THE GERMAN BREAK
PASSPORTS HANDED AM
President Wilson Warns the Kai
ser That Ruthless Sacrifice of
American Lives Means War.
Ambassador Gerard and All
Consuls Ordered Out of Ger
many. Neutrals Are Notified
of the Action Taken.
An Associated Press dispatch
from Washington dated Febru
ary 3, and published in Sunday's
President Wilson has broken
off diplomatic relations with
Germany and warned the Kaiser
that ruthless sacrifice of Ameri
can lives and rights m^ans war.
Similar action is waiting for
Austria when she notifies this
government that she joins in the
campaign of unrestricted sub
The President made formal
announcement of his action to
the country and to the world
Saturday at a joint session of
Passports have been handed
to Count Von Bernstorff. Am
bassador Gerard with all his
staff and all American consuls
have been ordered out of Ger- ,
many. All German consuls in |
the United States are expected!
to withdraw that the severance j
of relations may be complete, j
American diplomatic interests j
in Berlin have been turned over
to Spain ; German diplomatic I
interests in the United States |
have been taken over by Switz- j
erland. Foreign diplomatic inter- j
ests which the United States had
in charge in Germany have been j
turned over to various neutrals, j
Two years of diplomatic ne- j
gotiation, marked with frequent j
crises and attended with the loss |
of more than 200 American lives
on the high seas, have culminat
ed with an act which in all the
history of the world always has
led to war. Every agency of the
American government has been
set in motion to protect the
country against acts of German
sympathizers. These moves are
of necessity being kept secret.
With the notice of severance
of relations the United States
sent to Berlin a demand for the
immediate release of 64 Ameri
cans taken from ships captured
by German raiders in the South
At the request of the Presi
dent Congress immediately after
hearing his address began work
on new laws framed by the De
partment of Justice to check
conspiracies and plots against
the United States which cannot
now be reached under existing
The question of convoying
American merchant ships
through the submarine blockade
has been taken up and is being
considered as one of the next
moves by this government.
The news of the torpedoing
of the American steamer Housa
tonic, coming almost before
President Wilson's words in
Congress had died away, creat
ed a tremendous sensation but
it does not necessarily consti
tute an invasion of American
rights as the President said he
would meet by asking Congress
for additional authority to act.
Only the establishment of the
exact facts can determine
whether the sinking of the ship
was a new attack on American
rights or whether the case comes
within the range of other Amer
ican ships carrying contraband,
destroyed in accordance with in
ternational law and presenting
a case to be settled under its pre
Admittedly, if the Housatonic
was sunk without warning, or
with loss of American life, it
will amount to little less than an
act of war and be followed by
all the consequences which the
President so clearly pointed out
in his address.
Neutral governments have
been notified of the action of the
United States and have openly
been invited to follow its action
if the new submarine campaign
violates their rights.
The breaking . of relations
came with a crash, despite the
fact that it had been discounted,
and practically determined up
on last night. The President
returning from his night confer
ence with the Senators deter
mined that a break in relations
was the only act "consistent
with the dignity and the honor
of the United States." He work
ed most of the night preparing
his address to Congress.
PLAN U. S. ARMY OF 2,000.000.
All Youths From 18 to 20 May Be
Called. The General "KtafT of Army
Working on Flans for More Sol
Washington, Feb. 3. ? Plans for im
mediate action in case of war with
Germany have been worked out by
the General Staff of the army, it was
learned to-day. They involve these
To use the regular army and the
National Guard as a nucleus to train
an army of 2,000,000 a ye^r, sending
no troops to Europe during that pe
To obtain immediate passage of a
universal military service law and
calling out the first three classes un
Extensive establishment of train
ing camps in every State.
Putting American munition plants
and other factories to work furnishing
supplies and munitions for an army
of 2,000,000 men and converting other
factories for this work.
It would be futile, army men say,
to send any of the present army to
Europe. Russia lost 80,000 officers in
the first ten months of the war, they
said ? more than the total strength
of the United States army.
General staff plans call for 100 ar
my divisions of 20,000 each. Fifty
thousand officers would be needed. At
present there are 6,000 officers avail
Youths reaching the years of 18, 19
and 20, the first year would be called.
Each year 1,000,000 boys reach each
of these ages. One-third of them, it
is estimated, are unfit physically for
military service ? leaving about 666,
000 in each class.
The plan suggested is that of Ja
pan, which has sent no troops to Eu
rope, but has defended its own waters
and has prepared steadily for any
trouble. This it is declaied, is the log
ical plan for the United States. ? New
York Evening Sun.
GERMANY TO RELEASE MEN.
Accedcs to Demand of United States
to Let Go Free Seventy-Two
Berlin, Feb. 4 (via London, Feb 5)
? Germany today acceded to the
American demands for the immediate
release of the 72 Americans taken
from ships sunk by the raider in the
Atlantic and brought to a German
port aboard the steamer Yarrowdale.
One of the last things to be done
by the United States government
before severing relations with Ger
many was to demand that the Ameri
cans taken by the German raider from
the British steamers Georgic, Mount
Temple and Voltaire and who were
being held in German prison camps
be released. A Washington dispatch
Saturday said there were 60 of these
men. Germany, in holding them con
tended that as paid members of the
crews of armed enemy merchantmen
they were due no immunity.
SIMMONS AND WILSON CONFER.
Both Are Satisfied Congress Will Ap- <
prcpriate For War Any Funds Nec
essary. No $3,000,000,000 Bond Is
Washington, Feb. 4. ? Senator Sim
mons stated tonight, after an hour's
conference with President Wilson at
the White House, that he discussed
in a general way with the President
the prospects of getting the present
revenue bill through the senate be
fore March 4th. ^he senator admit
ted that the proposition of raising
additional revenue by bond issue or
otherwise, should this country be
forced into war with Germany, was
There was a report about town
that the President had asked the
senator if he thought a $5,000,000,
000 bond issue could be put through
the present Congress, immediately if
necessary, but the North Carolina
senator said no such proposition was
discussed. The President arKl Sena
tor Simmons went over the revenue
proposition in a general way and
both apparently are satisfied that
Congress will appropriate any
amount of money needed, in the
event that war is actually declared.
National Committeeman A. W.
McLean arrived here tonight to spend
several days. Accompanied by Mrs.
McLean, he has been spending some
time in the east. He said the people
with whom he met are standing with
the President, and a large per cent
of them heartily approve his course
with regard to the severance of
diplomatic relations with the central
powers. ? Parker R. Anderson, in The
STRIKING CHANGES IN COTTON
Most Spectacular Slump n History.
May Option Breaks 500 Points.
Dun's Review, 3rd.
Nothing in previous experience
parallels the week's events in the cot
ton market. With the unexpected
announcement, of the nc\y German
submarine policy, and the conse
quent threate ?d rupture of diplo
matic relations with that country,
prices sustained the worst shakedown
in history, breaking 375 to 500 points
and more soon after the opening on
Thursday. Thus, from a previous
closing of about 17" a nt.s, the March
delivery derlired vith bewildering ra
pidity to ct.ju , M*;.:le the May
option dropped in even more startling
fashion, going down from 17.66 cents
to 12% cents with in a few minutes.
Such wild fluctuations have never be
fore been approached, much less du
plicated, and the readjustments in
December, which were with reason
called spectacular, seem moderate by
comparison. Pressure to sell cotton
contracts, because of the grave pos
sibilities in the international situa
tion, came at a time when there was
no large outstanding short interest
in the market, and the absence of this
supporting influence naturally accen
tuated the depression, as did the col
lapse of priccs on the Stock Exchange.
Buying orders, however, appeared at
the bottom levels and a quick and
violent recovery was witnessed,
though quotations, both for spot and
futures, ended the week materially
It seems strange, in viewing the
present position of the market, to re
call thfe fact that little more than two
months age some people were predict
ing 25 cents for the southern staple.
All realize now, and have for some
time, that the great speculative boom
which raised the May and July deliv
eries to the 21% -cent basis in Novem
ber was carried beyond the point of
safety, and in the light of this week's
events it is fortunate that drastic
readjustments were experienced on
the November advance, the May de
livery has sustained an extrema break
of 9 cents a pound, or $45 a bale, and
spot middling uplands at New York
has declined from 20.95 cents to 14.30
cents, a loss of about $33 a bale. Yet
the options still are $15 a bale higher
than a year ago, while spots show a
similar difference of 'fully $10.
Roosevelt Pledges His Support.
Oyster Bay, Feb. 3. ? Col. Theodore
Roosevelt tonight pledged his support
to President Wilson in upholding the
honor of the United States. He offered
to the country his own services and
those of his four sons in the event of
BERNSTORFF'S VOICE HUSKY.
Lierman Ambassador Declares His
Life Work Has Failed; He Is Out of
Politics. Tears Filled His Eyes.
Washington, Feb. 3. ? Count J. H.
von Bernstorff, the German ambassa
dor, heartbroken that his years of un
remitting toil to preserve friendly re
lations between the United States and
Germany had collasped in failure, to
night prepared to leave the country.
He told friends that nothing in his
long and brilliant career in diplomacy
had affected him so much as to be
handed his passports and told to leave
a country for which he always had
ielt the closest attachment.
"I don't care what happens to me
now; I am out of politics forever; my
life work has failed," the ambassador
said, with a show of emotion soon af
ter he had been handed his passports
by a state department representative.
Tears welled in his eyes as the am
bassador talked to the newspaper men
in the red room of the embassy fol
lowing the state department embas
sy's visit. His voice was husky and he
faltered in speech at times, showing
unmistakable evidence of regret that
he must depart from the scene of his
many triumphs in other years.
Ambassador von Bernstorff receiv
ed his passports at 1:52 o'clock this
afternoon from the hands of Assist
ant Solicitor Lester H. Woolsey, of
the State department. With the pass
port which provided for the recall not
only of the ambassador but his family
and suite, the ambassador was given
a duplicate of the speech the Presi
dent delivered before Congress.
Before the passports were deliver
ed, the ambassador and other officials
of the embassy knew that a break was
imminent. When he received definite
word that diplomatic relations had
been broken, he informed Countess
Bernstorff of the news. The embassy
officials and employes were immedi
ately called into the ambassador's of
fice and told what had happened. All
attaches of the embassy immediately
began packing up their personal ef
fects, preparatory to their departure.
There was a complete suspension of
business within the embassy and the
clerical forces talked only of the pos
sibilities of war growing out of the
diplomatic break. All connected with
the embassy were apprehensive that
a bigger crisis may soon come.
MUST FRNCE DUPLIN COUNTY.
Will Be About 218 Miles of Fence
Estimated to Cost Over $100,600.
The restraining order against the
county commissioners of Duplin, to
restrain them from building a fence
around the county, was dismissed by
Judge C. C. Lyon at the hearing at
The mandamus to compel them to
build the fence was heard at the same
time, and the judge issued an order
of pre-emptory mandamum, compell
ing the commissioners to build the
fence as required by the statute.
The statute requires the "building
of a fence around the county, or such
parts thereof as border on stock law
territory," and around all the old
special stock law districts, about 219
miles of fence estimated to cost over
The sentiment in the county has
changed considerably since the vote
was taken in 1915, and a great many
of the people who voted for the
free range are now opposed to the
old system, and to the paying of a
tax for building the fence. ? Warsaw
special in Charlotte Observer.
Congress Overrides President's Veto.
Washington, Feb. 5. ? Congress has
overridden a veto by President WilsOn
for the first time and enacted into law
the immigration bill with its long
fought literacy test provision. The
senate voted late today 62 to 19 to
pass the measure, the eleventh-hour
information that Japan again had
protested against the language of the
Asiatic exclusion section.
The house overturned the veto last
week by a vote of 287 to 106, so the
senate's action ends the contest of 20
years' standing in which three presi
dents have repudiated similar bills
passed by Congress.
Snow In Charleston.
Charleston, Feb. 5. ? At 1 o'clock
this morning a light fall of snow be
gan accompanied by a strong wind.
It is the first snow of the winter.
PRESIDENT HOPING FOIt PEACE, i
American Officials Are Now Only S
Awaiting An Overt Act. Eavestone
Case Is Not Final. It Will lie Inves
tigated Before Assigned As Factor
In the Situation. Our Course .Must
He Above Criticism.
Washington, Feb. 5. ? While the
United States stands before the world
court of public opinion in the anxious
waiting period which will determine
peace /or war with Germany, Presi
dent~Wilson is determined that there
shall be no word or deed to merit a
reproach, even from Germany hersolf.
Nothing is to be done which is not
fully justified by the laws of nations
and humanity; nothing is to be done
for expediency; nothing is to be done
which is not legal and just.
With a hope for pcacc and a readi
ness to meet war if it must be, the
President has made it clear to all his
officials that the course of the United
States, difficult as it is, must be en
tirely beyond criticism.
To that end German rights and
property in the United States are to
have full protection of law, and the
President wishes every American cit
izen to forbear from any thought or
act which might lead his country
nearer to war.
Hope that Germany might at the
last moment modify her declaration
of unrestricted submarine warfare
was almost dissipated today by n~ws
despatches from Berlin which gave
the word of high German officials that
there would be no turning back.
With that hope waning, American
officials now only wait an actual dem
onstration of how the new decree will
affect American rights. The news of
the killing of an American seaman in
the shelling of the boats of the Brit
ish steamer Eavestone is not now re
garded as the long-feared overt act.
It will be thoroughly investigated
before it is assigned to its proper
place as a factor in the situation.
Meanwhile Austria's case still is
undetermined. While it is known that
the dual monarchy has officially ad
hered to Germany's declaration, as it
now stands before the State Depart
ment, her announced intentions are
somewhat different from Germany's,
but it is doubtful if there can be a
real distinction. Rupture of relations
with Austria seems no less certain
than it did, but the situation must go
through definite processes before a
decision is announced.
Although engrossed in the tack of
preparing the country for any event
uality, President Wilson has not lost
sight of the participation neutrals
must have in the terms of peace ?
terms which he hopes will insure the
world against another conflagration.
AMERICAN KILLED IN
A SUBMARINE ATTACK.
London, Feb. 5. ? The British steam
er Eavestonc, 1,791 tons, has been
sunk and the captain and four mem
bers of the crew killed, says an an
nouncement by Lloyd's.
It is officially announced that Rich
ard Wallace an American seaman be
longing at Baltimore, was killed in
the shelling of the boats which left
the sinking steamer.
The official statement says:
'^Survivors of the steamship Eave
stone who landed today, report that
their ship was sunk by shell fire from
a German submarine. The crew aban
doned the sinking ship and were shell
ed in their boats by the submarine.
"The master and three seamen were
thus killed and the second mate was
severely wounded. Among the killed
was Richard Wallace, of Baltimore."
The steamer Eavestone sailed from
Liverpool. Her subsequent movements
have not been recorded in available
The British ship Isle of Arran, of
1,918 tons has been sunk by a sub
marine, two of her crew being injur
ed by shell fire, Lloyd's shipping
agency announced today. ? Greensbo
HENRY FORI) OFFERS HIS
PLANT TO THE GOVERNMENT
Detroit, Mich., Feb. 4. ? Henry Ford,
the automobile manufacturer and
peace advocate, is said to be in Wash
ington today conferring with Presi
dent Wilson and other officials of the
government. It is reported here that
Mr. Ford goes to offer the use of the
Ford plant here to the- government.
? International News Service.
SATURDAY IN LEGISLATURE.
uHrage !*sue In House February 9.
A (till Passed Authorizes Highway
Commission to Receive Federal
Road 1' und. Another Duplin Free
Range Bill Introduced. Hard Fight
Ahead for Newspaper Bill. House
Does Day's Work.
Raleigh,, N. C., Feb. 3.? Only the
House of Representatives did legis
lative work today. The bill of most in
terest passed by the House was that
to authorize the State Highway Com
mission to receive from the Federal
Government the State's portion of the
$85,000,000 road fund.
The measure carries no appropria
tion or other means for providing the
maintenance of highways that is es
sential on the part of State to benefit
by any part of this Federal fund.
When the bill was first laid before
the House some thought it was in
volving the automobile tax fund, and
they were ready to fight it.
Suffrage Question, February 9th.
The House voted to set the suffrage
question as it is to come up this ses
sion as a special order for February
9th. This will be in the form of a
bill by Roberts, of Buncombe, to pro
vide that any municipality can by ma
jority portion elect to extend the fran
chise to its women in elections on
municipal issues. The bill has favora
ble report from committee and is now
on the calendar awaiting its fate un
der this special order for considera
tion next Friday.
It looks like the bill by the after
noon press association to have a revis
ion and some advance in the compen
sation for legal advertising will have
to have a fight on the floor in its be
half before it gets through. It was
offered on second reading in the House
today and Representative Brummitt
called on the members of the House to
look into the bill very carefully. He
said opposition had developed in the
committee and numbers of members
had been obliged to go to their homes
and were not here today for its con
sideration. Therefore, he wanted it to
go over to Monday. This course was
taken after such men as Dougliton, of
/illeghany, Clark, of Pitt, and others
had spoken strongly in its support.
It looks like it may be necessary for
some of the members to hear from
their newspaper constituents at home
before they line up for the bill.
Petitions for the Anti-Saloon
League legislation were presented
from Alamance, Union, Bertie and
other counties, also a number of pe
titions for election of county school
boards by the people.
New Bills in House.
New bills were presented as fol
Brummitt? Regulate the sale of
McRackan? Regulate fishing and
hunting in Columbus County.
Pergram (by request) Amend the
law of 1913 as to the practice of os
teopathy; authorize city aldermen to
levy sufficient taxes to pay interest
Sanders ? Provide for greater se
crecy in the presentments made by
Another Duplin Free Range Bill.
Representative Pegram introduced
by request a bill for the repeal of the
Duplin County stock law, explaining
that the representative from Duplin
is sick now in a hospital.
Representative Sawyer, of Graham,
introduced a bill to provide for the
care of dependent families of prison
ers. ? W. J. Martin, in Wilmington
WILSON'S VETO IS OVERRIDDEN.
House Passes I m migration Bill by
Vote of 285 to 106.
Washington, Feb. 1. ? The House of
Representatives tonight passed the
immigration bill, prescribing a liter
acy test for applicants for admission
to this country, over the veto of Pres
ident Wilson. The vote was 285 to 106,
a substantial margin over the two
thirds vote required by the constitu
The supporters of the bill will make
an earnest effort to force the measure
through the Senate by a two-thirds
vote before the session ends. They de
clare they have the necessary vote.
The five-story brick building oc
cupied by Thomas Kelly & Co., blan
ket manufacturers, of Boston, was de
stroyed by fire Monday at a loss of