r Our Farm Department j
Devoted to the Interest of Those Who J
Till the Soil A
f CONDUCTED BY J. M ttATY 1
PLOW THE TERRACES AGAIN.
Nothing has ever been done for
our hilly lands of so much Importance
as the terraces to prevent washing.
Without them it is Impossible to
permanently improve the soil. How
ever much may be said against them
by people who do not know their
value we would not do away with
them on our farm for many dollars.
But if they are to control the water
they must be well built. Usually
when they are considered to be
strong enough there has bei.-ii not
over half as much plowing done for
them as there should be. It is a
good plan to give the terraces a plow
ing just before the planting begins.
Fix your terraces right and then
"If It rains, let it rain" and you will
not be uneasy about your land wash
JOBS WHICH NEED DOING NOW.
From the time crops are planted
until they need working there is usu
ally a week or two when farmers are
not pressed with work. This time
should not be thrown away, but
should be devoted to things which
count much for the success of the
farm management. Benjamin Frank
lin said "leisure is the time to do
something usoful." Any one who will
follow his idea will find it true.
Farmers who have been waiting
in vain for ditchers to come to clean
out their ditches or dig new ones
might do the work themselves now
as there will hardly be much more
cold weather or water to bother.
This will mean a great deal for the
land and the crops.
If wood for the family's use has
not been prepared now is a good
time to do this work. There will be
cool and damp days through the
spring and summer when fires will
be needed and good dry wood should
be at hand ready for use. Besides
wood will be needed for cooking,
washing and Ironing. It is much
easier to get up the wood now than
to get each days supply when you
are tired doing other work. Many
farmers who provide well for their
families in most respect4 follow the
hand-to-mouth system In furnishing
Are there not some weak places
In your field or pasture fences? If
so they should have attention now.
Do not wait until summer comes and
stock begins to go over and through
your fences. Then you will not have
time to repair them. 'I Is well to
have fences so high and strong that
stock is not tempted to try to do
If the ditch banks and corner pla
ces in the fields have not been shrub
bed and broken with plows, it can
be done now. This work will add
to the appearance of the farm and
help the crops also.
Do not forget to haul straw and
leaves into your stables and lots. If
you do not like to straw the lots all
over at this time of the year it
would pay to place straw near the
barn and in front of the stables. Do
not wait until next winter to heglu
raising manure tor the crop of 1*20,
but begin now. A good farmer should
haul some straw every month in
Secretary WII?on on the South.
When in Washington City a few
days ago Editor-in-Chief Poe, of The
Progressive Farmer, called on the
Secretary and found him interested
In all Southern questions.
"The Southern farmer," he de
clared, "is making very gratifying
progress. He is going forward, and
we are anxious to have the Depart
?lent co-operate as fully as possible
in the good work.
"About the biggest' need of th?
South, in my opinion, is to get rk
?f the cattle tick so that three wll
be nothing in the way of stock rais
ing. You can handle cattle mor<
cheaply than we of the North. Ii
the first place, you have so mucl
milder winters; in my home State o
Iowa, for example, there was sevei
inches of snow on the ground las
week, and all the stock must be fe<
at so much heavier expense thai
in the South. Then there is you
cottonseed, that magnificent cattli
feed. Feed it to your cattle am
you will eventually take half you
present acreage and grow more cot
ton than you now grow on the whol
"The Southern farmer should mak
it a rule never to kt anybody ge
the nitrogen away from his farm
Let the lint alone be sold off, and j
! wise farming will make and keep |
' your lands fertile forever.
"The rolling land* of the South
< ought to grow more sheep. Hut
some woren wire 24 to 30 Inches
high around the pastures and not
even dogs can bother them. And
hogs, of course, can be grown with ]
you everywhere: there should be !
plenty of them.
"Your cowpea is a great advantage,1
and should be much more largely
! utilized than it already is in buuu
ing up the land, Hotter drainage al
1 so holds out much promise for the
i South. Tiling will give life to many
an acre now sour, soggy and unprof
| itable. 1 should also like to see far
mers give attention to utilizing rocky
?steep or untillable lands of any kind
J in growing wood. Wood and lumber
I are bound to become increasingly
valuable with the rapid exhaustiou
of our virgin forests, and few lines
<>f endeavor will pay better than Ju
dicious forestry work. Put your
abandoned fields to growing timber.
"Another phase of agricultural
work in the South that interests mo
especially is the new Interest In
dairying. Wherever the people set
about organizing a central dairy, the
Department of Agriculture will send
a man down to help about the build
ing, buying the outfit nnd getting the
work started. Our Dairy Division is
at the service of your people.
"That the South ought to rais lis '?
own colts Instead of sending to Mis
souri for mules goes without saying.
Ifcjre, again, you can raise what you
need far cheaper than we in the
North. With your mild winters, long
er growing seasons, and greater va
riety of crops, you can beat us every
Yes. the South is making pro
gress, and It has a great future?
there is no doubt about it?and It
is going to make astonishing progress
i in these next ten years. With pro
per attention to stock raising and
legume growing you can bring up
your lands to make two bales of cot
ton per acre, and wherever land will
do that, every acre of It is easily j
worth >100. That ought to be your I
"I believe it absolutely, and 1 have j
no hesitation in saying it: With
good farming in six or seven years'
time you can make your Southern
lands worth $100 an acre. It ought
to be done, and the Department of j
Agriculture is here to co-operate.
with the Southern farmer in every J
possible way In bringing about that |
result."?Tho Progressive Farmer. j
Southern farmers commonly regard
corn more as something good to
have than as a real money crop.
We shall attempt to show that
this opinion is an error; that, how
ever necessary or useful corn may
be, the crop itself may be made prof
In the first place It is perhaps
best to remark that we speak from
somewhat varied and extensive ex
perience In the making of corn. We
have made 104 bushels of shelled
corn on Bn acre of poor, gravelly up
land, and averaged forty bushels per
acre on a whole crop grown on light
sandy pine land.
There is little real profit In the
average corn crop of the cotton
states, which is only about fourteen
bushels per acre. Notwithstanding
this fact, the largest yield ever
known was made in South Carolina,
a single crop of 255 bushels per
? acre, though the average yield for
: the state is hardly ten bushels.
I It must be plain to anyone, there
- fore, that our small and unprofitable
' crops are not the result of poor
natural conditions. They are due to
' the lack of skill and care in growing
1 the crop.
1 On the majority of Southern farms
- every principle of good farming Is
> broken. Preparation, seed selection,
> planting, and cultivation are all prac
i ticed in the most haphazard way.
f Profitable corn means absolute re
> veTsal of common practice. It means
t thorough, early, deep breaking, in
1 stead of half breaking, or no break
i ing before planting. It means the
r selection and use of good seed. in
e stead of hit-or-mlss crib-selection. It
1 means liberal fertilizing and con
r stant shallow cultivation It means
- the handling and fertilizing of the
e soil so that it will make corn. Then,
above all, there must be com plants
e enough on the land to produce a
These are fundamental principles.
They are the very foundation of F
profitable corn growing. The detail
of application can be carried out by
any man of average intelligence. On- i
ly one needs special comment. Fifty j
bushels of corn can never be grown I
on corn plants able to bear but ten
bushels. Seven-foot rows, with ?talks
three feet apart, can never make a
full crop, even though every stalk
carries two ears, and is given the
best of preparation and care.
First, soil capable of making a
crop; second, plants capable of bear
ing a crop. Plenty of distance one
way, and plenty of plants the other
way. Then, with preparation, seed,
fertilizing and working profitable
Of these essentials only that of
fertilizing needs consideration in de
tail. Here is where good farmers,
who take pains with their crop, arc
most api to fail, chiefly because com
mon conception as to the fertilizing
of corn is so faulty.
The belief Is very general that it
does not pay to fertilize corn liberal
ly. The error of this belief is easily
shown. Corn is a rank growing and
bulky crop. The soil from which on
ly one thousand pounds is removed j
in a crop of cotton, (lint and seed)
loses three times this quantity of '
material in a crop of corn.
The amount of plant food taken
from any soil by a crop of corn is
much greater than the amount taken
from the same soil by cotton under
the samo conditions. This means
that corn is a heavier feeder than i
cotton; that corn uses more plant
food than does cotton and requires :
liberal fertilizing for better results.
The basis for this fertilizing must i
be the kind and quantity of plant
food removed from the soil by the
average crop of corn.
Forty bushels per acre is a perfect- -
ly feasible crop. The complete crop
of corn yielding forty bushels con
tains twenty-five pounds of phospho
ric acid, forty-five of nitrogen, and
sixty-four of potash. Whatever the
actual yield, however, these propor
tions are well fixed and should be
preserved, except in the matter of
phosphoric acid. For reasons well
established it is best to use about
double the amount of thi* one in
This means that a crop of corn
making forty bushels per acre should
be provided with fifty pounds of
phosphoric acid, forty-five pounds of
nitrogen, and sixty-four pounds of
potash. The economical forms in
which to supply fertilizer furnishing
(hit nlnnt food would be:
Acid phosphate 350
Cotton seed meal 875
Muriate of potash 100
Total, per acre 1,125
The percentage composition of this
mixture would be phosphoric acid,
4.3; nitrogen, 3.3; potash, 4.5.
The one point in this formula re
quiring comment Is its relatively
high proportion of potash. This is
fully half again as much potash as
is contained in the grades of fertili
zers usually used on Southern corn.
It is, however, in keeping with the
best present practice. Indeed, much
higher proportions of potash have
given best results in many careful
To the average corn grower this
seems excessive fertilizing. Is it
profitable? At present prices of
fertilizers these materials would cost
about $13.25. The crop of forty bush
els at 75 cents per bushel would be
worth $30.00, leaving a balance of
$16.75 as profit from the use of the
With a profit of $16.75 per acre
from the fertilizer alone, there can
be no doubt that this is profitable
corn. It roi.st be remembered that
the cost of making the crop, if pro
perly worked, is the same irrespec
tive of whether the yield ts twenty
or forty bushels.
This estimate does not include the
yield of the soil without fertilizer.
The total crop, therefore, would be
increased by whatever tie soil natur
It is Important to bear in mind
that corn differs from many crops in
the fact that on Southern farms it
is mostly grown for home consump
tion. It is, therefore, largely manu
factured into meat and work, both
of which should pay a profit. Corn
is raw material manufactured into
some other more valuable article and
thus pays the farmer a manufactur
er's profit.?Southern Ruralist.
Swept Over Niagara.
This terrible calamity often hap
pens because a careless boatman ig
nores the river's warnings-growing
ripples and faster current-Nature's
warnings are kind. That dull pain
or ache in the back warns you the
Kidneys need attention if you would
escape fatal maladies?Dropsy, Dia
betes or Bright's disease. Tak? Elec
tric Bitters at once and ne Back
ache fly and all your best feelings
return. "After long suffering from
weak kidneys and lame back, one
I $1 bottV wholly cured me," writes J.
R. Blankenship. of Belk, Tenn. Only
, 50c at Hood Bros.
Laziness begins in cobwebs and
i ends In iron chains.?French.
8 Jf iUMfck
reedlng Grain to Cows on Pasture.
One of the most common questions
vhirh we are asked at this time of
he year i? whether it is best to
'eeii dairy ? ows grain while they
ire on pasture. We have been giv
ng this subject some attention for
tome time and find that, in gener
il, the ordinary cow does not give
return for grain she receives as
long as the pasture is abundant.
\ large quantity of milk can be
secured from any cow by feeding
grain while on pasture. For this
reason, if it Is desirable to secure
(he very largest amount of milk re
gardless of expense, there would
be no question regarding the feed
lug of grain to cows on pasture.
Any ordinary cow, however, will not
Increase the amount of milk more
than one or two pounds for each
pound of grain fed, which makes
the cost of production entirely too
The conditions are altogether dif
ferent, however, with a heavy pro
ducing cow. It is not only economi
cal, but absolutely necessary to
feed grain in addition to pasture to
a very heavy milker, or she will de
i-line rapidly in the amount of milk
produced. It is impossible for a
?sufficient amount of grass or rough
ness to be consumed by any animal
to enable such quantities of milk
and butter to be produced as the
best cows nowadays are capable of
producing. As long as a cow is pro
ducing not over one pound of but
ter a day it is possible for necessary
food to be secured from the pas
ture, but when the production be
gins to go higher the necessity for
feeding grain comes in. It cannot
be expected that any cow will pro
duce one and one-half to two pounds
of butter a day for any great length
of time on grass alone.
One result of feeding grain while
on pasture which is often overlook
ed is that cows that have been so
fed do not decline as rapidly in milk
production during the period of
nhort pasture or between fall and
winter conditions, when they usual
ly lack feed. It is often observed
that the cows having had grain in
the summer will produce milk bet
ter even through the following win
ter. This result is not surprising,
as it simply shows that the animal
has been accumulating reserve mate
rial on the body which enables pe
riods of short feed to be bridged
over with less effect on milk pro
duction. This after effect of feed
ing grain should always be taken
Ordinary pasture grasses are suf
ficiently narrow in their nutritive
ratio, that is, they have a suffici
rial, so that there is no reason why
com should not be the principal
grain fed to those cows that need
it while on grass. Up to four or
five pounds a day corn alone is as
effective as any other grain feed in
addition to pasture, but in case of
cows that are very heavily fed oth
er feeds should be added in addi
tion to corn, such as bran, oil ineal,
oats, or any common feed.
In case there is not plenty of
pasture, it will always pay to feed
something to keep up the produc
tion of milk. If green feeds are
available, they are the cheapest and
Just as effective as grain for the
ordinary cows. However, if there
is no green feed at hand, it will
pay to feed grain rather than to al
low the milk produced to decline
for lack of feed.
The whole subject may be sum
med up by saying that it will al
ways pay to feed a heavy milking
cow grain while on pasture, but it
does not pay to feed the inferior,
or even the ordinary milker, as long
as the pastures are abundant. When
the pasture is scarce, it will pay to
feed grain even to ordinary cows.
It is not necessary to feed the ex
pensive purchased feeds while cows
are on pasture, unless it be to those
that are producing a very large
amount of milk and for this reason
are being fed a heavyg rain ration.
?C. H. Krkles, University of Mis
ent amount of milk-producing mate
souri, July 21, 3908.
Stop Burning off the Old Fields.
How long, oh, how long, will our
farmers burn up every spring the
little fertility that Mother Nature
has laboriously spent the previous
twelve months trying to develop?
Turn out an old field, sick, famish
ing. naked, and Mother Nature
clothes it with a coat of grass to
heal its scars, to stop the wounding
of it with gullies, and to feed it
with rotting vegetable matter (hu
mus) as the only way on tarth to
bring it back to life and Birongtii.
And yet nine farmers out of ten will
go ahead and in twenty-four hours'
time burn off all the potential humus
that Nature has spent a year grow
ing for the salvation of the land.
"For the land's sake" indeed we
must stop burning off our old fields.
It may make the grass seem greener
this season, but in the end it means
that the land will become too barren
to grow any grass at all.?The Pro
Dehorning i* Not Cruel.
Prof. R. W. Hickman, Dept. Bul
Inquiries are frequently r> celved
as to whether the operation of de
horning is very painful, and whether
It may not be classed as cruelty to
animals. Those who have had an
extensive experience In dehorning
appear to agree that the pain In
duced by the operation has been
greatly overestimated, as careful ob
servation has shown that shrinkage
in the yield of milk as well as of
butterfat following the dehorning of
cows Is very temporary and Insig
nificant. On the other hand, the I
worry, pain, and cruelty often in
flicted by cattle upon their mates I
before tx-ing deprived of their horns j
is much more to be considered, and j
uot infrequently results in the
death of a valuable animal. A I
neighbor on an adjoining farm to
that owned by the writer a few
years ar<> lost two good milch cows ; I
in one winter through their being 1
disemboweled by the horns of barn- J
yard mates while out for exercise.
He dehorned his entire herd almost '
immediately afterwards. The in- 1
creased safety of the animals much
more than compensates for any .
Iofs of beauty resulting from the
removal of horns.
witives siwum ue iretueu iu pre
vent horns growing when a week
old. Caustic soda, or caustic potash
both of which may be procured in .
tiie drug stores in the form of sticks ,
about the thickness of an ordinary j
lead pencil and 5 inches long. These )
caustics must be handled with care, ]
as they dissolve the cuticle and may .
make the hands or fingers sore, i
The preparation of the calf consists '
in first clipping the hair from the
parts, washing clean with soap and
warm water, and thoroughly drying
with a cloth or towel. The stick
of caustic should be wrapped in a
piece of paper to protect the hands
and fingers, leaving one end of the
Moisten the uncovered end slight
ly and rub it on the horn buttons
or little points which may be
felt on the calf's head, first on one
and then the other, alternately, two
or three times on each, allowing
the caustic to dry after each appli
cation. Be very careful to apply
the caustic to the horn button only.
If it is brought in contact with th?
surrounding skin it will cause paia.
Be very careful also not to leava
too much moisture on the stick of
caustic, as it will remove that skin
if allowed to run down over the
face. After treatment, keep the
calf protected from rain, as water
on the head after the application
of caustic will cause it to run down
over the face. This must be care
fully avoided.?Indiana Farmer.
An Illinois correspondent asks for
information concerning winter vetch
or any other kind.
There are some ten or a dozen
varieties of vetch in the United
States, some of them native. The
two that have attained special prom
inence are the spring and winter
vetch. Both are annuals, but the
spring vetch has not attained very
much popularity here, and the pref
erence should be given to what is
variously known as winter, hairy, or
sandy vetch, all the same variety.
If we were to sow it at all, we
would sow It with winter rye, using
a half bushel of vetch and a bushel
; of rye per acre, mixed and sown
J with the ordinary grain drill. It
should be sown in August or Sept
ember, or at same time rye is sown,
as it starts rather slowly. It should
not be sown after October 1st. The
crop may be made into hay or al
lowed to form seed and threshed in
an ordinary threshing machine.
If allowed to go to seed It will
reseed the land for several years to
come. In fact, It is objectionable in
the intermountain states because of
this habit of reseeding itself and be
coming a weed. We do not think
there is any large place for retch in
the clover country; but south of the
clover country it might be used to
very great advantage when sown
with rye either for seed or for a
hay crop. It has been sown to some
extent by nurserymen as a cover
crop for their orchards in the north
ern part of our territory. It serves
this purpose well and reseeds itself,
but is very liable to mildew. Out
side of this, clover is a much better
j leguminous crop in the northern por
tion of our territory than vetch.?
The Stain of Life.
This is a busy, active world, and
the man succeeds best who has the
greatest health and strength to
fight the battles of life. You can't
be healthy, strong and clear-minded
if you suffer from constipation, dys
pepsia, liver trouble, flatulency,
heartburn, etc. To cure these dis
eases take Dr. Caldwell's Syrup Pep
sin. the great regulator. It is abso
lutely guaranteed to do what is
claimed, and if you would like to try
it before buying, send your address
for a free sample bottle to Pepsin
Syrup Co., 119 Caldwell Bldg., Monti
cello, 111. It is sold by Hood Bros.
| a Bank accoud j
I Saves You ?
Loss of Yoney and Loss of JB
Saves Yoa j *
Time in making settlements 1
and disputes about them jg|
5 afterwards ?
rZii*&r.2 Saves*You ?
3 And your family risk of 0
J life oi personal injury
i And Makes I
g a written receipt of all your fl
9 payments and business M
8 4 per cent Mr annum compound- fl
Jed quarterly paid on Savings De- jK
J WILSON, :: North Carolina
Do Not E'ail to
Get a Bottle of
Rice's G. G. Liniment, For Rheuma
Neuralgia and all pains it is the
best remedy sold. Try a bottle and
you will never be without it as thou
sands are ready to praise It. Manu
factured, by the Goose Greese Com
pany, of Greensboro, and sold by
Johnston & Holt, Smithfield, N. C.
Do the Work!
For Dump Carts, Log
Carts, Road Carts and
all kinds of Wagons
call on me. All kinds
of wood and blacksmith
work done on short
notice. See oar Cold
Tire Shrinking machine.
Let me do your work. .
J. H. Wellons,
Prineeton, N. C.
We now sell Hardware, Mill Sup
plies, Paints, Coffins and other
If you are going to build and
need anything in the way of
building material I think I can
suit you. Flooring, Ceiling,
Mantels Window and Door
Frames and Shingles. I sell
both Paroid and Neponset Roof
ing Call to se? me.
John I. Barnes
Clayton. N. C.
uments, and Iron
Fence For Sale!
Write for prices. Fair deal
ing to all who patronize us.
Dunn Marble works
M. B WILLIAMS, Prop.
We manufacture and sell
Rough and Dressed Lumber,
Shingles, Brackets, Porch
Trimmings and turned work.
Heavy Turning a Specialty.
Come ana see our Material.