs of the Federal
Government," and also advocate the pol-
Jcy of the party which elected him, in
all endeavors to heal the many wounds
consequent to our late civil strife, and
all its attempts to settle finally the dif-
fprrnrps between the two sections of
. our common country, so long severed
bv crave sectional disputes, and so re
cently arrayed in deadly hostility to
each other. Universal amnesty, to
gether with universal protection to all
citizens
in the enjoyment of those-nat-
urai
risrhts which governments were
founded for the purpose of protecting,
can accomplish this most desirable re
sult. In our opinion, nothing else can.
Accepting honestly and in good faith
the settlement by Congress of those is
sues immediately connected iwith and
evolved by the late disastrous struggle
between the North and the South, this
'paper will strenuously oppose any and
every measure, Federal or Slate, calcu
lated to recall them again into the po
litical arena, there to disturb the peace
and security those measures were in-
. - - i
tended to preserve and perpetuate.
The Era will sustain Governor Cald
well's administration in the honest en
deavors he has made and is making to
restore good order and .peace through
out this State, by suppressing the se-
- - ! t
cret, lawless organizations committing
crimes upon helpless, inoffensive per-;
sons
m many counties, ana win aid-
m A ' 1 I
him with all the influence the paper can
f
command, in a fearless vindication of
the law. C V
At all times advocating whatever, in
our. opinion, is best calculated to pro
mote and secure the happiness and ma-
terial prosperity of our people, and of
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. ' ,. , . . 1 ' 1 I X
every individual 01 our peupie, aim w
protect them in the undisturbed enjoy
ment o the rights and privileges guar
antied by the Constitution and by the
laws, this paper will endeavor to do so
- by fair and legitimate1 argument, and
not by personal abuse or defamation
at no time forgetting its own self re-
gpect.and the responsibility as a Journal
it owes to an intelligent public. Open
and ready oh every appropriate occa
sion to discuss any subject of sufficient
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importance to secure its appearance in
the columns of a respectable journal,
this paper will do so in an honest, fear
less and independent manner, ever
manner,
ready to accord to its
fair yarid candid
opponents the same right tx) their con- I
scientious convictions,'that it claims to
exercise for itself. ' - .
' This paper will oppose the calling a
Convention in the manner attempt
ed by -the late General Assembly,
as rie unwarranted by the Coristi
tution, and over and often condemned
and repudiated by a large majority of
the people of North Carolina! .
It will oppose all radical, revolution
ary and partizan legislation, whether
by Congress or the State Legislatures.
Advocating a proper economy in the
various departments of the Federal and
State governments it will be ready at
nil Liiiies uj xeiiu lis asMauuii; ui sup-
" pressing extravagance and ; corruption,
and in exposing dishonest practices and
officials, heedless of the political or
business influence of the latter, or their
party affiliations.
It is the earnest desire arid, intention
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of those having the control and man
agement of the The Carolina Era,
go to conduct it in its various depart
ments, that its columns- shall be both
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instructing and interesting, containing
nothing of those personalities too often
found in the newspapers of the present
day. Intending as soon as possible to
organize a corps .of lgular porrespon
dents and contributors, whose opinions,
experience arid writmgs on subjects of
vital importance to the prosperity and
advancement of our people will entitle
them to .the respect of all honest and
right-minded inen, and serve as a guide
to the young men of the State just as
suming the duties of active and intelli
gent citizens, this, paper will aspire to
become a high-toned, first-class, progres- J
sive journal-a faithful reflex of the liv
ing presenti-and exert itself to deser'e
the patronage and support not only of
the Republican party, but of eyery one
who is willing1 to burv the past, and
join with it in the resuscitation of North
Carolina, and in the promotion of every
thing tending to advance our people as
a State, and ' their welfare arid happi
ness as individuals.
Our time, and whatever abilitywe
may have, will be industriously deyo
ted to make the columns of the paper
as useful and as entertaining as its
friends desire they should be, com
maridinsr at the same time the confi-
dence and support of its political friends
I and the respect of its 'political oppo
nents. '
THE REVOLUTIONARY PARTY.
We commend to our readers' atten
tion the following article from the Tel
egram, of this city, under the date of
April 6th. We also beg their earnest
consideration to the manner in which
the Conservative party endeavors to
perfect its organization.
The leaders of that party, if an asso
ciation without a platform, and of a
purely local existence, can be called a
party, though lavish in their expres
sions for popular sovereignty, the rights
of the people, and all that, dare not
call the people (who vote with them)
together in convention, as has been the
accustomed usage of the political par-
tiesln this State for more than thirty
years. ' This total ignoring the ordina
ry and popular usage by a few inexpe
rienced leaders elected to the General
Assembly, is significant, arid plainly
shows the people how much the profes-.
sion of attachment for .their rights is
worth. ! -'' '
The Telegram, in the article alluded
to, says:- ; .V ;" " " :' i
" The Conserv ative members of the
Legislature held a caucus on Monday
evening last, in this city, when, as we
learn from an authentic source, ' the or
ganization of the Democratic Conserva
tive party spiritedly commenced.'
We were about to say that this was
a somewhat remarkable party, since it
seems to require organization every
year, and we never hair' of its reorgan
izing, but on looking into the. matter a
little further, we find that it is another
new party that was "spiritedly organ
ized in this city onMonday last : and
so far as an outsider can determine, has
not now, nor never had any connection
whatever with any other political
party.
A year ago certain members of the
Legislature met in the city of Raleigh
and organized a Conservative-Democratic
party, tc ith a hyphen. This year
they meet again and organize a Demo
cratic Conservative "party without the
hyphen.
" V e must confess that we do not
understand the tactics of these party
leaders : their political strategy is be
yond our ken. They seem bent on per
petual change ; and they possess a fac
ulty for adapting themselves to the
situation' which is truly refreshing:
and astonishing.
"We are not informed of the con
struction of any platform, nor have we
heard any declaration of principles,
f lion 4 Vl Q -f An -f O i n u1 in Vw I
cent address of one hundred and more,'
AV HIV AJlCAJLft MiCdV V' A MtilllVA illC ACT"
to tne people oi iNortn Carolina.
"Standing upon the dome of the
State House, these members of the Leg
islature may have been so fortunate as
to obtain an unobstructed view of the
political horizonand as sentinels upon
thf wth-tiTi'r,rf rrnr riiil w 1 i luirtioc
they may tell us truly of the hour, bu
we would advise the people of ' North
Carolina to think seriously of the mat
ter before they commit, irrevocably
and absolutely, their every interest in
to tne hands of the politicians now
floating on the surface of the political
occasion.
have a hand, once in a while, at
cztsu lueii .are sent w -mest; Xjetnsia-
f r . 4. J.1 T ? 1
tive Assemblies to enact laws, arid
guard the material interests of the
whole people, . independent -of party
bers of the Legislature cease to be poli-
iuiws, r puiiucHi ui visions, ana mem
li liif. l .1 ? ' r
uuaua wneii uiey ern-er upon ineir ap
propriate duties: and therefore: when
at the close of a session these go to
worK and organize parties, they simply
stultify themselves, nothing more; I
""Nor does it look well in -another
point of view. When the people elect
men to orace, tney do not propose to
make it a life-tenure, but when these
,omcials begin to shuffle the political
buds exclusively, and allow no one but
themselves a chance at the party slate,
it looks a little suspicious, if.it does' not
-1? XI A A 1
uirecu v appear a seraea purpose to ma
nipulate the party strength in such
manner as to retain themselves in office
indefinitely.
xi n were wise to organize a new
parry every spring, which to our mind
it is not, we most seriously question the
policy of giving up the political or . par
ty reins entirely into the hands of the
men in office, and we herein warn the
people of North Carolina not included
in the ranks of the Republicra party,
of a direct and evident purpose on the
nort rT porta i n nf rhaiv lonHnK nn.r. I
part of certain of tlieir leaders to muz
zle public sentiment, ; and steal away
ineir pouucai ngnrs."
EXCHANGES.
Exchanges are the tools with which
an editor principally works. As " yet
we have none, and for 'several issues
will have to rely upon the generosity
of our friends, and 'the news dealers.
" A ...211 "1 T i '
iiittruiia win uietuse kwii mis
fact in . mind fresh, whenever they
riiay feel dispose to criticize too "slash-
ingly" the contents of our columns.
m l y . . . .
io relieve us irom so emDarrassing a
position, we hope our brethren through
out the land will at once respond to
pur invitation to exchange.
It- is said that during the siege of
Paris, all the German batteries scattered
about the city were connected with
headquarters by telegraph communica-,
tion. The telegraph stations
1 A 1 A.m ' a
were
Domo prooi, ana me operators, were
plentifully supplied with cotton where
with to stop their ears during the bom
bardment. Conveying orders by tele
graph, and communicating with a be-
seigea city oy earner pigeons is one of I
tne greatest improvements or modern
A- k i W .A AM - '1
wanare.. . ... .
THE TRUE ISSUE.
f-
The real and only issue in the pres
ent canvas,;and one from the consider
ation'of which we warn the people not
to be diverted, is, the power of the Leg-
i - - i - 1
islature of the. State in regard tdas
sembling a Convention of -the people.
The clause in our present Constitution
authorizing the General Assembly to
call a Convention of the people, j by
the concurrence of . two-thirds of all
the members of each House of the Gen
eral Assembly," is in the jsame wards
as Sec. 1. Art. 4, of the Constitution of
1835. That clause was inserted in (the
Constitution of 1835, -in accordance to
the 16th section of the Actcalling it,
which reads : -. '; j '
" XYI. j BeHt further enacted, That Thk
CONVKXTIOSr SHALL PROVIDE IS WHAT
MANNER AMENDMENTS SHALL IN FUTURE
BE MADE ;TO 5 THE CONSTITUTION OF THK
State." i J r . : 1
If i the Legislature has any other
ier.hu-
thority I concerning a Convention
, Kot
by
any other one hundred
and jseveuty citizens of the State,
have beep unable to find it.
;- i f .
ebt:
t
we
The question then, and the oply
one practically before the people this
summer,! is, t whether the Act under
which they are called upon to vote is
in accordance with the above section of
i i
the Constitution? Whether we are! in
favor of dhe Constitution as it stands,
or
Whether we may desire certain of its
provisions stricken out and others in
serted, tl6es not enter into the issu0 at
all; I Forj if a Convention is called in a
manner slot authorized by the Consti-
tution , 'its action will be revolutionary,
i- . . i -. . j
and the amendments made by it wil
be declared void by the Courts. Such
was the fate of the Dorr-jConstitution
in Rhode Island, arid such will be ihe
fate of any- Constitution I made by a
Convention in North Carolina, cal
. - i ... .. . i -
ed
in an unconstitutional manner.
J FEMALE SUFFRAGE.
What will some of our sapient Bour-
boris old i; fogies so wedded to the
vvrui. vvi 4iiiiuoj irAa..b iiviiiiii j ixi
morals, politics, science or social econo
mies is worth a cancelled postage
stamp, unless it has the impress of a
half century on it we say, what will
they say to the probablevextensiou of
suffrage tb our female fellow citizens?
-C- - - ; ;
They we-e violently opposed to ihe
principle of free suffnige, believing that
rid man ought to vote for Senators, un
less' he ownied 50 acres of land. They
were more than violently opposed j"to
the black rnans voting. We are'arixi
ous to J see, what their platform will! be
u iciaijuif w giwug tun ujuwi lu our
wviii,,,i -a . x : i.
Women. .It IS an issue they have got to
meet; and ,vye bring the matter to tljeir
attention,! so- that they 'may at oiice
commence to give it due consideration,;
iiLLli , 1 .1 j 1. T. a a 1
for which ihe old fogies ought to thank
us.' : '-' ?'!
From our exchanges, we see that
Michigan; promises to take the lead in
the .woman's-right movement. Her
colleges arid schools no longer recogriize
sex in the admission of students. I A
woirian has been admitted to practice
in the Supreme Court, and at the
ate
i it j I
election two women were, allowed to
posed towards the woman movement
than the East; and with Wyoming arid
Michigan! already enlisted in their
cause our universal-suffrage friends
haye encouragement enough to carry a
whole campaign. The cosmo-political
party may yet be a power.
A NEW WONDER.
A recent .number of the New
leans Republican, a paper, by the
we shall at another time take occasion
to speak of as one having few equals
arid np superior in xur country, savs,
of the discovery, of a new motive
powe ; : Yesterday morning Mr. jj B.
Knight, agent of the Watertown Stejim
Engine Company, sunk a drove
well ip the rear of his office, No.l 76
Carpndelet : street, with a! view to get
ting a supply of water, arid whenj at
the depth of forty-six feet a sudden and
very powerful draft of gas j was observ
ed to flow! from the mouth: of the pipe.
He immediately closed the pipe, think
ing to utilize this gas for illuminating
purposes, f but found the pressure Itoo
great, when the idea struck T him to di
rect it into the boiler of one of Iris ien-
gines and bxperiirientwith it in making
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steam. Jtsut no sooner nad the connec
tiori been inade than the engine begari
to run entirely by tlie pressure of the
gas acting upon the piston, at a pressure
of twelve pounds to the square inch :
and so it continued all day yesterday,
giving no sign of exhaustion. . ;
Here is a discovery. A motive power
which costs absolutely nothing, suffi
cient to be made available in running
many Kinds of light machinery, per
fectly controllable and seemingly iruex
haustibleuH What shall we find next
under our city ? We advise the curious
to call at Mr. Knight's office and see
this wonder. r . '
OUR TERMS.
The subscription for the Carolina
Era has been placed at the lowest pos
sible i living figures. No one in the
r r'v Y
XI - L - A 4 J 1 ir- I
the paper on account of the price. Bee
tne xrms ana rates of advertising on
Lthe first page.1 It is the 1 interition to
make our ; Weekly edition, outside of
its politics, a ifamily newspaper, partic
ularly acceptable to our; agricultural
friends. The price, One Dollar, yer
annum, should insure it a large pat-
. '
ronage.
TRACTIC N ENGINES ROAD STEAMERS.
We publish below an article from the
London Times, giving the history and
explaining the use' and application of
Road Steamers as tried in Scotland.
We consider the subject of much im
portance to our people, and tjiat it is
our duty to afford our readers all the
light in regard to the success of this
new mode of conveyance, our position
commands. For this, reason, we have
no apologyto make : for thelength of
the article copied, but commend it to
the serious attention of every intelligent
mind.
As a people, we are poor, very poor ;
and it is absolutely necessary that
economy in public, as well as iri private
expenditure, should : be the leading,
prevailing idea in all the projects for
providing our citizens facilities for
transporting their surplus to the markets
of our country, Road Steamers and
Narrow Guage Railroads promise this.
Of their success, as - introduced - iri the
United States, the readers of the Era
shall be kept advised:
- " Progress breeds wants. As one needs
provided for, a fresh need is born. So rail
ways, invented to facilitate the operations of
commerce and nianulacture, have in their
turn created a new requirement. Their
enormous powers of absorption and trans
mission render a new mode of leedinjr them
imperative, for animal power no longer suf-
hees to bring uiem their supplies of ireight.
With railways, too,' other growths have been
going.on. Huge iactories have sprung up
m quiet nooics, ana tneir aaiiy proauce ex
ceeds what the population of a great city
could have achieved in a year's course bv
unorganized labor ; mines, by the aid of im
proved machinery, yield up their wealth in
quantities undreamt of in davs of! old, and
the machines themselves are constructed of
a strength and bulk that ' even theorists
would not have ventured on a generation
back. To carry all this abundance from its
sources to the railway or to its special des
tinations has long been too arduous a task
for such feeble agents as carts and horses,
and mechanical skill has for many years past
been engaged in trying to make our great
servant steam work upon common roads.
Two raidieal difliculties, however, baffled the
ingenuity and zeal brought to bear upon the
problem. Ponderous traction engines were
built on various plans, but always with the
result that the shocks experienced in run
ning over hard roads occasioned continual
breakages in the machinery. If to obviate
this, as far as possible, the weight of the en
gine was increased, then the roads suffered
terribly. All kinds of contrivances were
applied to meet the emergencies to which
.the engine'. was liable ; claws shot out from
the wheels to enable the machine to issue
out of hollows, or to emerge from soft places
into which it would sink from its .own
weight, but at the Critical moment the claws
were apt to break, while the havoc they
made with the-road was fearful. ' The claws
were likewise-needed to prevent the engine
from slipping on iui ascent. To the wheels
of another form of engine cumbrous planks
were attached,' which involved with the
wheel and ottered a ki nd of rail for it to run
on, but tins, could not be made to 'work
practically. The use of traction engines,
inereiore, nas oeen attenuea witn great
an.
noyance and expense from the constant in
juries to road and engine, caused by their
contact with each other, and for this reason,
though the supremacy of steam over horses
would still assert itself when extraordinary
loads had to be moved, traction engines
could not be employed for general purposes
and regular trailic But now the two diffi
culties have been overcome by the inven
tion of the Roael Steamer. The" Road Steam
er can run on any kind ! of Koad: It runs
1 . 1 J.. 1 1 A " A 1 .
"".el nam nimi.i aim paveu ssinjtju wiuioill
jolting, over soft roads without sinking,
over muddy roads without slipping ; nay,
it needs no road at all, lor it can run with
equal ease over grass lields, through plow
ed fields, upon ice, through loose sand, and
over frozen snow. Though small and light
itself, it climls the severest gradients and
draws enormous loads." It owes all its fac
ulties and its exemption from the disabili
ties of other traction engines to one device
as simple as it is efficacious. The wheels,
which are of great width, are surronded by
tires of vulcanized India ? rubber. These
thick bands of India; rubber, enable the
Road Steamer to hoat over the "surface of
the ground without the slightest damage to
the road, while they likewise protect the
machinery from all concussion The in
tervention of the elastic tires letween the
r .1 ai. i j i- i
vvjicei. aim me ruuu m us in iact. in me
8ame way as if the engine were 'running
Mr. It. W. Thompson. C. E;. of Edin
burgh, the inventor of the Road Steamer,
havim experienced much annoyance from
the defects of traction engines, and finding
none able to do work for which he required
them, conceived and carried out the idea of
providing the wheels 6f a steam ei
run on common roads with India rubber
tires of immense thickness. When the first
patent lioad Steamer was tried, some two
years ago, its success was complete, and far
exceeded the expectations and hopes of the
inventor. Kince tnen he has been engaged
in building numbers of these engines
to send to all , parts of the world, and
the record of some of their performances, in
me presence oi engineers, agriculturists and
other practical men, will doubtless be found
interesting. A three-horse power engine
urew a nouer weigning; tnirteen tons up an
incline of one in twelve, the ground being
so slippery at the time from from frost that
norses could not keep their feet. The-en
gine was run through a grass field without
leaving a track, and again through a field
covered to a depth of two feet with loose
earth. A twelve-horse power engine, weigh
ing eight tons, ran with four wagons at
tached to it out to a colliery twelve miles
from Edinburgh; there received . a load
amounting, with the four wagons, to thirty
two tons, making the. weight of the whole
forty tons ; and then returned up inclines
of one in sixteen to Edinburgh. It wended
its way, with its train of ninety feet, with
perfect facilitythrough the narrow streets
of the old town, which chanced on the oc
casion to be thronged with vehicles carry.
ing peofla to some open air festivity. It
turned all manner ol sharp corners, ran
down the steep hiU to Leith, entered a lane.
.a j s a i i,i . .
anu urove in inrougn uie gates oi tne lac
tory, where it delivered its load. An en
gine was driven into a newly-dug potato
field, and there" ran about in every direc
tion, leaving the soil qmte undisturbed. A
twelve-horse power engine, drawing a load
of seventeen tons of pig iron, was driven
along the Granton road at the rate of eight
miles an hourt The same engine was run
along the sea sands from Portobello to
Joppa, running through the loose dry
sands, over the soft wet sand; and even
through a creek of running water, with as
much ease as if it had been driving along a
turnpike roiid. It was driven over long
beds of broken Hint laid down for road
mending, and the motion to those riding
on it was as smooth and pleasant as if it had
been going over a lawn, while the stones
remained quite undepressed. An eight
horse power engine, weighing six tons,
took a load of thirty-four tons up an incline
of one in eighteen. Engines with omni
busses attached to them have run frequent
ly through Edinburgh up the long steep
hill from Leith, and up and down the steep
est streets in the city, always without a
break. Their speed is from eight to ten
miles an hour, and some .very handsome
steam omnibusses are being constructed on
this principle." ; j
fTho Into TV-i
ocur?purt, luame, was ine cnampion at-
X - 3 J. A 1 ' . . . :
tendant at church, having been in his
pew out of 2,600 consecutive Sun
days I Absence from town was his
good excuse for missing on the two Sab
baths his seat was vacant in fifty years.
Brutus J. Clay. Jr., son of the Horn
Cassius M. Clay, has been unanimously
nominated by the ReDublieans of M Ad-
ison County. Ky.. as their candidate for
the Ijegislature.
A FAIR CHALLENGE.
I The Telearam ; of Friday last, formal
ly opened the canvass, by publishing the
speech of the Hon. S. F. Phillips, in
theHouseof Representatives last winter
on the Convention Rill ; . arid at the
same time, proposed f to j tne leading
Conservative journals of the State, that
if they will republish in their columns
the principal papers of .the j Telegram
oooosmsr a Convention called as it is
proposed to do, that the Telegram wil
cheerfully publish their leading articles
advocating the call for a Convention.
No journal not thoroughly convinced o
the justness of the cause supported, as
well as the probable result of the elec
tion in regard thereto, would so willing
thus throw down the guantlet,and lend
ts columns to its opponents.
. We shall publish Mr. Phillips' speech
ri pur riext issue, and forthwith in sub
sequent numbers with the speeches and
Opinions of Judge' Gaston, and W. B.
Meares in 1835, Gov. Manly in 1822 ;
Win. B. Shepard in 1S52; Judge Biggs
0ias. ! F. Fisher, GovJ Bragg, and W.
W. Avery in ; Judge Ruffin, W. T.
portch and a host of others in 18G0-'l,
all of whom placed themselves on the
record against the power of the General
Assembly to call a Convention, or to
initiate proceeding to call a Convention,
by a bare majority vote. Out of their
own mouths,"
them. - j j
we
exKHt
to
convict
OUR NATIONAL DEBT.
f To those not familiar; and daily con
yersant with the facts and figures of the
great and inexhaustible resources of the
country, nothing is more astonishing
than the monthly reduction of the pub
lic debt, and at the same time, a corres
ponding reduction in the rates of taxa
tion. The increase of receipts for two
years has amounted to $84,904,049 74 ;
the decrease m expenses, $ 126,700,940 21 ,
while the debt during the same time
has been reduced over $204,754,413 09.
' There is," says the JVeic York Tribune
ri a recent number, " a cogent eloquence
bout these figures! which exceeds any
rhetoric of the 4th of July."
j Reduction after reduction bas bewi
niade in the rate of taxation, .and the
process is still ,continuing,: but: the efu-
fcienfy manifested in collecting the pub
lic dues actually increases the revenues
in the face of a wholesale' abolition of
taxes. Accustomed to denounce everyJ
act of Congress relating to finances, and
none more severely than tliose which
relieved from taxation, the Conserva
tive orators and papers in North Caro
lina, find their prediction confounded,
and the Treasury, instead of being
bankrupt, actually gaining strength
from this seeming j reduction of the re
sources.. . .! - I ' . . r ; ' i
The operation of the Funding :bilt
equally puzzles the same class of minds.
How it ithat a 5 per Cent bond can be
exchanged for; a G per cental and he
capitalist make money by the transfer,
is complete enigma, while the increas
ing subscriptions to the loan have put
a quietus on a whole batch of the most
reckless predictions. The civil commo
tion in France was of course un-antici-pated,
but enough is already known to
settle the point that in any ordinary
ijondition of the foreign money market
every dollar offered abroad would have
been speedily taken. The country,
strong in its financial system, is strong
in its credit, and has all the advantage
that a rigid economy in every depart
ment can give. Instead of seeking to
make a loan, if Europe had remained
quiet, the loan would- haye sought us,
anu more money wpuia nave oeen oi-
" i i 1 '
ierea man tne wants oi tne country re-
auired. . if;-,: !v
f We must have aConveritioni and we want
tne people to vote lor it now .without incur.
ring the expense of again holding an election
on the question. :Uharlvtte Democrat.
Or, in other words, if the people of
the State should vote down the propo
sition to hold a Convention in August,
the Conservative party will, at the first
opportunity, order another election on
tne convention question. ; mat's ex
actly what that party did iri 1861. The
people of North Carolina then said they
wanted no uonvention, but m less than
. . . . . . i
three months another election was
force on them.. The lesson of 1861 will
be remembered in 1871, by the people of
North Carolina-Expense or no expense.
i !5od in youb names. rnis num
ber of the Era is sent to political
- t ' .
friends, and in many cases to political
opponents. v e hope those receiving
it, will not only subscribe themselves,
but will induce othersN;o do the same.
Our paper has been promised a large
list, and before the campaign is fairly
opened, we expect to number our sub-
cnbers by thousands; Do not disnn-
point us, for we assure our readers,
that it is easier for an editor to talk
with ten thousands patrons, than it is
with five hundred.
The Charlotte Democrat contains' the
proceedings of a meeting held at Dallas,
Gaston county. Gov. Varice addressed
the meeting and f 4 denounced the re-
ports of lawlessness and violence" We
are glad to see . that the gentlemen
composing .the meeting went a step
farther and denounced not onlv tht
reports" but 44 all lawlessness and vio
lence," and pledged themselves as good
citizens to use their best efforts to main
tain the laws of the country, j -1 i
ln?-mUlinf.e oridUTh
yards, docks, sheds, mills, lete.: ntal
i' ' ' ---; I
uriu wver an area oi nearly nrty acres. a
anu in mis urtii mere are about seven
miles of plank road. To carry on this
establishment from 400 to 500 men and
boys are employed.
-4 n 11 .
ihont RAvpn
i
From the Daily Telegram, Feb. 13, 1W1.
-'J THE CONVENTION QUESTION.
, We print in this issue Governor Cald
weil's message in regard to the pending
call for a Convention, together with his
correspondence with the Supreme
Court iqon the same question. j
We need not call attention to these
documents, as no doubt they will be
l-eatl at once, and with great interest.
WeJclieve that the Governor has per
form il a great public service, and is
entitled to the thanks of all good eiti-
ZdlS. -I !'- '":.: ''!! !
, It will be seen that Governor Cald
well and the Supreme Court concur in
what has been hitherto the general and
almost undisturbed opinion of the pub
lic in this State, to-wit : That tiie Gen
eral Assembly has no power, either
directly, or by the intertx ntion of the
people, to call a Convention, except the
law be authorized by a majority of
two-thirds of all the members of lxth
Houses. U,f-' -;!; ' : ; v-
The question arises, upon anjexpref
sion inserted in . the. Constitution of
183-3, and retained in that of 1808 nov
in force. - ' - :: ' ; -' I
No question is made as to the inabil-?
ity of the Assembly to call a Conven
tion directly ' except by a two-thirds
vote. It has been said, however, that
it may, nevertheless, by an ordinary
majority, authorize the People to call
such a Convention. But! even upon
this point, as we i have said, public
opinion in -North .Carolina, up to trie
present time, j has been almost undis
turbed. M i I
Our re aders already understand what
the views of this paper are in this re
gard. We do not pretend! to be law
yers, or to be prepared to argue the
question by the lights which profes
sional t reading, or , farniliarity with
Constitutions, may give; but' the im
pressions which,, os plain citizens, i we
have taken up, are fortified by what
we understand to be the history or this
question m JNorth uaroima. I
From recent discussions we learn that
the question now at issue between the
.Executive and Judicial Departments
of our State Oovernment, on one hand,
and the Ijegislature upon the other.
was first raised in the General Asserii
bly of 18o4-,5by a proposalof the Hon.
AV . Ai Graham, then a Senator froin
Omnge. As a substitute for the Free-
Suffrage bill -then pending, he proposed
wnKiHi snrh Lin f i m(n(.ti nV s
thA wv hmrirM in ,sft,
but by a bare majority of each House.
That proposition was immediately de
nounced by the Democratic leaders lof
the Senate (notably by Mr. Biggs, C$1.
Jfisner and others) as revoiutionarj.
and, after elaborate debate, was rejected
by a majority of about two to oiie.
Several Whiffs were understood to co-
incide in the view taken hv fr. lii
nmonp- others h TiYm T Tiinmn m
the Hon. Anderson Mitchell, then rep
resenting, in the yenate, I Wilkes and
other counties. ':
The proposition was afterwards re
newed in the House of Commons, and,
having been i debated upon the issue
raised by :Mr.: Biggs, as above, was re
jected by a vote of 77 to 34. r I
these votes were then considered jas
settling the question. It has been ar
gued with .great ability in favor of M.
uranam's proposition, and he Was una
ble to rally his party in its favor. In
the Commons, more than a third of the
Whig party voted in the majority, in
cluding some of their best lawyers, aud
most intelligent public men. Among
the Democrats who so -voted were
Joshua Barries, James M. Bullock, John
B. Bynum, W. T. Bortch, S. P, Hill,
W. J. Houston, L. W. Humphrey, W.
A. Jenkins, Thos. Settle, J. G. Shep
herd, G. B. Singletary, W. L. Steele, jJ.
A. Waugh. and J. G. Yancev. Anion?
the Whigs were J. S. Amis, A. II.
Caldwell, George Green, J. H. Headen,
I). Outlaw, Richard II. Smith. J. G.
Stubbs antl P. II. Winston; of Bertie, J
All the members from Wakfi muntv.
viz : Mr. Wilder in the Senate, and
Messrs. Rand. Whitaker. and J. Mor-
decai, in the Commous, voted-with the
majority. - '1 I . :. ,-.' .. . . j
Alter this the matter was not ajrafn
stirred until the General Assembly of
j.ooi, wiieu w proposition, t not uniiKe
that of Mr. Graliam was made in recrard
to a Convention of the people to cori-
sider our Jeclei-al relations. We sav n.
siuer our jeaerai relations.
pruposiuon not unlike that' of Mr. Gra-
imm in i&4, for he suggested that the
wnsinuiiuii w iooo uiu not .Tirnnimr.
the General I Assembly from
enabling
tne people to call a Convention hv
majority vote, whereas iri 18G0 Messrs.
a
Avery and
Person suenrested that thf
IT-SI I ll-I lliri I r 1 TITO I "AllLlTiriltlAn
fYmsttriiri rf lao
only applied tb
Conventions called to
w vm4vm JJ.B I
considers our internal affairs, and nbt
our federal relations. In both cases the
suggestion was ingenious, if we mav be
permitted so to speak of techical argu
ments. Jin the latter, it was understood
that the late Chief Justice Rriffin enn-
curred for a while; although, upo
SSin4i-H,wlJcI
- miii iiili iniin iii .
Mr. AVer- in the Senateand by Mi
person in the House, in 1800, provitkk
Ior ,mA ca'l of a Convention by the Gen-
ZitT uy 1 cot!mar .our Merl
was argued with some hf rui r
riiany days. Mr. Donnell iroiisl to
ask the opinion of the Supreme XkniH
ripon its constitutionality, arid this.
ttiuiougn wanniy contested, was car
ried, by a majority of one, in the Cbiri-
mons. What further became of this
proposal, we are r.ot informed, but" sup
pose that, as it came to be generally ae-
jvuuwieugeu mat tne bill was unconsti
tutional, an opinion :
considered unnecessary
, n uujiuuii- it v ljim i jiiirr, wnu J
A
In the end. however. Tfr. Hnrt kr
S&JS'nl!?10 at sAubstlte Pyi-
ding that the General Assembly, 44 tiw-
thirds of all the members of both IIoues
concurring " would submit the ques
tion of calling the Convention to the
people. This was adopted, and, as will
be remembered, the people voted the
Convention down, in February, 1861.!
iere; again, after great debate, lie-
ginmng from a different ixint of view, uI dysiwia and other chronic ills
the result was j reachetlj that a bill ari- ea. These springs possess a new! at
tnonzmg the people to rail n rvnvH traction tn t h iwr.iu r
tion, reqmred for its enactment a nia-
jority of two-thirds of all the members
wuhs.-. mat is the form into
which the bill was moulded iii the pro-
cress of the debate.
We recollect the general annroio f ikn
with 7 which the Union men, at that
mne, received the announcement, made
by Mr. Speaker Dortch ,in the Com
mons that unless the bill, as originally
introduced, received a mninrifv r
J m "?V lie j B"ouia ueciare that it had
luiieu ui pass! At that t mA.nA ?ri
uie ruuiiu was suggested .between the
original form of th hill j
- , Z ' v'
SL5i,S5 fSU.
ntIv - iH. TomnttlfVS' !
" " " v-v. oi,utiiJLr L1U1L. - ? L
Whsf rfrit . . - Ti
r' rrAx.x v1 ?en wio
..uu UUi wjjBumnon as a rule to live
by, ana not a mpm tVimrv ,i t.
ing society, is, that here are two decis
ions upon, this very question, by a body
authorized, to decide, and sworn to de
cide correctly. , ' m ,
- Suppose the tribunal to have lx en
originally mistaken, if youplfViso
what security is there; or what pciuc'
if its dei isions are jerpetually to be re
considered? . k
; There is another point in the history
of this question which .we suppose to
important; viz : That after this t-oui-se
of decision had heen established, a Con
vention, (1808) which was apprised of
sucn uecisjon, re-oruaiiicu me; very-
same provision in the ConstitHtion now
in force. ! ,: . . ; '
We are told by lawyers, . and the
f principle appears to , be a sound one,
hat whenever expressions in a Consti
tution, or in a statute, have been con
strued by a tribunal authorizcnl to do
so, such construction is to. bel regarded
as adopted! and endorsel by any Con-. :
veritiou or; Legislature that Ire-adopts
such expressions. This also appears to
be sensible! It is conclusive here.
The Legislatures of 18.34 and 1800, in
the discharge of their, duties, "found
themselvesi under the necessity of deci
ding' this question. They did . so. Af
terwanls the Convention, of IHI'm, which
proposed a Constitution that I was re-'
jected, and again that of 18(58, which
prepared the one under which we live,
adopted the language which had been
so construed. There can, therefore, ho
longer, be. any place for comtrxtvtion !
There can be no question as to whatkhe
Cbnrention of 1808 meant, by j the jiro
vision l)elbre us ! i ' - i
The people'- will thoroughly endorse
the views of Gov. Caldwell and the Su
preme Court. j !
They have had enough of revolution
ary movements. They will not go
back tipon their own decisions in this
respect, made in times of peace, and
with ihe concurrence of men of all jar
ties in all portions-of the State. I hev
will hold to a strict! and just responsi
bility all persons who, by design, or .
inconsiderately, enter upon revolution
ary courses. ; 1 .
THE PACIFIC RAILROADS.
Few 'persons realize the monster .mo
nopolies W'hich,' under this title, have
iK-en sprung ujx)n the 'country, M inerva
like, full grown. To four companies,
the Union Pacific,1 Central 1 'aciUr,
Northern Pacific, and Atlantic and
Pacific, have been granted 124,ho,(h
1L . 1 t 1 , -Si '
iUTes of ,the public lands more land.
than is contained in the Middle States
stretehing from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Mississippi river, more than the .
seven States of New Jersey, Delaware
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio
Indiana and Illinois I 1 ! 1
To the Northern Pacific alone,
47,0O0j00() acres were originally granted,
to which Congress added 6,(nXJ,0(M) last
year. ao max to mis one private cor
m mat to this one private
i3onitin has been given, of the Uvt
anas belonging to the nation, a terri
tory equul to that of: Pennsylvania and
Ohio combined. In other words, Con-
gress has given to this corporation,
means to build about 2,0OU miles of rail :
way, to be the private property of a
few private individuals. The govern
ment might as well have built the road
with the means it furnished, and tin n
have bestowed it as a gratuity on tlicse
few private individuals. Indeed, that
would have been a cheaper plan for our ,
children, because if the '-government,
had built the toad and given it away, ,
the beneficiaries would have been mere
ly a railroad company; by the plan
adopted, they have become the greatest
land monopiy that the world has ever
witnessed. ! ! ' 1 J
By these enormous grants, millions
of landless people have bOen deprived
of a chance to procure homes unless at
exorbitant rates. Besides, the wealth "
and dominion conferred on these great
eoriorations will make them the over
shadowing, ruling power in at least a
dozeri States. They, and not tlie Slate
Legislatures, will choose Senators in
Congiess : they, and not tluf unbiassed
voice of the people, will elect Represen
tatives. They, and not the -free States
will elect our Presidents. . T
Think of a road stretching frotu Du-"
luth to the Pacific, j embracing more
than 2,0fX) miles of railway, the proper- .
ty of a single corporation, owning every
alternate section of land or its procetnfM
in a belt of eighty mihs wide, nearly
the whole lengthof theline OstictWs
or 2o,G(K) acres to the mile with towns
and villages owned by tlie corporation '
or its favorites scattered along the road,
and the great stockholders ruling Its
affairs residing in Boston and New
York and we may have some idea of
wLiat the orthernIacific is to.be, and
wnaienunce ior ioiitittil promotion an v
man within, the innits of its inrliifn.n.
. . - "
wol" nave, If lie dared seek to ritrict
iw iiioiioinny, restrain ils exactions or
otherwise oppose its supreme will.
No section of the; country is more
anxious than the South to clear away
war issues for the sake of its own peace..
But no section is more interested thau-
tihTaile ar l iXVd LtTiiK ih
ine orin-west m tnrowinir overboard .
deck forlhe gmt struggles of the future
witn tnese monstor monopolu to re
vent them from establishing on thiss
continent a grand feudal system, with
out nobility, honor, ! intelligence or
cm vairy based upon corruption, a mere
iiiusiiruom oi money. v
KITTRELL1S SPRINGS, J4. C.
We learn from our Sold lrn
changes that these popular springs,' sit
uated on the R. and G. ItailnWl . i 1 ri r
ex-
ty-five niilen north of Raleigh, will le
oi)ened this season by Dr. G. W.
Blacknall. nnw nf ii i Vnriummnii
iinnao rn mh ....i
K'lV '.,'A m
Kr"u4" ,T.T vi."" UiU s ,ne
aain restore that is if efforts to pkff
w ucuuiuinouaie ana to make one feel
at home can cause the seeker of pleas
ure or. health to forget 'Ufie ills that
are" and enjoy those they khew 44not
oP' before realizing a eojourri at Kit
trelrs. The waters oihese sbringsiare
justly celebrated for their valmlhik
ineuicinai qualities in the cure of scrofr
Recently capitafists from ! th -X'rrh
nave purchased lands in the neighbor-
nooa at most reaniiihlft trm and
have since discovered gold ore of great
riliiiuu
v. . . .
uuu nave trone to work de-
veiopinsr the hidden tHiuiiW.j tMUi r-
, . - . e p-- " '
lands of the same nature and value can
be- purchased for. greenbacks. Go to ,
ffH'8 by a11 meanH, , Dr. Blacknall
will tell you all about the gold region,,
and send you, with his Perton any-J
where you may wish to go every one''
who has ever been to Kittrell's kfiows ,
Peyton, aud those who have never
been there will not be slow in making
W.totMe upon arrtoW-Ai
-."fT: . iU--. ir.'i.".- i .., t
: . f
The last word" is the most djiinrer-
ous of infernal machines. Husband arid
wife should no more strive to get it than
they would struggle to get possession of
a lighted bombshell, j
if.--
-
v.
    

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