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THE PILOT, Southern Pines and Aberdeen, North Carolina
Friday, Augxist 3, 1934.
‘Dixie’, the ^Marseillaise of South’
Owes Origin Solely to the North
OriRinal Manuscript Exhibited to Mark Anniversaries of Sonft’s
New York Debut and Death of Its Author,
Daniel D. Emmett, of Ohio
Hundreds of New Yorkers last, before slavery was abolished by the
week view the original manuscript of | Empire State in 1822, Dixie, seeing
“Dixie,” the “Marseillaise of the ; the trend of the times, sold his hu-
South,*’ composed and first sung in j man chattels to Southern plantation
this city by an Ohioan of Irish de
scent. says an article in the New
York Herald-Tribune. The script was
a feature of an exhibition of relics
of the Civil War-mostly literary.
The occasion for showing it was two
anniversaries—the first public sing
ing of the ballad on the "Deep South"
June 21, 1861, and the death, June
28, 1904, of the author, Daniel Deca
"Dixie” may well be called “the
Paean of Paradox.’ Like many other
war songs such as “Tipperary.” it
was never intended as a military air,
although its creator had been a sol
dier and came of a family of sol
There is no suggestion of the beak
ers of the warm South in Mount Ver
non, Ohio, where Eiiunett was born.
His ancestors had come from Ireland
to settle in Virginia. His grandfath-
er served in the ranks in the War
of the Revolution. His father, who
was in the War of 1812, emigrated to
Ohio. The boy who was ushered into
this w’orld in 1815 had his middle
name from Commodore Decatur, of
the American Navy, of which the
father was an admirer. The elder Em
mett worked a small farm and was
also a village blacksmith .
Young Daniel attended the local
schools in a desultory fashion. His
real education was obtained in coun
try newspaper offices as a “devil.”
He learned to set type, wrote a lit
tle local news; became a sign letterer
and did some proofreading. All this
training can be seen in the manuscript
of “Dixie” engrossed by him and
punctuated with great care.
His mother was a good musician
and knew harmony and thoroughness.
She taught her son the technique of
musical composition. His first origi
nal song, still sung, was "Old Dan
Tucker,” composed when he was about
fifteen years old. The youth learned
to play on the violin and several oth
er instruments—the piano, trumpet,
flute and fife. It was as a fifer that
he joined the regular United States
Army. For a few months he was sta
tioned at Newport, Ky., and later at
Jefferson barracks, St. Louis. He was
discharged from the army because of
“minority,” as seems to have imag
ined himself to have been older than
he really was in order to enlist.
He learned more about music in | road,” a system whereby runaway
the military posts. After leaving the I si', ves were aided to escape from the
owners. He had treated them well
and it is said they regarded his.
farm as an earthly paradise. The
erudite work w'ritten by an iCnglish
author, Brewer’s “Phrase and Bable,”
sets forth that this etymology is the
more likely. "For Negroes would
scarcely have sung such a song,” it
says, “if they were already in Dixie.”
However, the Negroes of the South
did sing it, anyway, at least for many
years. It seems more like a song
expressing the yearning of some one
far from the cotton fields, as the re
frain “W’ay Down South in Dixie”
Still another explanation is that
Dixie is from the French "dix,”
printed on ten-franc notes in New
Orleans when the Louisiana territory
was still held by France prior to its
sale to this country by Napoleon I.
Emmett had traveled in the South
with circuses, however, and evidently
had learned the name applied to that
region. The original title of the song,
in fact, was “Dixie’s Land.”
The song was an instantaneous
“hit.” The tune was catchy and was
soon being whistled on the sidewalks
of New' York. It was published in
1860 by a well known music publish
ing house of this city, and later w'as
pirated by Southern printers in a
Appeared Later in South
As a ballad of the South it did not
find favor until June, 1861. Fort Sum
ter had been fir<--d upon in April and
the South was seething. An entertain
ment was given in New Orlans for the
purpose of stimulating Southern
spirit and a committee sought a
march song which would be appro
It finally agreed upon "Dixie,”
which took the audience by storm.
W'hy this Negro dialect composition
of Northern origin should have had
such acception is something which
has never been analyzed. None was
more surprised than Emmett him
self when he realized that his song
had become the battle hymn of the
Upbraided as Disloyal
Emmett found himself in an anom.
alous position. His father was an ar.
dent abolitionist and one of the or
ganizers of the “underground rail-
How Time Flies!
’ COUIfrOY CLUe, 50JTHE.RN PlliE.S. w.c. • j
Two Scenes from Other Davs in Southern Pines
The Week in Southern Pines
army, he joined a circus as a mem
ber of the band. He traveled with
four or five small circuses in the
“forties” and was for several years
with the show of Dan Rice, a noted
Negro .Minstrelsy Pioneer
Soutii into Ohio and other Northern
states. Hundreds of persons wrote to
“Dixies” author, upbraiding him for
disloyalty to the Union cause. He had
a hard time making a living until
long after the Civil War was over.
In the 70's, however, he established
a music hall in Chicago and accumu-
From the Big Top he was grad- j^ted some money. Eventually he
—ited into vaudeville, or variety j ^Tg^it back to Mount Vernon, Ohio,
as it was then called, and drifted to | bought a small farm near his
New \ ork City. It is said that Em- j ^irthi lace. There he rai.'^ed vegeta-
mett was the originator of Negrol^ies and chickens, which he .sold in
minstrelsy, a type of entertainment j town
given entirely by white performers
in burnt cork make-up in its early
stages. This statement has been dis
puted, but an authority on the sub
ject, Charles B. Galbreath, an anti
quarian of note, who made wiue re
searches, declares it to be true.
Dan Bryant, owner of the minstrel
show in which Emmett was appear
ing in the spring of 1859, asked Em
mett to produce a new song and chor
us for what was known as a “walk
around.” A "walk around” was a
parade of the company about the
A1 G. Field, a minstrel manager,
rediscovered Emmett in the ’90’s, af
ter losing touch with him for many
years. Field had been a protege of
the veteran showman and was gi'ate-
ful to him. He induced him to go
back to the stage as a member of
his company and gave him a share
of the receipts. In the South the aged
songfwriter, received ovations. Later
the Actors’ Fund of this city gave
an allowance to Emmett which made
him comfortable in his declining
years. A tablet was placed on his
stage, strutting and posing cake-walk I ^y his friends and a movement
fashion while playing instruments and
which to complete his task and he
whic hto complete his task and he
found it hard to get down to it. His | XEW P.\Y SCHEIDL'LE FOK
was started by the Daughters of the
Confederacy to erect a monument over
his Mount Vernon grave.
wife told him that he would be able
to compose if he were not disturbed,
so she obligingly went shopping and
left him in full possession of their
one room in the boarding house all
day. The house is said to have been
the same one in Catherine Street
which the Bryants had lived in for
years off and on while in New York.
Npiw York “Dixie” Mentioned
The day was cold and murky. The
legend is that Emmett, looking out
of the window, sighed and exclaimed,
“I wish I were in Dixie." Where the
name Dixie came from always has
been in doubt. The generally accepted
origin is that it was derived from
that of one of the English surveyors
who ran the famous Mason & Dixon’s
Another version of the origin of
the term locates "Dixie” in New York
City. This was given some fifty
years ago by a writer in "The Char
leston (S. C.) Courier." He stated
that in upper Manhattan there was
a farmer or planter named Dixie or
ROAD RELIEF <VORKERS
New schedules of pay for workers
on future highway contracts under
the 1934-35 federal emergency relief
program have been received by the
State Highway and Public Works
Commission. Common labor will re
ceive 30 cents an hour, intermediate
labor 40 cents and skilled labor 60
cents. The week wall continue to con
sist of 30 hours. The new regulations
will not make a great difference in
wages paid under the former sche
dule, officials state.
WEST END WINS BALL
GAME IN lOTH INNING
(Continued from page 1)
locals in hitting with three for four
each. Dave Wilson and Tyson secured
the same number to account for six of
Vass’ eight hits.
The fielding of Webster and some
fancy pegging by Catcher Stewart
featured the game from a fielding
Dixey, who had colored slaves. Just’ standpoint.
I Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt Shaw have gone
i to Asheville for a few weeks visit
j with relatives.
; Mr. and Mrs. Jackson Boyd and son
I Jackie left Wednesday morning for
j Hot Springs, Va., after spending some
j time at their home here,
j Mr. and Mrs. Squires left last week
j to spend the remainder of the sum-
I mer in northern New York state.
! Mrs. Lawrence Grover and Miss
j Eleanor Grover and Maitland and
I Malcolm Grover returned to their
I home on Grover Road after an extend
ed visit in the New England states.
Mrs. Clarence Peck and son David
Peck have returned to their home in
Binghampton, N. Y., after a week’s
visit with Mrs. Peck’s parents, Mr.
! and Mrs. George Abraham.
Miss Alice Hasty of Maxton was a
week-end guest of Miss Helen Butler
at her home. Valhalla.
Mr. and Mrs. George Moore and
i family returned Sunday from a va-
I cation in western North Carolina,
j J. D. Sittenson, Jr. has returned
from Elon College where he attend-
I ed the Young People’s Conference.
I Mrs. J. S. Milliken will entertain
j the Afternoon Club at her home on
New Hampshire avenue today, Friday.
I Mrs. James Swett and family ex-
! pect to leave Sunday for Carolina
j Beach where they will spend their
I Harry Russell of Wagram was a
visitor in Southern lines over the
I Mrs. Helen Comly of Philadelphia
is the guest of her son at the Rest-
I haven Apartments*
j Mrs. W. E. Cox spent Friday in
I Mrs. Irving Covert of Durham spent
j the week-end with her brother, the
;Rev. W. E. Cox.
! Miss Marjorie Montgomery of
I Montgomery, W’. Va., is visiting her
, cousin. Miss Anna Bushby for some
Miss Mary Alice Weatherly enter
tained at a dance at the New England
House Wednesday evening.
Mr. and Mrs. W'. L. Page entertain
ed Mr. and Mrs. Charles Patch and
Henry Silver at a farewell dinner
Mrs. A. E. Tracey and Bob Abel
left Sunday for Pennsylvania for a
month’s visit with friends.
Eli Williamson entertained last
Friday at a swimming party at Wat
son’s Lake, celebrating his twelfth
Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Thrower are
planning to leave Sunday for Myrtle
Beach, where they have taken a cot
tage for a week.
Mrs. Eugene Woodward, Miss Mary
Jane Woodward, Mrs. J. L. Currin
of Henderson and Mrs. Clifton Cur
rin and sons, of Raleigh, will be the
guests of Mr. and Mrs. Thrower at
the beach for a week.
Raeford Terry left Monday for his
home in Rockingham after visiting
his daughter, Mrs. Tyler Overton.
Dr. and Mrs. George Proctor will
leave Sunday to spend a few days
at Myrtle Beach.
Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Hayes have
taken a cottage at Myrtle Beach for
a week and expect to leave this week
end to spend their vacation. While
there they will have as their guests
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Sadler and fam
ily. Mr. and Mrs. Bob Hayes and
family. Mrs. William Matchett and
small son Billy, and Mrs. Ray Hayes
Mr. and Mrs. Virgil Daniels and
sons of Boydton, Va., are visiting Dr.
and Mrs. L. M. Daniels.
Mr. and Mrs William Leslie have
returned from a vacation at Virginia
Miss Mary Hall is visiting her sis-1
ter. Miss Geneva Hall in Salisbury, j
Miss Eleanor Adams of Greensboro i
spent the week-end with her family 1
in Southern Pines.
Miss Sue Poe of Siler City is !
.spending two weeks with Miss Paul- i
Airs. Merritt Sugg of Roaring Gap
is visiting Mrs. M. N. Sugg.
Mrs. Ra.v Hayes of El Paso, Tex- :
as, arrived Tuesday night to visit !
Mi. and Mrs. C. L. Hayes. !
Miss Janet Welch returned a few 1
days ago from a house party at j
John Ellison of Greensboro was a |
Sunday visitor in Southern Pines, i
Miss Georgia Shaw left Monday for
Banner Elk for a visit of seveial days.
Mrs. F. E. Shaw is spending a week
with Miss Mary Merrill at her home
on Massachusetts avenue.
Mrs. W’. P. Swett has gone to Ban
ner Elk to spend the remainder of
Alden Bowers left Monday for
Washington, D. C., where he has a
Mr. and Mis. E. W. Ruggles and
children returned Sunday to their
home in Raleigh after spending a
week with Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Ruggles.
A. B. Yeomans left this week for
a vacation in Banner Elk.
Mrs. Lee Clark and son arrived
last week from W’ashington, D. C.,
to visit Mrs. Clark’s parents for sev
Mrs. W. E. Blue and Miss Leone
Currie spent Tuesday in Chapel Hill.
Wade Stevick spent last ThUtsday
in Durham visiting hfs son Charles
Stevick, who is in summer school at
R. W. Tate and Mrs. Walter Brown,
Mrs. James Parker and Miss Lena
Brown left Saturday morning by mo
tor to spend a week in the mountains
of North Carolina.
Robert Dorn left Monday for Chic
ago to attend the Century of Prog
Paul Blue, D. A. Blue, Jr., Bob
Cameron and Edward Prizer left this
week by motor for the World’s Fair
Friends will be interested to know
that Jim Silver is in Washington, D.
C., working on his Ph. D. degree.
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Coursey of Fay
etteville spent the week-end in town.
Miss Sarah Dorn of Saluda, S. C.,
is visiting her uncle and aunt, Mr.
and Mrs. H. W. Dom.
Mrs. J. H. Tilghman and son John
Tilghman returned recently from a
visit of several weeks at Snow Hill,
S. R. Chatterton, who has been
preaching at the Church of Wide Fel
lowship for the past month, will leave
Saturday for Winston Salem.
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Percolators, 69c; Stew Pots, large size, 79c
Standard size Dish Pans, 59c; Kettles, 79c; Double
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Telephone 6101 Southern Hnes
Wiy be closed from August 10th until September 10th. Anyone that
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