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'"' , - y . " ' ' -, ." iWyWWW;; "A.;'..-. , , ' ; V'.,, J I v-'4 . ' . y' -
- ". " !. -:i , -' . On arc the plan of fair, delightfnl Peace! yt 4. . .. ;,.;.::.,, ; r;";:: . .' : u:;''' V -f r'
. - . ' j :- '" i " . ' tTnarp'a hypartTige to lWc Uke Brother :; . V ' - ' '' -1 - ' ' ' r' ' ' - - ' ni.Jg ' .N
vol- xrvi- .;. - ; friday, June 13, 1853. r . , . ; . : yr. ;,;-;jv;. 4,; j-
mct rf the Documents recently laid
' brfirt the Parliament x)f Great -Britain.
TKf Documents consist of two classes.
,1, firrt is marked Class A. Verona
and Paris." The second "Class B.
Paris and Madrid."
Vn'l. f tnr class, is a letter from
.'poie of Wellington to Mr. Secretary
f ,nninr,daied Paris, September21. 1822.
;nMhe result of a long discussion with
Alrrsfenr de Villele. on the relations be-
pn France and Spain. At that time
thePuljeof Wellington did not think the
Cordon Sanitnire larger than could fairly
cWmed necessary for the purpose of
' ohsrrvaticn of a country which was Jhe
fal of civil'war, ana inr mc pixtrcnon
cf the French frontiers from insult, by the
juwnt riarties on the borders. M. de
Vlele spoke of the Congress, and of the
sitnationf affairs in Spain. If the Con
ss were to separate, without coming
to a decision on those affairs, the existing
erns would be greatly aggravated, and
r cht force the to countries into a war.
He wished the Congress to take into con
sideration the actual position or the French
troveroment in relation to Spain, and in
ia of a war, declar the line of conduct
vhich the four powers, (England, Russia,
Austria, and Prussia,) would pursue. The
Pnke of Wellington refused to make any
declaration in behalf of his government,
. i . 1 r :
upon a hypotneucai case, anu wrues xor
inftmctions. . "
No. 2, is from Mr. Canning to the Duke
of Wellington, dated September 27V in
which he sr.y "If there be a determin
ed project to inerfere by force or by me
nace in the present struggle with Spain,
so convinced are hjs Majesty's govern
ment of the uselessness a' d danger of any
such interference so -objectionable does
it appear to them in princip e. as well as
uttrrly impracticable in execution, that
irhcn the necessity arises, or (I would ra
ther say) when the opportunity offers, I
am to instruct your Grace at once frank
ly and peremptorily to declare, that to
av such interference, come what may,
lis" Majesty will not be a party."
Xo S. The Duke of Wellington to Mr.
Secretary Canning, dated Verona, Octo
ber 22. This letter is merely an enclo
sore of the three following queries, ad
dressed by the French Plenipotentiary to j
the Pleninotentiaries of Austria, Prussia,
f Austria, Prussia,
Russia, and Great Britain. .countenance and' assistance she should
1. Incase France should find herself; require; the cause for such assistance,
under the necessity of recalling her mi- : and ,he period and mode of giving it, be
nister from Madrid, and of breaking, ffj ing reserved to be specified in a treaty.
s!l Hmlomavc relations with Spain, will 1 The minister of Great Britain answered.
the high Courts be di&pcsed to adopt the
... i' . - t"
like rr.esu;e. and to itcal tneir respec
tW e missi- ns ?
2. Should war break out between
Fnrre and. Spain, under what form and
by what acts wruld the High Powers af- .
ford to France that moral support, which
-would give to her measures the weight
and authority of the Alliance, and inspire j final notes to be presented by the several
a salutary dread into the revolutionists of Ministers at Madrid to tne Spanish gov
!1 countries '? : N ernment, it is now intended that despatch-
3. What, in short, is the intention of jj es shall be written to those ministers res
theHigh Powers as to the extent and the j pectively, in which the several courts will
form of the effective assistance fsecours ! ; express their wishes and intentions ; this
materiel J which they Vould be disposed j mode of proceeding is adopiev!, as afford
to trive to France, in case active interfe- j ing greater latitude for discussion and ex
Jtnce should, on her demand, become ne
No. 4. The Duke of Wellington to Mr.
Canning, Verona,- November .5 intorm
Jrtr Mr. C. that Prince Metternich had
"convened a council of the five cabinet mi
nisters, at which answers were made to
Ue above mentioned questions. This
note encloses the answer to those queries
by the Duke of Wellington. This an
swer is a paper of considerable length.
Put we can take cnlv the principal points.
The Duke commences by saying, that,
"since the month of April, 1820, the
British Government have availed them
selves on every opportunity of xecom
irer.ding; to his majesty's allies to abstain
from all interference in the internal af
fairs of Spain." They considered that , an
Interference, with a view to assist the
Anarch un the throne, to overturn that
Vich had been settled, and which he had
guarantied, or to promote the establish
ment of any other form of government or
constitution, particularly by force, would
cny place that monarch in a false posi
Jion, and prevent him from looking to'th
eternal means of amelioration which
'ght be within his reach." "Such ar
Interference alwavs appeared to the Bri
tish Government an unnecessary assumn'
lnn Pns'bnity, which, considering !
we circumstances, must expos thtj
cf Spam to danger, and the power
powers whic,h should interfere, to ob-
uv. certain t;.lrD r..,rF M : o .
rs; to enormous expenses and final dis-r
Ppomtment in . producing any result.'f
between Franco r,.i : .k t..!.. :
noa to the three questions, say
fe l 6 ril'sb Government cannot but
,7 V13'1 10 mae any declaratii n on any
,Jie three points referred to by his Ex-
whn!ge of all the circumstances vhich
occurred between i he two countries,
j ouia be not only premature and unjust.
"Scuirf ! P robftbl' be unavailing; and-
t:rn j i
tifact deprive his Majesty of the jj
power of disciissTpp; and decidinp; npon
tbe measures nf his own government in
his affair hereafter, when he should he
better informed. His Mnjei'v must ei
ther place himself in this painful poitin,
or he must do, what would be equally
pa'nful to his feelings, require from his
aurust allv, the Kins of France, that he
should submit his conduct to the advice
and cnntn-I of his Majesty. His Majes
ty's government cannot think either al
ternative to be necessary, but are of opi
nion th p. t a review nf the obvious drrum
stances of the situation of France, ns well
as Spain, will shew, that whatever may
be the tone assumed towards France' ' bv
the ruling powers in. Spain, they are not
in a state to carry into execution anv plan
of real hostility. Considering that a civil
war exists on the whole extent of the
frontier which separates the t wo king
doms; that the hostile armies a-e in
movement and in operation in everv part
of it ; and that there is not a tonn or vil
lage on the French frontier which is not
liaMe to insult and injury there is no
person who must' not approve of the pre
cautinn wh'ch his most Chrsrian Majes
ty has taken in forming a corps. of obser
vation for the protection of his frontier,
and for the preservation of the tranquilli
ty of his people. His Britannic Majesty
sincerely wisb s that this measure mar
be effectual in attaining the objects for
which it is calculated ;-and that the wis
dom of the French government will have
reduced them to explain it at Madrid, in
such terms as will satisfy the government j
ot his .Catholic Maiestv-ot its necessity.
I Such an explanation will, it is ho; ed. tend
j to allav, in some degree, the irritation a
! gainst France; and on the other hand, it
may be hoped, that some allowance wfll
i be made in France for the state of effer
vescence of men's minds i:i Spain, in th
very crisis of a revolution and civil war."
The remainder of tins note is intended to
show, that, under the existing circum
stances, Spain could not, in the nature of
things, meditate any hostile measures to
No. 5 The Duke of Wellington to
Mr. Secretary Canning, dated Verona, '
rx ov. 12, enclosing a memorandum of!
what-had Seen passing there since the
date of the last dispatch. To the three
questions proposed by France, the three
continental 'illis answered on the 30th of
October, that they would act as France
should, in respect to their Ministers in
Spain, and would give to France every
; that having no knowledge of the cause of
dispute, and not being able to form a juiki
ntent upon an hypothetical case, he o-uld
give no answer to any of the questions.
The mode of communica'ing with Spain
was considered on the 31st, with a view
to prevent a rupture becween France and
Spain. It was agreed, that instead ot ot-
pianaiion man uiat oy omciai notes.
No. 6. The Duke of Wellington to
Mr. Canning; Verona, Nov. 22. This
note encloses the answer nf the Duke of!
Wellington to the three questions several j
times before mentioned, rrom this pa
per we make the following extracts.
Theministers of the Allied Courts
have thought proper to make known to
Spain the sentiments of t;ieir respective
Sovereigns, : by despatches addressed to
the ministers of the several Courts resid
ing at Madrid, instead of by official notes
as a mode of communication less for
mal, and affording greater facility of dis
The despatches, it appears, are to be
communicated in cjetenso to the Spanish
The crigin, circumstances, and conse-
quencesot the Spanish reVolu'ion the ex
isting state of affairs in Spain and the
conduct of those who have been at the
head of the Spanish government, may have
endangered the safety of other countries,
and may have excited the uneasiness of
the governments, whose ministers I 'am
now addressing ; and those governments
may think it necessary to address the
Spanish government upon the topics refer
ee! to in these despatches, -
Thjese sentiments and opinions have
certainiy been entertained by the three
! Cabinets of Austia, Prussia, and Russia,
! for a considerable portion of time; and
theBritish government duly appreciates
Ithe forbearance and deference for the
opinions of other Cabinets, which have
dictated the delay to the present moment.
But having been delayed till now I would
reque t those ministers to consider
whether this is (he moment at which-such
reqionstrances ought to be made : wheth
er they are calculated to allay the irrita
tion against France, and to prevent a pos
sible rupture ; and whether thev mieht
not Vith adv antage be delayed to a later
They a're certainly calculated to irri-
tate the government of Spain ; to afford
ground for a belief tljat advantages had
been taken of the irritation existing be
tween that government and France, to
call down upon Spain the power of the
alliance ? tmd thus to embarrass still more
the difficult position of the French Go
vernment. . ti
But his Majesty's government are of
opinion, that to animadvert upon the in
ternal transactions of an independent
tnte, unless such transactions affect the
essential interests of his majesty's subjects,
is inconsistent with those principles on
hich his Majesty has invariably acted orii
questions relating to he internal concerns
of other countries ; that such animadvei
sions, if made, must involve his Majesty
in serious responsibility if they should pro
duce any effect; and must irritate if they
should not : and if addressed, as propos
ed, to the Spanish government are likely,
to be injurious to the best interests of
Spriin, and to produce the worst conse
quences upon the probable discussions be
tween that country and France.
The Kind's Government must, there
fore decline to advise, his Majesty to hold
a common, language with his Allies, upon
this occasion ; & it is so necessary for his
i Majesty not to be supposed to participate
j in a measdre of this description, and cal
j culated to produce, such consequences,
, that his government must equally refrain
, from advising his. Majestv to direct that
; anv communication should be made to the
. Spanish gove nment on the subject of its
relations with France. f
His Miestv, therefore, must limit his
exertions and good offices to the endeav
ors of his Minister at Madrid to allay the
ferment which these communications'
must occasion, and to do all the good in his
No.T. Mr. Canning to the Duke of
Wellington. In this note, Mr- C. says
44 M. de Viiele has taken several oppor
tunities of expressing to Sir 'Charles. S u
art his own tamest desire for the preser
vation of peace ; and his wish to receive,
not only the support but the advice of the
British government, in his endeavors Jto
preserve it.' Mr. C. urges the Duke of
Wellington to have an inrerview with M.
Villele, on his return from Verona and
tender the mediation of the British King,
between the French and Spanish govern
ments. The following note is also enclos- ;
ed, and-is 'such a feeling appeal t? the
British government on the part of Spain,
that we cannot forbear taking it, entire.
Extract of. a Despatch addressed by M.'
San Miguel, Minister or Foreign Af
fairs ar Madrid, to M, de Colomb, dated
. Nov. 15, 1822. ,
The Government of his Majesty has re
ceived with gratitude, without surprize,
the verbp.l communication, purporting
j that the Cabinet of his Britannic Majesty,
; respecting the independence and poli
l tical institutions adopted by the (Spanish)
J nation, is determined not to interfere in
our domestic affairs.
Nothing else could be expected from
the Government of a nation which, like
the British, knows its rights and the. pri
mordial principles of public law ; and it
is only to be wondered at, that it should
not think it expedient to give to a declar
ation of such obvious justice the solemnity
which it deserves.
The ties of intimate regard, the princi
ples of mutual convenience, and the an;.
logy of the respective institutions which
exist in Spain and in England do they
not positively entitle the former, over
whelmed with difficulties, to expect from j
the latter, whose political influence is f
the greatest weight, something more than
simple & abstract justice-something more
than a passive respect for universal laws,
than a cold and insensible neutrality ?-
And if some tender interest, such asbefi's
two nations in similar circumstances, ex4
ists in the Court of London, how is it that
it docs not manifest itself in visible acts-of
friendly interposition, to save its ally from
evils, in which humanity, wisdom, and
and even cautious and provident State po
licy will sympathise? Or how is it that
(if these benevolent acts exist) they are
not communicated to the Cabinet'pf his
The acts to which I allude would, in no
.wise, compromise the, most strictly con
ceived system of neutrality. Good offices,
counsel, the reflections of one friend in ta
vor of another, do not place a nation in
concert of attack or defence with another
--do not expose it to the enmity of the op
posite party, even if they do not deserve
its gratitude ; they are not in a word, ef
fective aid, troops, arms, subsidies, which
augment fhe force of one or the contend
ing parties. x It Is df reascn only that we
arei speaking; 8c; it is with the pen of con
ciliation that a Power, situated like Great
Britain, might support Spain, without ex
posing herself to take part in a war, which
she may, perhaps orevent with general u
t'Nty. ; : ; j '.
England might act in this manner ; be
ing able, ought she so to act ?. And if she
ought, has she acted soMn the wise, just,
and generous views of the government of
St. James, 4io oi her answer can eptist than
the affirmative.-Why then dtek she not
notify to Spain, what hs been djoue, and
what it is proposed to do'in that mediato
ry sense en aqiiel sentido niediadpr ? Are
there weight) inconveniences which en
join dtscretiju, which, shew the necessity
of secrecy ? They do not appear to an or
dinary penetration, , r ;
Nevertheless, in such uncertainty of
what she has to thartk the British Minis
try for, the government of His Catholic
Majesty think itself bound to, manifest, iri
the face of the world, in order that it may
regard it as its profession of faith, that
whilst it respects the rights of others, it
will never admit the least intervention in
its internal concerns, nor execute an act,
which may compromise, in the least, the
free excercise of national sovereignty. '
When once you shall have communicat
ed these frank declarations ' to the Right
Hon. George Canning, his excellency cau
not'do less than find them worthy of his
flattering concurrence, . as well in sub
stance as inform, and must correspond
cordially with the spirit which has dictated
them; 6c it will be sufficient that yoii should
terminate, your-'discourse, by reminding
his excellency that Spain has been almost
always, in her political relations, the vicr
tim of her probity and good faith, that her
friendship has been, and is, useful to other
nations,and sincere under every trial, that
the government of his Majesty is desirous
to preserve the friendly (ties which exist
between-Spain and England ; but without
the diminution, without the degradation of
iis dignity ; and that if it has to struggle
with the embarrassments that result from
its immense progressive losses, the Spa
nish people always possess sublimity of
sentiment to conduct itsdf with honor
strength of character to support its cala
mities, and constancy of resolution to
maintain itself, in spite of the vast sacri
crifices, in the post which belongs to her
No. 8. IV Duke of Wellington to Mr.
Canning, dated Paris,; Dec. 9 announc
ing the Duke's arrival in that city. The
Duke says : ' I have since had an inter
view with with M. de Villele ; and I have
the pleasure to inform you, that he has
sent a messenger to Verona, ; with orders
to the rrench Ministers at that plce to
express the desire of the French govern
ment, that the transmission ; of toe des"
patches to Madrid should be suspended'
No. 9. A despatch from Mr. Canning to
the Duke of YVellington, acknowledging
the. receipt of the above," and directing
him, in -consequence, to suspend the me
diatorial offer, until further advices Should
be received from Verona. Mr. Canning,,
however, says, ' that it is highly mate
rial, for the clear and perfect discharge
of the,.duty of the British 'government,: Jn
a question so deeply affecting the inter
ests not only of the powers immediately
concerned, but-of the world, that your
Grace should not leave Paris without
having placed in the hands' of the, French
government the eventual offer of his Ma
jesty's mediation " ,
No. 10. The Duke of Wellington to
Mr. Canning, dated December 17, trans
mitting a copy of the note of the former
fo M. de Montmorencv,. which concluded
as follows :. It is the sincere hope of his
Majesty, that this salutary reconsidera
tion may prevent recourse to arms. But,
as the issue of the reference at Verona
may still be" doubtful, the undersigned is
instructed to declare that, if the answer
to that reference should not be such as
to preclude all danger of hostilities, his
Majesty will be ready-to accept the office
of mediator between the French and Spa
nish governments; and to employ his
most strenuous endeavors for the adjust
ment of their differences, and for the pre
servation of the peace of the world."
No. 11.' Reply to the foregoing; by M.
de Montmorency, dated Dec. 26, declining
the proffered mediation.. We make the
following extract : '
" His Majesty has appreciated the sen
timents which have induced .the King of
England to offer his. mediation to his Ma
jesty,' in order- to prevent a rupture' be
tween him and the Spanish government
But his Majesty could not butftel that
the situation of France with regard .to
Spain was not of a nature to call for a
mediation between the two .Courts. In
fact, there exists no difference between
them, no specific point of discussion by
the arrangement of which their, relations
mifht be placed on the footing on which
they ought to stand. Spain, by the na
ture of her revolution, and by the circum
stances with w.'.ich it has been attended,
has excited the appreltension of several
great powers. England participated in
these apprehensions : tor even m the year !
1820 she foresaw cases, in which it Would I
be. impossible to preserve. with Spain re- ;
lation ot peace and good understanding.
France-is more interested than any
other powev m the'events which uray re
ul from the actual situation of that mo
narchy. But it is not her own interests
alone which are compromised, & which
she must keep in view in jthe present cir
cumstanfces : -the repose ot Europe, and
the maintenance ofr those ' priiicipWsby
which it is guaranteed, are involved, j
The Duke of Wellington knows that
these are the seiutments whicn dictated
the conduct of France at Verona ; and
that the. Courts hich agreed at them re
garded the consequences of the fevoiU:
tiou,' and of the actual state of bpaiii, a
being common to them alt ; that they ne
ver entertained iheideahat it Wjiai oe
tien France and Spaid tuat the exisuinr
difhnulties needed 10 be arraheed t inn
they cousidereu the question to be w hoi-1
- - : ' ; .
' ly European ;" and that it is in conse- , ; .
quence or rnis.opimpn, mai mc measure), r
'which had tor their . object iht, b'ringin. ; '&:py
about, if possible, art amelioration in the - '
state of a country so higly. interesting to ' r
Europe measures, the success of which: v .
would have ; been com pletely secured. If
England had thought she could concur in '
them, 7, vS'"';.
j" ttis Most Christian IVtajesty, wjio w'a 7,. -bound
to weigh! V.thcse considerations na- ;.jV- 1
turely, has therefore thb't that he; coulft ;
hot accept the mediation .that his'Britan- , ' f
nic Majesty has been pleased to proposed j
to him." 'L .:.'!r-:-7'iv- ' .-f "'-'-''' ' ' 'i"
...:No. 12; MrV Secretary Canning to the , .r :;
Vicompte de Marcelhte, . the French , O S .
Charge d Affaires in London j in reply to
the before mentioned note jfrpm M. de,
Montmorency. . Although " the French
King had declined the mediation of Ene
land, yet Mr. Canning' says,; the King
of England will not the j less anxiously 1.
emnioy, in every way tnat m ret open 10 . .. l
him, those "conciliatory dispositions 'for :
which his most Christian !Maiestv civca: V
-....6 ,-r -J: ;M- :
less menacing to tne peace ot urore; .
than that which is exhibited! inthe pfe-J 7
sent nosition -nf those two nVerriTienta , 'v.':
towamls each i other.' .j The British Calif- - V "
net (the becretary continues.) had not w;
learn how fearfully the tranquility of all
iiurope must be affected : by, th- hostile
rollitian nF Pranrp ami 54naih' Arrnrrl.
ingly, in the Duke of WelliiktonV Offi-T
Ciai iNote, tne " adjustment 1 ot ttie yup-
posed "differences between 'the French
and the Spanish' Governments' was statn'
ed as auxiliary to ' the preservation of , '
the peace of the world." j But. the British
Cabinet certainly ; did not unt
erstahd the '
Questions brouehi forward ar
toe fieiiiuoienriarv or nis lvidsr i-nrnnian
Majesty, with respect to the actual situ'
tion.and possible conddct of $paih. to be
questions in which the concern of Frances
was su tunc UI5LIIIU13.mUlC . IlOUl lllitl UI
other Powers, as the Duke.de Mont'mo-
renev's Note renresents it." i The three
questions are here quoted by Mr. C.whoJ
in commenting, prfeceedS tot show that
the'' case stated is purely hypothetical;
and that the -question Of pejace or war
with Spain, was a Question- Deculiarlr
French. VVe find it necessarfr trt nuotel
pretty largely front this letter, riot onjy
to preserve the chain of argument,, but td
sh w the apprehensions: of tjie Britisli
Cabinet, as to thereon sequences involved
in this unhappy and illyudged war.
! objection was stated by the Duke
of Wellington,, on the part of the! King
his master,'' to the precauti)nary: mea
sures of France, within their o n frontier
measures whicn the, right of self-defence
plainly authorized.' But it appeared 4C?
his Majesty's Plenipotentiary at Veron,
to be necessary and jdst; 1th aft,. before he
was called upon to promise eventually
the suDOort of niseovei nrienflto meamiiW
Ion the pgirt of France which were likely
to lead to war .with Spaing opportunity
should have beeri. allowed to his govern
ment to exam ine the grou nds of those
measures ,: thjat the cause of jjffence given
by Spain to France should have been spe
cifically defined' i , :' - ,
u It was. therefore, impossible for. his .
Majesty's Plenipotentiaryr to concur in!
tfie decisions of Verona.' j f r ! ,
! It remains to advert ta that part of the
French official Note, whichf appears, to
insinuate a reproac.; against Jthis country,
as if she , had abandoned at yeronai opi
nions which she had formerly declared
witn respeci to tne anairs ot bpain.
England," it is said, i
1820, of the inquietude which the revolu-
tion in Spain occasioned to'
powers ; she foresa'vv Cases
in which it
micht be impossible to nreserve. witt
Spain the relations . of good ! intelligence.
The writer must be permitted to say,'
that, though, questions were indeed pro
pounded to Edgland in the year 1821, a
to possible future contingencies in the aU i
fairsof Spain; so far from ? foreseeing I
cases' and deciding upon the conduct
which -l would be applicable to them, id
the manner here described, the British
government positively declined to' bind
itself, by a ccmtiiigeniopiaionJto" any con-.
ditional course of action, j i V
But there' was no indisnoVjfthn
tiori to avow the principles upon which the
opinion i cngiar.a woulu be .1
her course of action regulated.
i I ; . '
It was not
disclaimed any general right of
in the internal concerns of independ
ent nations i but it was speciftcaljy stated
that there was perhaps noVountry of equal
magnitude with Spain,' whose linternal dis
turbances would be so little likel to itferAce
other Slates with that direct and imminent
danger, which couid alone,1 in exception ta
the genejal rule, justify foreign intenerence.
The application of these'pnntiples'to thii
cases brought forward by F ranifce at Verona
was as direct, es it waa consistent with thtf
former protessions of the Britisji Cabinet.
That application was further '''enforced by o'
ther consklcratwns,1 wnich, ! though vtiiey had
not pechap9" been dist'.ftcUy aQiicipated in
prospective aiid hypothetical arijumenti bori
nevertheless, with tfnderiabiej force iiponj
the question to be decided at Verona. ' ;
Dangers not necessarily arising iroal thflC
existence of the" interiai .agiuubns of "-'
miht, nevertheless, be created by a.
caiied-tor and " iiijudiciou tep6:v
theaK ; Xhft'sirttfT : -4' y T