Up in the 80s
Partly cloudy today with
highs in the upper 80s. Lows
tonight in the upper 60s with
a 30 percent chance of
Copyright The Daily Tar Heel 1983. All rights reserved
Damn we're good
UNC ranked No. 5 by the
Associated Press. See page
7 for the rest of the AP Poll.
Serving the students and the University community since 1893
Volume 91, Issue 57
Tuesday, September 20, 1983 Chapel Hill, North Carolina
of life, living
By LINDA QUEEN
Riding alone on a slow cloud,
I am she,
Who writes the poems.
A noted writer, journalist, recording
artist and mother, Nikki Giovanni shared
her poetry and experiences with about 500
people Monday night in Memorial Hall.
Giovanni spoke on a number of various
topics ranging from poetry to motherhood
to the death of John Lennon. She stressed
that we should "allow other things to live,
and let us live." She said, "Why is it that
we wait until disaster until we know each
other? Life is difficult we don't need to
invent a problem. We ought to recognize
that all people are different and go on
about our business."
She expressed her joy of being a poet,
and she read several of her poems to the
crowd. She first paid tribute to a fellow
writer, Lorraine Harsbury, saying that
"writers live in that fine line between in
sanity and genius."
She wished for happiness in old age in
"The Life I Led," saying "I hope I die
warmby the life that I try to live."
Hitting more somber tones as she re
cited a poem for John Lennon, she said
she was saddened by the "true injustice"
of Lennon's death. At one point in the
poem, she said, "It's not the gun but the
manlet's ban the man."
Giovanni's comments on the other
aspects of her life were as entertaining as
her poetry, and the audience laughed with
her as she shared her thoughts on relation
ships with them. For instance, a few notes
on mothering went like this: "Women are
more than their wombs," but having
not always right
By SHARON SHERIDAN
When the Safe Roads Act goes into effect Oct.
1, drivers can be charged with driving while im
paired if it is proven that their physical or mental
faculties are impaired by alcohol, drugs or both.
The charge also can be made if the alcohol con
centration in their blood is 0.10 or more at any
relevant time after driving.
These tougher drinking and driving laws re
quire more reliance on the Breathalyzer test,
which is used to determine alcohol concentration.
Chapel Hill attorney Lunsford Long attended
the First National Seminar on Defending the
Drunk Driver in Washington in June. The ac
curacy of the Breathalyzer was discussed at the
"It's not 100 percent accurate," Long said. In
the case of State vs. Boehmer, evidence was of
fered that there is a 0.0165 percent margin of er
ror in test results. For example, if the defendant's
test result showed 0.11 alcohol concentration, he
might actually have had an alcohol concentration
of less than 0.10, Long said.
Factors that might affect Breathalyzer test
results include radio frequency interference,
human physiological variations and contamina
tion of the test ampule.
In September 1982, Smith and Wesson, the
company which manufactures the Breathalyzer,
issued a customer advisory concerning the
possibility of errors in Breathalyzer readings
because of radio waves.
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Nikkie Giovanni, a noted poetjournalist and recording artist, spoke to a crpwd of about 500 Monday night in
Memorial Hall. She spoke of many varied personal experiences.
babies is "something to do to keep you off
the streets." Describing her activity in
politics, she merely said, "I voted."
On technology and progress in the
world, she said, "We don't see each other.
How are we going to see life someplace
The thing to keep in mind, Giovanni
said, is to "...think about... the emo
tional things . . . about reaching out to peo
ple." As long as there is computerized com
munication, people are obliged to talk to
each other and to express their thoughts to
each other, Giovanni said.
Male and female relationships were a
key issue, because of the daily stereotypes
on television, which Giovanni described as
"one of the most vicious things that hap
pened to a woman."
Describing the absurdity of a commer
cial, she said that in malefemale relation
ships on commercials, women are still in
ferior to men. "The lady says, 'My hands
are itchy, if John finds out. . . .' If John
loves you so much, why doesn't he buy
you a dishwasher?" Giovanni asked.
Giovanni said, "I hope I get to see the
moon just to see how fragile we are. I
hope to be able to go to the moon and
look down on Earth."
The Ohio native, who resides in Cincin
nati with her son, has a degree in history
and numerous other honorary degrees, as
well as a Mademoiselle magazine award
for outstanding literary achievement.
But to get a glimpse of Giovanni and to
hear her poetic words is to begin to under
stand a person capable of receiving such
praise. She seemed to describe herself well
in one of her poems: "I am so etheralno
one can comprehend me except by my per
mission." The lecture was sponsored by the
Forum Committee of the Carolina Union.
By MARK STINNEFORD
The N.C. Board of Education has with
held full accreditation of three programs at
the "UNC School of Education, citing defi
ciencies in standards for faculty and cur
riculum. The board granted provisional one-year
accreditation to the program rather than a
full five-year accreditation.
The School of Education should have
no problem regaining full accreditation for
the programs, said William I. Burke,
director of teacher education.
The provisional accreditation will not
affect students currently enrolled, Burke
said. Students will not be forced to retake
courses because of proposed changes in
the program, he said.
Robert D. Boyd, assistant state super
intendent of education for personnel ser
vices, said he expected UNC to make the
necessary changes in the programs.
Boyd said he would rate the penalty
against the School of Education as mild,
considering that 30 of its 33 programs re
ceived full accreditation. The maximum
penalty the board can impose is complete
denial of approval for a program, he said.
The board will decide in September 1984
whether to grant full accreditation to the
programs, deny accreditation or extend the
The board granted the provisional ac
creditation to the intermediate education
program for graduates and under
graduates, the foreign languages education
program for graduates and under
graduates, and the curriculum-instructional
Burke said he was not surprised by the
decision. The school had been working to
correct problems in the three programs be
fore an evaluation committee visited in
April, he said.
"We were in the process of making some
of the modifications," he said. ,rI suspect
if the truth be known about programs,
there are ones where you have weaknesses
and you work on the weaknesses."
The intermediate education program
will have to be changed to reflect new state
certification standards that went into ef
fect in July, he said. The certification for
intermediate instruction, which previously
covered instruction in the fourth through
ninth grades, has been restricted to grades
four through six. Teachers of grades six
through nine used to receive certification
as intermediate teachers but now receive
certification as middle-grade teachers, he
Because instructors in junior high
school usually teach only one subject, the
board recommended more specialized fa
culty in courses for UNC students intend
ing to teach at that level, Burke said.
In the foreign languages education pro
gram, the board called for more per
manence and continuity in the faculty,
Burke said. While the school had to hire
two temporary faculty members last
spring, it is now working to arrange joint
appointments of professors to language
departments and the School of Education.
The board found that the curriculum
instructional specialists program over
emphasized school administration, Burke
The program, attended by certified
teachers with master's degrees or above, is
designed for educators planning and eval
uating courses and programs. At the time
of the evaluation committee's visit, the
School of Education was in the process of
shifting the program from the administra
tive division to the curriculum division, he
Despite the problems in the three pro
grams, the School of Education is on a
sound footing, Burke said.
"From the headlines, you'd think there
was a problem with faculty across the
board; (but) at 90 percent of our certifica
tion levels, there was no problem," he
DRINKS (TWO-HOUR PERIOD)
Weight V ozs. 86 Liquor or 12 ozs. Beer
100 tw2? 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
120 Cl.? ; 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
140 :l V2' ' 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
160 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
180 Ur 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
200 ' iiiZvSs 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
220- 2:34 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
240 4V 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
BE CAREFUL DRIVING
BAC TO .05
DO NOT DRIVE
.10 & UP
.Cr nuclear plants near top
of list of worst in the nation
The Breathalyzer model used in Chapel Hill is
one that has been proven to be susceptible, Long
Breathalyzer operator Master Officer Alvin
Allen of the Chapel Hill police said the depart
ment's Breathalyzers were tested for radio fre
"I understand that there's no outside radio
frequency interference here," he said. "It has a
lot to do with the building that houses the instru
ment." There would be more interference in a
metal building than in a brick building, for exam
ple. The Chapel Hill Police Department has a
concrete block building, he said.
Long said there could be a problem with test
ing the machines only once. Based on what he
learned at the seminar, he said, radio frequency
interference is not limited to one location. The
tested machines still may be susceptible. He said
the test only proved that on that day, at the fre
quencies tested, there was no radio frequency in
terference. Another problem with the Breathalyzer is that
it makes assumptions about human physiology,
"It assumes that everyone has a blood-breath
ratio of 2,100-to-l," he said. This means that the
amount of alcohol in one cubic centimeter of
blood is assumed to be equal to the amount of
alcohol in 2,100 ccs of air. But, just as people
may be taller or shorter than the average height,
people's blood-breath ratios may vary from the
2,100-1 ratio, Long said. A smaller blood-breath
ratio could result in an overestimation of alcohol
See BREATHALYZER on page 3
U.S. Navy fires on Druse artillery posts
The Associated Press
BEIRUT, Lebanon U.S. naval guns ham
mered away at Druse artillery positions in
Lebanon's central mountains Monday and for
the first time a U.S. spokesman said the firing
was in support of the Lebanese army's defense of
The government's Radio Beirut reported that
fighting raged into the night in the mountain
town overlooking the Lebanese capital. An army
communique said a Lebanese Bulldog recon
naissance plane, crashed near the Druse mountain
town of Aley, "and the fate of the two pilots is
It was the third time in the 16-day-old resump
tion of the civil war that American ships have
opened fire and the first time since Syria warned
on Sunday its troops in Lebanon would fire back
if attacked by American ground, air or sea
Druse spokesmen in Beirut claimed the
American shells landed in about five towns
around Souk el-Gharb including Baissour and an
undetermined number of civilians were killed.
But U.S. officials insisted the guns were firing at
Israeli Druse leaders protested to U.S. Am
bassador Samuel Lewis in Tel Aviv, claiming
Washington was supporting the Christian
Phalangists against the Druse in the Lebanese
civil war. The Druse sect is an offshoot of Islam.
The official Soviet news agency Tass claimed
the United States was trying to "intimidate Syria
and those forces of the Arab world which refuse
to be subordinated to the American-Israeli
French Foreign Minister Claude Cheysson,
whose government has troops in the multina
tional force in Beirut, also criticized American
military intervention in the civil war. He said he
did not believe that the U.S. operations and par
ticularly the Navy shelling "is the best method to
achieve" a settlement.
The destroyer John Rodgers and the guided
missile cruiser Virginia fired repeated barrages in
the morning and again in the afternoon as the
U.S.-trained Lebanese Army's 8th Brigade
fought with Druse and Palestinian guerrillas at
tacking Souk el-Gharb, the mountaintop town
nine miles southeast of Beirut that overlooks the
U.S. Marine base at the Beirut airport.
"The naval gunfire support was conducted on
military targets threatening the Lebanese armed
forces defending Souk el-Gharb," said U.S. Em
bassy spokesman John Stewart. "Successful
Lebanese armed forces defense of the area is vital
to the safety of U.S. personnel, including the
U.S. multinational forces, other U.S. military
and the U.S. diplomatic , corps personnel. The
naval gunfire support missions are defensive ac
A State Department official in Washington,
who requested anonymity, suggested that the loss
of Souk el-Gharb could spell a major defeat for
American policy and lead to a reassessment of
whether the Marine force should remain in
The White House announced last week that
the Marine command in Beirut had been
authorized to call in naval fire support when the
Marines and other troops of the multinational
forces were threatened and when the Lebanese
army was threatened with loss of a position from
which the Marines could be attacked.
Previously U.S. officials ordered retaliatory
shelling after the Marine camp or other American
installations were shelled.
A Western military source said the attackers
penetrated Souk el-Gharb twice, but the army
drove them out each time. The Druse and
Palestinians left behind 50 bodies after one at
tack, and two of their tanks were destroyed, said
the source, who asked not to be identified.
See LEBANON on page 4
The Associated Press
WASHINGTON Reactors in North Carolina,
Arkansas and Alabama top a list, of the worst
managed operating atomic power plants in the country
in 19S2, according to government documents obtained
by a Ralph Nader anti-nuclear organization.
In a report Monday, the Critical Mass Energy Pro
ject said the 4,500 mishaps or "events" reported at
U.S. nuclear plants last year including 253 that had
a "particular safety significance" were 10 percent
above the number of mishaps reported to the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission in 1981.
"The track record disproves the nuclear industry's
claim that nuclear power provides reliable, safe and
abundant electricity," said Michael Totten, the direc
tor of the project.
However, the industry's Atomic Industrial Forum
said the licensee event reports that utilities file with the
NRC point to nuclear power's "incredible safety
record, unparalleled in any other industry."
"What other business can you point to where there
has never been an injury or fatality," said Scott Peters,
a spokesman for the industry organization.
Bob Newlin, a spokesman for the NRC, said the
government agency does not rank plants against one
another. He said the numbers that Critical Mass used
to compile its rankings "had been averaged by a
lower-level employee on her own" and were not
weighted properly to accurately reflect the safety per
formance of each plant.
Using mostly NRC data, the 34-page Critical Mass
report assessed the relative performance of the
nation's 56 atomic power plants on their management,
the number and severity of the mishaps they experienc
ed, security threats, exposure of workers to radiation
and their production of electricity.
According to a notebook that Critical Mass said it
obtained through a Freedom of Information Act re
quest, the NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforce
ment rated Carolina Power & Light Co.'s Brunswick
plant at Southport as the worst managed commercial
operating atomic plant in the country.
Arkansas Power & Light Co.'s two reactors at
Russelville were rated the second worst, and the Ten
nessee Valley Authority's three-reactor Browns Ferry
plant at Athens, Ala., was rated the third worst among
Among plants still under construction, Louisiana
Power & Light Co.'s Waterford facility.at Taft, La.,
was rated the worst managed, followed by TVA's
Watts Bar plant at Spring City, Term., and Common
wealth Edison Co.'s Byron plant at Byron, HI.
The report, however, noted that its list of the worst
managed plants under construction omitted Cincinnati
Gas & Electric Co.'s Zimmer plant in Ohio, where the
NRC halted safety-related work last year because of
broad quality control breakdowns.
"The very worst plant under construction is almost
certainly the Zimmer plant," the Critical Mass report
said, even though the NRC assessment rated the per
formance of the plant's management as normal.
Spokesmen for each of the utilities said their of
ficials had not seen the Critical Mass study and had lit
tle comment on it. "It's very rare that we could com
ment on something like that anyway," said Gil Fran
cis, a spokesman for TVA.
Pat W. Howe, vice president of the Brunswick
nuclear project, said Critical Mass had misused the in
formation provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Com
mission. "The purpose of preparing these reports and
documents is the transfer of information between the
company and a regulatory agency. To use this infor
mation for compiling an index of management per
formance between utilities is a misuse of the informa
tion for furtherance of this group's political
purposes," Howe said.
"Carolina Power & Light Co. rejects the conclu
sions of the anti-nuclear Critical Mass group and takes
strong exception to any suggestion that any of our
plants have been operated in an unsafe manner.
"The single most relevant fact is that tjiere never has
been an incident that constituted a threat to the public.
To imply or state otherwise is a total misrepresentation
of the facts," he said.
Bruce Stoecklin, a spokesman for Cincinnati Gas &
Electric, said procedures ordered by the NRC when it
stopped safety-related construction at the Zimmer
plant last November "will solve the problems that
have been alleged."
Also obvious by its omission from the group's list of
worst-managed nuclear facilities was the Three Mile
Island plant in Pennsylvania, which one NRC com
missioner said should not be allowed to reopen until its
top three company executives are fired.
John Clewett, the author of the Critical Mass
report, said the omissions of TMI and Zimmer from
the lists of the worst-managed reflects variations
among the NRC's regional offices on how plants are
rated and their inability to agree on standards for
Among the best-managed plants, according to the
NRC documents, were Yankee Rowe in
Massachusetts, Haddam Neck and Millstone in Con
necticut, Vermont .Yankee, McGuire in North
Carolina, Palo Verde in Arizona, Summer in South
Carolina and San Onofre in California.
The Brunswick and Public Service Gas & Electric
Co.'s Salem plant in New Jersey, also had the largbest
number, 16, of "particularly significant mishaps" in
1982, according to the report.
San Onofre, the La Crosse plant in Wisconsin, the
Nine-Mile Point plant in New York and the Big Rock
Point plant in Michigan led the country in the ex
posure of plant workers to radiation in relation to the
amount of electric power they produced.
Critical Mass said the NRC notebook it obtained
was based on "Systematic Assessments of Licensee
Performance" conducted for each plant by the NRC's
Those "SALP" reports evaluate how plants are
managed in several categories, including operations,
radiological controls, maintenance, security, fire pro
tection and emergency planning.
Although the NRC last year did away with official
overall ratings for each plant, Critical Mass said the
commission's staff still calculates them for its own use.
The group said the numbers corresponding to an
average of the evaluations in each category for each of
the plants had been erased from the NRC notebook it
obtained "but still faintly can be seen." It said it used
those averages to compile its list of the worst and best