Perscti County Lib' ?-.-' Roxboro, iiorts CaroiiRA .^ 'b/L ?e>'30’^ County i ublic Lib>'a- 307 C. --ain bt. ^oxbona, . C, 27573 -Sample O^-CQ/a Founding Of Moore County BY MANLY WADE WELLMAN (Editor’s Note: Noted writer Manly Wade Wellman is the author of “The Story of Moore County,” a narrative history published by the Moore County Historical Association. A former resident of Pinebluff, he now lives in Chapel Hill). Eons before this second centen nial, Moore County’s land came into being. Volcanoes flung molten rock. The sea rolled in and out again, leaving sand and lime. Oozy vegetation was tamped down to become coal. The soil was clay in the northern half, sand in the southern. Mighty pine forests sprang up. Then came animals-even dinosaurs- and, at last, men. Indians. Archaeologists think that they lived here for a thousand years, departing for mysterious reasons about 1600. We find skeletons, patterned clay bowls, finely chip ped flints. In 1746, a surveying party came through to establish the line of Lord Granville’s vast possessions. By then, perhaps, John and Thomas Richardson had settled close to Deep River, and before 1750 homes had been built by Duncan Buie, John and Jacob and Jemima McLendon. Others followed. The area began to be a community. Many settlers were from Scotland, some becoming wealthy. They were sworn loyal to England’s king, and when the War of Independence broke out, many mobilized to fight armed rebels. At Moore’s Creek in 1776, they were badly beaten by patriot volunteers. Thereafter, many Tory homes were plundered. Young men enlisted on either side. The area saw massive troop movements-Horatio Gates’ patriots on their way to defeat in South Carolina, Lord Charles Cornwallis’ redcoated Tories on the same route, other forces. The region’s one real battle was at Phillip Alston’s House in the Horseshoe, today a State Historic Site, where the Tory guerrilla chief David Fanning fought and was fought to more or less a stan doff. When peace came, Tory leaders like Connor Dowd and John Martin exiled themselves. Others stayed and again became friends with their Whig neighbors. Moore County was established as of July 4,1784, a wedge-shaped slice from Cumberland County. Most of the population lived in the upper half. Philip Alston was elected state senator, but later fl- Manly Wade Wellman ed a charge of murder to live in Georgia, where he was murdered himself. Early county leaders and officeholders included the sons of exiled Tories, William Martin, Cornelius Dowd and Ar chibald McBryde. 1790 Census The first census in 1790 record ed, 3,770 residents of Moore Coun ty, including 355 black slaves, the smallest number in that category for any North Carolina county. Moore County had no town, and rather slowly established a coun ty seat, Carthage, in 1796. Schools were built here and there, and churches, Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist, flourished importantly. Academies began, several among the sparsely settl ed pine forests to the south. Public schools, established under a law of 1839, numbered sixteen in 1850 and 31 a decade later. In 1850, the great Plank Road began to be built of,,.heavy timbers from Pay^teville to flourishing Carthage. There were stores and taverns and postof fices. In 1850 Thomas B. Tyson of pioneer descent partnered with Alexander Kelly to found the Tyson and Kelly Carriage Works, an industrial monument at Car thage for decades. Deep River’s channel was dredged and locked to allow travel for rafts of logos, barge loads of turpentine and tar. In 1858, the Carolina Western Railroad came to Carthage. Coal was dug in the northeastern cor ner of Moore County. Transportation by rail, by Plank Road, by Deep River, opened greater activity in the Sand Hills. Timber and naval stores began to be major pro ducts and owners of timber tracts became prosperous. But pro fitable enterprises were stopped by the Civil War. Moore County sent some 1500 men into Confederate ranks, and a third of them never came back. One battle was fought within county limits, near the old Solemn Grove academy on March 9, 1865, when Sherman’s cavalry advance was surprised and routed by Confederates. But the war brought ruin when peace came a month later. The people sought gamely to recover. Farm produce was rais ed. The Carolina Western Railroad operated again. The Tyson and Kelly Carriage Works, with a new partner, W.T. Jones, reactivated. Private academies and public schools were in opera tion. And the great pine forests of southern Moore County became more important than ever. Sawmills cut timber, tar and turpentine were produced. A railroad, the Raleigh and Augusta Air Line, was built through the pine country, and along its course sprang up little shipping points like Cameron, Manly, Blue’s Crossing. This, in turn, fostered cities. Page And Patrick In 1879, Francis Allison Page of Cary got off the train at Blue’s Crossing. At 55, he had been hard hit by the Civil War, but he bought huge tracts of longleaf pine and began shipping lumber. His talented family worked hard. His son, Walter Hines Page, was a notable writer and would be a political leader. Other Pages were variously gifted and became highly useful to their county. The Pages made Blue’s Cross ing into Aberdeen, from the first a center of commerce. Their ex ample brought John Patrick, North Carolina’s young Commis sioner of Innmigration. He was inspired by reports of invalids recovering their health among the aromatic pine forests, and in 1883 he bought 625 acres of cut-over land from the heirs of the pioneer timberman Charles G. Shaw, and there he founded Southern Pines as a health resort, trumpeting far and wide the benefits of the place for ailing 1 people, chiefly those suffering; from tuberculosis. He laid out streets on both sides of the railroad, built hotels, sold homes and prospered. In 1888 he founded another resort town, Pinebluff, seven miles below Southern Pines. People came to visit his towns and happily remained there. The pines grew up again, in stately splendor. Railroads Railroads were built, bran ching from the main line through Southern Pines and Aberdeen. The new Carthage railroad was finished in 1888. Other lines were the Aberdeen and West End Railroad, sponsored by the Pages and the Aberdeen and Rockfish Railway, eastward to Cumberland County. Trains car ried pine logs cut from thousands of acres. There were efforts to build ambitious towns called Roseland and Parkwood, which did not survive. Pinehurst Founded But in 1893 the county was visited by James Tufts, a Bosto nian who had made a fortune by manufacturing soda fountain equipment. He bought from the Pages a 648-tract from which pines had been reaped and ship-: ped away, for $700. With Frederick Law Omstead, ar chitect and author, he laid out and built a town called Pinehurst, some half a dozen miles v/est of Aberdeen. Tufts built a hotel, installed an electric plant and telephone system, planted beautiful trees and shrubs, and built cottages. He ran a trolley line to Southern Pines and before the end of the century inaugurated a golf course, the first of many to be founded in Moore County. His town did not claim cures for in valids, like Southern Pines. It was simply a resort town, and would become famous throughout the world Roth Patrick and Tufts ad vocated fruit-growing. Farmers began to grow peaches, grapes and berries. Tufts also initiated the paving of streets and main country roads with a hard-drying mixture of sand and clay. Southern Pines, Aberdeen and Pinehurst thrived famously. In 1907, the northeastern comer of the county was cut away to become Lee- County, with busy Sanford as county seat. What was left of Moore County prospered, with farms, timber cuttings and resorts. There were lively newspapers-the Sandhill Citizen, founded at Vass and moved to Southern Pines in 1903, later mov ing to Aberdeen; and The Pilot, first at Vass, than at Aberdeen, and finally at Southern Pines. James Tufts died in 1902, but his able son Leonard carried on his father’s diverse activities. Southern Pines imitated Pinehurst in founding the Southern Pines Country Club, and other courses appeared until they became a major profitable activity. Leonard Tufts also built roads and encouraged fruit farm ing. The county had lumber mills, fruit canneries, academies, fac tories, even gold mines. But farmers knew hard times, especially those who suffered by the ups and downs of the cotton market, and in 1912 the Sand Hills Fanners’ Association was organized, followed in 1913 by the Sand Hill Board of Trade. These groups energetically preached diversified farming-grain, fruit, tobacco, poultry, cattle and hogs. A reduction of the cotton crop was urged, and farmers began to prosper again. President Woodrow Wilson sent Walter Hines Page to England as ambassador to the Court of Saint James. His brother Robert went to Congress. In 1917 the United States was drawn into it. Moore County’s young men went to battle, and some died in battle. Walter Hines Page was forced to resign his ambassador ship because of ill health, and came home to die at the end of 1918. Boyd Family Others came home to live. James Boyd, grandson of the earlier James Boyd who had built Weymouth at Southern Pines and had been a tireless leader in com munity development, organized the Moore County Hounds to ride after foxes and wrote the classic novel “Drums,” with other im portant books to follow. Pinehurst was visited by Vice- President Thomas Marshall, ac tress Maude Adams, the peerless rifle shot Annie Oakley, and Senator Warren G. Harding, who would be elected president in 1920. There were horse races and horse shows and throngs of visitors, many of whom became residents. A new courthouse replaced the old one at Carthage in 1923. Coal was being dug again in upper Moore County and so was talc. Other writers came to Moore County as James Boyd had done; Struthers and Katherine Newlin Burt and Hugh McNair Kahler and Wallace Irwin. Depression Days The depression of 1929 found Moore County gamely fighting to stay solvent. Country people went to subsistence farming, raising their own vegetables and meat. The Public Works Administration helped. The Page Trust Company closed its banks in Aberdeen, Carthage and Cameron, but other banks survived. Pinehurst and Southern Pines reported good resort business, with races, horse shows, golf tournaments and con ventions. It was estimated that, during the dreadful decade of hard times, about one in five of the county’s population held a job or operated a farm to feed a fami ly- World War II ended the depres sion, with yet again the young men off to fight, sometimes to die. Some rose high in rank-Felix Leslie Johnson was an admiral, William Fisher was a general. The welcome end of the war (Continued On Page 4) BY PEGGY HOWE Moore County, rich in history, is rich also in historic places. Those structures deemed Moore Rich In Historic Places-12 On Register t 00 . 1 . .. . y m -r ^ significant historically (such as birthplaces of historic figures or sites of important events) or ar chitecturally are possibilities for inclusion on the “National Register of Historic Places”-and Moore County boasts 12. The “National Register” is the “official list of the nation’s cultural resources worthy of preservation,” and includes districts, sites, buildings, struc tures and objects significant in American history, architecture, archaeology and culture. Inclusion on the list can offer property owners financial advan tages as well as various protec tions for the property. North Carolina’s Department of Cultural Resources maintains a branch for preparing com prehensive surveys of such properties within the state, and nominations come from the state historic preservation officer. Dr. William S. Price Jr., director of the division of Archives and History. Moore County’s historic sites range from log cabins to plan tation homes, and include a chur ch, a courthouse and two historic districts. Their ages range from pre-Revolutionary to early 20th century. Anniversary Edition Old Bethesda Presbyterian Church This 200th Anniversary edition of 'The Pilot is a part of Moore County’s birthday celebration. This edition seeks to be com prehensive in its coverage of Moore’s interesting history since its beginning as a county on July 4,1784. Never before has so much information been brought together in one publication, and it represents the work of several distinguished writers as well as the staff of The Pilot over a period of several months. Some of the writers who have contributed to this informative edition include Manly Wade Wellman, Robert Mason, Robert Hunt, Dr. William Price, Dr. Charles Gordon Zug, III, Voit Gilmore, Katherine Shields Melvin, Roy Parker^ Bill Jones, Roy Lowe, James Boyd, Betty Worrell, Dr. Raymond Stone, Sal ly Auman, Isabel Thomas, Reece Hart Jr., Veta Gorman, Valerie Nicholson, Deah Straw, Derry Walker, Betsy Lindau, Martha Moore County’s listings and present uses are as varied as the construction dates. The Phillip Alston House, the famed “House in the Horseshoe,” near Glendon (ca. 1773), is significant because it’s a typical 18th century plan tation house distinguished by its owners and its part in a 1781 Tory battle. Another listing, significant because of owners and occupan ts, is the Bethesda Presbyterian Church (ca. 1860) which served as the religious seat of the Moore County Highland Scots. It’s described as a “19th century ver nacular (traditional) building with interesting...steeple, and contains the original pews. ’’ Among properties listed for ar chitectural significance is the McClendon log cabin at Harris Crossroads, thought to be the 1768 home of Joel McClendon. The cabin boasts a massive stone example of Sand Hill style plan tation home” and is now ^ing restored. The 1888 John Blue House in Aberdeen, presently a single family dwelling, boasts a portico supported by Doric columns. In side and out, its woodwork is out standing. The Malcolm Blue Farm (ca. 1801-1825), also in Aberdeen, is called a “vernacular late Federal-Greek Revival inter pretation.” Twentieth century outbuildings form an important farm complex. The house, originally a single family farm dwelling, now serves as a museum. Another Moore County proper ty listed on the National Register is the James Bryant House (ca. 1801-1825) at Harris Crossroads, originally a single family farm dwelling, and now a museum. The house is “typical of the modest, carefully constructed farmhouse with a rear stair reaching from the hall between two rear shed rooms.” Inside there is “a marvelous mantel and overmantel of geometric reeding (carved detailing).” “Weymouth” (ca. 1916-1930) in Southern Pines is listed on the register because of its zoological and botanical interest. The home of novelist James Boyd, the house, originally a single family dwelling, is owned by The Frien ds of Weymouth who operate it as a Center for the Arts and Humanities. The historic districts listed on the National Register are Cameron Historic District because it’s a “late 19th century- early 20th century town born on the turpentine and dewberry in dustry, now gone;” and Pinehur st Historic District, a resort area, the “original winter health model resort village for northerners.” The Pinehurst district still exists in its original layout. Additional Moore County listings to the National Register will be added in future years, ac cording to Allison Harris, North Carolina’s National Register coordinator. The State Professional Review Committee meets quarterly to review and vote on the eligibility of the properties suggested. In the meantime, Moore Coun- tians can be very proud of the large number of historic sites in their own county, reflecting the heritage left by more than 200 years of earlier North Carolinians. Thomas, Qaudia Blair, Patsy chimney (rebuilt) and fireplace. Tucker, Sherman Betts, Stuart The stair to the sleeping loft is a log with steps cut out. The cabin, later used as a kitchen for the Bryant House, has an unusual, rare type of rafter construction used mainly by the English. Described as the “most prestigious structure in Car- Evans, Peggy Howe, Woodrow Wilhoit, Mary Evelyn de Nissoff, James McDuffie, Florence Gilkeson, Mary Warren, Beth Myers Ferguson, Glenn Sides, CSndi Ross, Roy Lucas, Phillip Kiser and many others. This edition will be used for in- thage” is the Moore County Cour- struction in the Moore Ck)unty thouse (ca. 1922) with “typical Schools and at Sandhills Com- neo-classical exterior.” It is still munity College in the coming in use as a courthouse. The Dowd- year. It also is being distributed Kennedy House (ca. 1826-1865), nationwide by the state Depart- the oldest standing house in Car- ment of Commerce, statewide to thage, is listed as a “well- all public libraries, and will executed Greek Revival (house) become a permanent part of the withsimplicity of classic detail.” state Division of Archives and The Black-Cole House (ca. History."SAM RAGAN, 1801-1825) at Eastwood, with its EDITOR. clipped gable roof, is a “good Cameron is on National Register of Historic Places

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