It will be partly cloudy and
humid today and Saturday.
Highs should be in the low
80s and lows should be
around 60 both days.
Campus food may be bad
but please don't eat the
daisies. They may be
poisonous. Please turn to p.
3 for details.
Serving the students and the University community since 1893
Friday, April 22, 1977, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Volume No. 84, Issue No. 137
Please call us: 933-0245
for education majors
By BERNIE RANSBOTTOM
A mandate recently passed by the N.C.
Board of Education requiring all prospective
secondary education teachers to have
training in reading instruction is presenting
scheduling difficulties for many UNC
"The problem of scheduling is a realistic
one becausae it (the new requirement) has
just become known," said William Self,
acting dean of the School of Education.
To meet the requirement of the mandate,
the school will offer four sections of
Education 53, a new course entitled
"Secondary Reading," said William S.
Palmer, associate professor in the School of
Education and supervisor of the new course.
u We've got to find some way to make a
transition from when this was not required
to when it is and make every possible
provision for those who get caught in the
process of transition," Self said.
Any student graduating after the end of
the fall 1 977 semester will not receive teacher
certification without meeting this
Education majors usually student teach
and do not take any courses their last
semester. Therefore, anyone who will be a
second-semester senior and will teach next
fall, or who is a rising junior with a full
schedule of required courses next fall and
student-teaching slated for the spring, will
have a difficult time working the new class
into his schedule.
"We expect juniors and seniors both to
take it as soon as possible," Palmer said.
"Very few secondary students have inquired
at thij point as to what they can do."
Teachers who already have received their
certification eventually will have to return to
school to fulfill this requirement, Palmer
He said secondary-education students
need to know the rationale behind requiring
such a course. "Inasmuch as most learning in
junior and senior high schools is through the
use of textbooks, reading is the common
denominator of secondary school learning.
"A course in teaching reading in the
secondary schools would aspire to assist
preservice secondary teachers to work more
effectively with secondary students whose
reading abilities range over a wide spectrum.
"At the present time, most teachers in
secondary schools are not capable of
teaching the abstract reading skills necessary
for students to utilize their texts effectively."
If they will be second-semester seniors
next fall, they can graduate without fulfilling
the requirement, as it does not take effect
until January 1978, and take the course later
in night school or in summer sessions
beginning in 1978.
If the students are rising seniors, they can
consider taking an overload next fall. "If
they can fit it in as an overload, they would
be wise," Palmer said.
The final option would depend on the
amount of student interest expressed. If a
minimum of 20 to 25 students indicate that
they would like to take the course this
summer, Palmer said, a section of Education
53 could be arranged, although one is not
scheduled now. Interested students should
contact Palmer in the next few days at 933-2273.
C -: X s v-'-T-'.y..-:
Gas tax too little,
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The Chapel Hill Transportation Board recommended to the Board of Aldermen that
daytime parking be banned on residential streets with a one-mile radius of central
By JACI HUGHES
President Carter's new national energy
policy met with mixed reactions from several
UNC professors Thursday.
Professors in the fields of geology, physics
and political science agreed that the policy is
a step in the right direction, but several said
the proposed gasoline tax would not be
sufficient to curb gasoline consumption.
44 1 thought he identified the problem quite
accurately," Prof. Joseph Straley of the
physics and astronomy department said.
"However, the proposed solution is less than
"The gas tax is too low," said David Orr,
an assistant political science professor. "It
should be at a much stiffer level and at a
faster pace if you want to see people cut back
on their energy use."
The plan calls for the present 4-cent-per-gallon
federal tax to go to a nickel in January
1979 if gasoline use increases by 1 per cent or
more over a set target in 1978. Another
nickel would be added in 1979 if prices
continue to rise more than 1 per cent, and a
nickel would be added each year that
consumption did not fall through 1987.
Prof. Richard Richardson, chairperson of
the political science department, said the
gasoline tax would be a major stumbling
block for the proposal in Congress. "It's
going to have some severe problems," he
said. "It won't come in its present form,
particularly the tax on gasoline."
Richardson said he foresees other
problems for the proposal. "If labor is able to
combine with the automobile manufacturing
industry, then it is also possible that the big
car stipulations will be cut. The plan would
be gutted if those two proposals are cut
The President's plan calls for taxes on new
cars that get less than 13 miles per gallon and
rebates on cars that get 39 miles per gallon or
better. Taxes on the gass-guzzling large cars
could go to $2,488 by 1985.
Prof. John Dennison of the geology
department said he was concerned because
Carter didn't indicate what sorts of
technological developments he would press.
I think we need to ascertain the extent of
our off-shore petroleum reserves," he said.
"We should work toward a technology for
See Energy, page 4.
Ervin visit picketed by ERA supporters
By MERTON VANCE
Approximately 40 supporters of the Equal
Rights Amendment (ERA) marched outside
Gerrard Hall Thursday night to protest the
visit of former Sen. Sam J. Ervin Jr. who
opposes the ERA.
Ervin and Albert Coates, professor
emeritus of the UNC School of Law, sat on
the stage inside the building swapping stories
of their friendship and the University, from
which Ervin graduated in 1917 and Coates
graduated in 1918.
They also talked about their different
stands on ERA. Coates, unlike Ervin,
Coates introduced Ervin to the crowd of
about 200 members and guests of the
Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary
Societies gathered for the unveiling of a bust
of Ervin. He said that he and Ervin had
"intellectual arguments over the ERA." But
he said that friends can still argue and still be
friends if it is an intejlectualargument.
As Coates spoke, the protesters-marched
f 0 "
peaceably outside the building, chanting
"civil rights for all."
They were members of the Association for
Women Students (AWS), the Carolina Gay
Association and the Women's International
League for Peace and Freedom. They were
protesting Ervin's stand on ERA and civil
One woman wore an orange T-shirt that
read, "Sam Ervin you let us down." People in
the group marched around in a circle outside
the building, displaying placards: "Wishing
Sam were Silent Sam," "First in freedom if
White, Straight and Male," "In Watergate
our hero, in ERA our zero."
Inside, the man who presided over the
Senate Watergate hearings in the waning
days of his Senate career told stories about
his days at the University and what he thinks
it stands for.
"I think that the University of North
Carolina has stood, ever since Hinton James
registered here in 1795, for two things,"
Ervin said. "It has stood for what's
epitomized in its motto: Lux et Libertas,
light and liberty. I've known many grand
hours for this University throughout its
See Ervin page 4.
Say psych findings
"Sen. Sam" Ervin visited the campus
Thursday night as the Dialectic and
Philanthropic Literary Societies unveiled
a bust in his honor. Staff photo by Joseph
of plans for lot
By BEVERLY MILLS
Even though Student Government (SG)
doesn't like Chapel Hill's plan to prohibit
parking on residential streets around the
UNC campus, it will not formally oppose the
proposal, according to Paul Arne, Student
Government transportation director.
The parking-removal plan was presented
to the Chapel Hill Transportation Board
Tuesday night and to the Planning Board
Thursday night. The two boards established
a joint subcommittee to study the plan
thoroughly. The boards expect a report from
the subcommittee by June 2.
"Student Government feels the
University's responsibility is to provide
parking and transportation for students and
faculty," Arne said. "Therefore we can't get
too morally upset about the town deciding to
take parking off residential streets which is
creating excess burden to residents.
"The only question is whether it is fair to
provide parking on public streets for one
citizen while denying another citizen the
same right. We don't like it, but we can't do
anything," Arne said.
John Temple, assistant vice chancellor of
business and finance, and Gordon
Rutherford, director of UNC's planning
office, met with Chapel Hill planners Mike
Jennings and Liz Rooks in February to
discuss the proposed parking restrictions.
"This plan is in very preliminary stages,"
Temple said. "Chapel Hill has not said
anything definite yet, and until they do we
will not make any definite decisions."
Temple said one possible solution to the
resulting parking overflow is the
construction of a parking lot at the
intersection of Manning Drive and 15-501
Bypass. Cars would be stored at the lot
during the day and parkers could use a
shuttle service to reach campus.
"We would hope a good percentage of
people would ride the bus, but some would
be commuter students needing spaces near
campus," Arne said.
Claiborne Jones, vice chancellor of
business and finance, said the University has
no plans to build an additional parking lot
within the next year. "We don't own any land
for a lot and have no prospects for acquiring
any," he said.
"I have not been contacted at all about
building a parking lot, and I would be the
one to see," Jones said.
Some questions have arisen concerning
the legality of Chapel Hill's plan to issue
parking permits to residents on streets where
parking otherwise would be prohibited.
Chapel Hill attorney David Drake said
legislation would enable the town to issue-permits.
Study budgeting beneficial
Students from various campus groups marched outside Gerrard Hall Thursday night
protesting the visit of former Sen. Sam Ervin, who opposes the Equal Rights
Amendment. Staff photo by Joseph Thomas.
Survey: Approximately a quarter
of UNC students have cheated
By MERTON VANCE
UNC students who cheat on tests usually act on impulse
because there is an easy opportunity to cheat. That conclusion
is drawn from a recent survey on cheating and the Honor
Approximately 22 per cent of the students surveyed said
they have cheated at least once at UNC, and 58.7 per cent of
those who cheated said they did so because it was easy to see
someone else's paper.
Only 6.5 per cent of the persons who cheated planned to
cheat by making previous arrangements with other students
or by preparing a "cheat sheet. This led analysts of the survey
to conclude that most cheating is not premeditated.
The survey was conducted by a sociology class taught by
John Reed, associate sociology professor. The results will be
used by the Committee on Student Conduct in its research on
the effectiveness of the Honor Code at UNC.
Reed said the survey tends to indicate that students usually
cheat because it is easy to do.
The opportunity presents itself and somebody seizes it,' he
Students gave other reasons for cheating besides
convenience. Of the students who said they had cheated, 45.5
per cent said they were unprepared for the test or assignment,
40.7 per cent said they cheated because they saw other persons
cheating, 17.6 per cent said they cheated because the
instructor had left the room and 30.6 per cent said they
cheated because of low grades in the course.
Only 15.6 per cent of the students cheated because they were
busy with extracurricular activities or a job which interfered
The survey also indicates that a large number of cheaters
decide to cheat because they are in a bigclass, since 44.4 per
cent of those who cheated said the class they cheated in had
more than 50 students in it.
Among the students who cheated, 83.3 per cent were
worried that someone would turn them in, and 81.5 per cent
said they felt bad after they cheated.
Of the students surveyed, 63 per cent said they had seen
other persons cheating on tests but had not reported it.
When they saw other persons cheating, 50.9 per cent of
those surveyed said they were annoyed, while 20.6 per cent
said they did not care.
Reed said the survey results suggest that the amount of
cheating might be reduced if instructors made it more diff icult
to cheat. Reed says this could be done by some relatively
minor changes in the way tests are administered, such as
making sure instructors are in the room, giving tests in smaller
rooms with smaller groups of students and arranging seating
to make it more difficult for students to see other students'
In the survey, 65 per cent of the students said they first
cheated as freshmen, 23.5 per cent cheated for the first time
when they were sophomores, 7.8 per cent first cheated as
juniors and only 3.5 per cent cheated for the first time as
While 22 per cent of the students surveyed cheated once,
only 9 per cent have cheated three times or more.
By STEVE HUETTEL
Scheduling study time and organizing
course material are important factors in a
student's ability to learn, according to
several psychology teachers.
The student who budgets a certain amount
of time for studying each night apparently
learns better than one with no schedule, said
Judith Flaxman, an assistant psychology
professor who is conducting a study on
learning strategies. Students participating in
the experiment make a schedule of the
amount of time they will spend studying each
night and give themselves rewards or
punishments depending upon their
compliance with the schedule. '
"The schedules are helping a lot," she said.
"The students are budgeting their time better
and feel better about their work."
It also is important for the student to find
a place to study and do all work at that place,
She gave a technique which can improve
recall of reading material. The conclusion of
the material should be read first, followed by
the unit headings. Next, the detail of the
work should be read, and then the student
should rehearse what he feels to be
This method gives the student the
organization of the material in advance so
that he can grasp its structure while reading
Peter Ornstein, associate psychology
professor, has done studies on the
relationship between organization and
memory with simple word lists which, he
said, could apply to more complex learning
"The field suggests that learning and
memory are related to the ability to give
structure and organization to what one is
trying to remember," he said.
Ornstein pointed to a study in which
subjects were better able to remember lists of
words which could be classified together
than lists of unrelated words, regardless of
whether the subjects expected to be tested on
The implication of the study is that those
who can structure material well will recall it
better, although such factors as motivation
and reading speed also influence academic
success, he said.
Class not.es can be a student's most useful
study tool because they represent the
student's organization of lecture material,
said Barbara Stone, a graduate student. in
The structure should be apparent if the
lecture was well organized, but the student
can recall his notes just as well if he applies
his own structure to them, she said. By
grouping the facts under some kind of
classification, the student can recall them by
remembering the classification, Stone said.
Notes are particularly useful because,
unlike texts, they exclude what the student
considers irrelevant material, she said. The
ideal way to study is to take good notes,
study them and conduct a mental review of
the material. Stone said.
Experiments by some UNC psychologists indicate that careful organization of material
may be the best study aid. Staff photo by Allen Jernigan.