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l faction 'of 33 Jj per cent, will be made to those
on; being slandered, ' 1 ;
V Not 431 Jtheyj say or do can make " . . t '
; ly liad, or! tooth, or finger ache .'- '
1 Nor (War mjj shape, nof-scar ray faw,jJfpC
-i r vor ftut onqfetature out of place ; - .
Nor i'ill ten( thousand thousand lies, : -.
'jlakl nie legs ;virtnous, learned or wise;
i The jnost effectual way to baulk;-
Theii fcaKcjs lay to let them talk; ' '. 1
i . ur ir- - -:
jifc ixfffm 13' Observer RcporteFJScpt. 3.
nnaiici Coukitcrfelters Arrest etf '
1 i K, 1 1 . .-..v."-
The inos extensive counterfeiting es-
lishmerl , perhaps iri the United States,
jiasbecn jtji t dis .ovcred in our State, witb-
ia forty rn lies of fihis place, which has
;s, however, been in existence a
h of fime. It is upon the farm
formerly owned and occupied by the fa
ther of prc$:nt ojjcupants-oAi Banton
id. years before he left for Tex
usaspcctcl of cjarrying on the counter
feiung c-f b w atuhis establishment. In-
it Vf 3 r remember rightly, , he .'was
wee or twice arrested many years ago.
jpoo this c larg-ej but being a very astute
nan, with! .ousiderable property, he was
always eni bled! to escape the punishment
io which h wajs justly entitled. Finally;
Wrr-ver. he was IcomnelM to leave the
State, antfat'tHd last accounts from Jiim
vas in that hitfierto land of refugee fAlons
- ;:MTIPR .- & 'JA3IES;
Keep acitecic won all Tora
Rclees. Do toisajto LrnintTT '
. . Gen'l. Harrison. '
rKUMBEU ;23, OF VOLUMB JL
IS SAFE. ! -3:sZ K -
Fromjthe National Intelli
RING EXPEDITION; k
Wc have rjowto accompany Capt; Fre
mont and hishard V and adventurous com
panions on theirlliomeAVard route ; and, in
doing so, we hardly know whether the
courage Hvhfch-fnever quailed before the
V . '' v , III.' - .
dangers of that : route, the perseverance
which nevertfalfered before obstacles ap
parently the most unconquerable, or the
promptitude? add never-failing resources
which Jumished the means bv which eon.
I bis was the rlamath lake. Il waij a pictu
resque and beatiful spot, and renderotj more at
tractive: to us bf the abundant anil excellent
grass, which our animals, after travelling through
pine forests, so much needed ; hut the hroad
sheet of water which constitutes a la)ie was nit
to be. seen. - Overlooking it, immediately west,
were several snowy knobs, belongmrj to what
we have considered a branch of thcT Cascade
range. A low point covered with iWs made
out into the lake, which afforded us a good place
for an encampment, and for4he security of our
horses, which were guarded in vitjw ion the
open meadow.. The character of dourage and
hostility attributed to the Indians of this quar
ter induced more than' usual perceptiop ; and,
seeing smokes rising from the middle of the
lake (or savannah and alon the
rage and perevferdnce attained their endsjj1 directed Ahe howitzer to he fired, fit was the
kdmired; It is sufficient Crsfme our guides had seen it discharged ;
faFm and effects he left in
a three sons, one of whom
b since dead, ybere they have been since
possession of h
It seems that some two months ago, G.
W. Itobin? oh, (familiarly known about
here as " I 'aih'liobironnvho was rais
ed in Ma(li son county in this State, and
vbojolloy'cd-anibling as a means of
livelihood J was arrested in Columbus,
Georgia, pr pissing counterfeit money.
The monej cohupted of notes on the Batik
of Charleston, ftid (he. South Western Rail
Road Bar$ , and such; was the skill with
which thrl were executed, that he sue-
from 65 to
i , 1 a n..'
passing one hundred and ninety
lotcsf ot various- denominations
8100, upon a keen-sighted bro-
I'iwvy receiving in reuirn goiu
are most tobe
that their happy; combination in this in
stance led to a successful and tnost valu
abte-result. Wle are confident that, what
ever success may' attend the third expe
dition, those engagccJUn it will deserve to
oe successiui. vve iook lor us return
with increasing I interest ; confident that
the aggregate rroduction of the three ex
peditions of Cipt. Fki2nont will be a
source of mpre han common honor and
fame to fiirr ami his worthy fellow-laborers,
and redound to the credit of the coun-
try- I - I . :;:r
We took let .ve of the, expedition, in
our notice, dt the Dallesw of the Colum-
bia, about ifteei miles below the fails. of
the river, viierc Capt. F. had collected a
supply of pjjrovh ions sufficient for his par
ty for not jess than three months, also
some live cfatllc. The number of horses
and mulesjmu :tcred by tbe expedition
was 101 fdr "the sustenance of Which,
our reliaTicje (sajys the Captain) was upon
the grass whicq we should find, and the
and the bursting of the -shell at a distance,
which wa something like the second fire of the
gun, amazed and bewildered them with delight.
It inspired them with triumphant feelings ; but
on the cimps'at a distance the effect was dif
ferent,- for the smokes in the lake and on the
shores immediately disappeared, j
The point on which we were! encamped
forms, with the opposite eastern shores a nar
row neck, connecting the body of the lake with
a deep cove or bay which receives j the princi
pal affluent stream, and over the greater
part, of which the water (or rather ice) ) was at
this time dispersed in shallow poofs. Among
the grass, and scattered over the prairie lake,
appeared to be similer marshes. It is simply
a shallow basin, which, for a shorjt period at
the time of melting snows, is covered wjth wa
ter from the neighboring mountains ; tut this
probably sotfn runs off, and leaves! for I the re
mainder, of the year a green savannah, through
the midst of which the river Tlamath, which
flows to the ocean, winds its-: way t the outlet
on the southwestern side.
the ajiimals bid repose the party. Forming
agreeably to the best maps in my posession, a
connected wjiter-line from the, Rocky moun
tains to the Pjacific ocean, I felt no other anxi
ety than to pass safely across the intervening
deser to the banks of the Buenaventura,
wler4 in the softer climate of a more southern
latitude,' our horses might find grass to sustain
them,! and ourselves be sheltered from the rig
ors ol winter and from the inhosDitahle desort.
Tho jguides who had conducted us thus far on
our journey were about to return ; and I en
deavored in vain to ohtain others to lead us,
even for a few days, in the direction (east) which
we wished to go. . The chief to whom I ap
plied alleged he want of horses, and the snosv
on the mountains across which our course would
carry, us, and sickness of his family, as reasons
for refusing t6 go with us."
On the 13th, however, " in the midst of the
wood, we heard the sound of golloping horses,
and were agreeably surnaised bv the unex-
lands beyond; but I distrusted the anrjcarance
of the country, and decidetUto (blluwji plainly
beaten Indian trail leading alone this (side of
the lake. We were how in a country where
scarcity of water and of grass makes travel
ling dangerous, and Vreat caution was neces
On Christmas day the party bad made
a tour of 4G0 miles from the -Dalies, and
were in latitude 42 deg. 00 min. 09 sc:,
and longitude (about) 121 deg.J: conse
quently on the'di yision-line between Ore
gon and Mexico. The narrative says :
" We-were roused on Chrktmasmorninff bv
a discharge from the small arms and howitzer
era! other interesting places, where 'water and
smoke or gas escape but they would require a
long description; The water is impregnated
with common saju but not so much as to render
it unfit for general cooking ; and a mixture of
snow made it pleasant to dnnk.' n , , - -
Our situation now reqinredcaution. i.lncliN "
ding those which' gave out from the injured ton'
dition of their feet, and those stolen by Indians,
we had lost, since leavmgthe Dalles of the Co
lumbia, lilieen animals ; and of these, nine had
been left in the last few days,y I therefore ue- ,
termincuV until we should reach a countiy of
water and vegetation, to feel oar way ahead, by
having the line' of route explored some fifieen or
twenty mils in advance, and only. to leave a. ;r
present encampment when hs succeeding, ono
was known. ' a -Taking
with me Godey and Carson, I made v
to-day a thorough exploration of tho neigh-.,
boring valleys, and fuund ih a ravine intbo
bordering . mountains god-campings flace,'
where was water in springs, and a sufii-v.
cient quantity, of grass fr a' night. , Over'."
shadowing the springs were some trees of the
sweet cotton-wood, which, after a long Interval
of absence, wc saw again with pleasurei reganl-t r
ing them as harbingers of & IwUer cpuntry.-7- r
To us, theiy- were eloquent of greeny prairies..,
and bulTalo. Wc .found here a broad and plain- .'7
ly marked trail, on which there were tracks "of ,'
horses, and we appeared to have regained one ot
of our Tlamath chief, with sev.
He seemed to have found his
pitable in letting the strangers de-
it but 2'ncr cdnt' diennnt. SMmrtlv nfti.
t)e .excfigcwjEis- made, one of the notes softorous vcop which was to be its sub
December 11. We have the
interesting particulars relative to the Tla
was apon jt xarrtination thought tobe npt
genuine, y iichf led to a more criticalex
.:.a!j : .fii,. -..1. ' t i e a 1 -.m ,i -
puuttuuujui iiK wuumoi inem,wnen iney
were all lpundf to. be qounterfeit. One half
. 1 H '
ci me Dusmess
iff. protested it
rd, and ii
nen of Columbus, hovvev-
at they were genuine, un-
fcvents forced upon them
jui tneir Daseness.r
n was thereupon arrested, but
vehecientlv bit innocence, sta-
b wis a lventuckv drover, and
ed this monev for stock he
lis i4qom however, was search-
jthe liininjr of a fellow lodger's
clo-ik, it u-kis djicavcred that he had con
cealed near a thousand dollars of the same
money, and aWo a bunch of skeleton keys,:
vuicn hejlao:; with him tonswer certain
purposes . H'Heiij ! lis counterfeit money fail
ed him. - He w is tried before an examin
ing court,! indjt in evidence heitg as we
lave stated, there was no hesitation as to
fis guilt d id hlefwas sent on for final Vrial
Vfore thdlCrilMual Court.. Shortly after
lis impjris nmfnt lie was taken sick, and
yasso illlL that (he physician supposed he
past die. j Undpr 'this belief himself, he-!
wntfor'sA'crargentleme and made a
lull confelkion arid detaildall the circum-
jiaDcesauput tlie counterfeit money which
stitute wThen tli sr.e was none.
! The expediti in commenced its home
ward march or the . 25th of November,
"At the rqques of Mr. Perkins," one of
the missionaries at the Dalles
"A Chinfjok Indian, a lad of nineteen, who
was extiembly anfsious to 'see the whites,' and
make some Incqnapntance with our institutions,
was received iniojthe party; under my special
charge, wilsh the Understanding that I would
again ret urh him to his (riends He had lived
for some time in the household of Mr. Perkins,
and spoke a fowl words of tho English lan
has been fouri
upon him. He told them
u the money, as an agent.
Ifromr the Barilon's (John
in Lincoln county, in this
thr-rft va5in ptIpiisivp man.
actunri'cstiblishment, for notes as well
i f01P aou t: t it was in constant" ope
tiorji Ik afecuratelV described to them
"ery por&n brhe. buildings as well as
tpe apnaratnsl rtd Varr thi-'m tho nnmps
ofmany dtl)Jir agents for the disposal
A. K. Aver, a merchant of Columbus.
J2? a genUeWiin of the highest respecta-
ntanford dn.MrMaynast. The establish-
ent'of thfe Hhhtons is abont R milps from
fet plac. j yi warrant for their arrest,
Wti the ifohnation of Mr. Ayer, having
Fand a number of the citizens nroeeeded
theVfarrh off the Bantoa's. Thev were
ft the neiffhbArKood. worn fonnrl nnrl rfr
The firt object which attracted Capt.
Fremoxt atte fition was the Tlamath
lake ; theirout! of the expedition was
therefore j almos t directly south. On the
30th the Oarative furnishes" the following
interesting scie itific information :
Coniiifuinjr alfew miles up the left bank
of the livejr, we encamped early in an open
bottom anSong th(i!rines, a short distance below
a lodge of the Indians. Here, along the river
the bhifTtpresent escarpments seven or eight
;hundred feet in hcjight, containing strata of a ve
ry fine porcelain :1 ay, overlaid, at the. height
of about five hunc red feet, Jy a massive strati
urn of compact ba saltohundredfeet4n4hick
licss, whch agaii is succeeded above by other
strata of folcanic rocks. The clay strata are
variously! colored some of the very fine grain
ed. Specimens rought from these have bedn
subjected to micr )scopical examination by Pro
fessor Bailey, of Ycst Point, and are consider
ed by hiffito cons tituto one of the most remark
able depfsitcs of fluviatile infusoria on record.
While (tjiey uhc und in genera and species
which ale comrr on in fresh water, but which
rarely trive whsre thewater is even brack
ish, not ne dec dedly marine form is to be
found among lem ; and their fresh-water
01 igin 1 is Itjherefori beyond a doubt. It is equal
ly certain that they lived and died at the situa
tion whefe they were fodnd.as they could scarce-
ly have Jijeen transported ny running waters
J ... . 1 l ' r j..
" When wo had arrived within Half a mile
of the village, two persons were seen advan-
. 1. 1 .in': y.
cmg to meet us ; ana, to please the lancy ol
ourgnides, wc ranged ourselves Sinto a long
line, riding abreast, which they galloped ahead
to meet the strangers. i j
"We were surprised, on riding up, to find
ono of them a woman, having never before a
squaw to take any part in the business of war.
They were the village chief and his wife, who,
in excitement and alarm at the unusual event
and appearance, had come out toj meet their
fate together. The chief was a tery .prepos
sessing Indian, with-very handsome fejatures,
and a singularly soft and agreeable as to at
tract general notice.
"The huts were grouped together on the
bank of the river, which, from being spread
out in a shallow marsh at the upper end of the
lake, was collected here into a single stream.
They were large round huts, perhaps 20 feet
in diameter, with rounded tops, or which was
the door by. which they descended 1 into khe in
terior. Within, they were supported by posts
" Almost like plants, these people seem to
have adapted themselves to the soil, antf to be
growing on What the immediate locality affor
ded. Their only subsistence at this time ap
peared to be a small fish, ere at quantities of
. - w m
feit.-.- -IT J
iisume it o
-"l extend w
then proceeded to the es
the, lianton's, which they
found the most complete
establishment for counter-
tlm r..-..i it.
ited Sihtesl-nrcsses. one of which will
:eiSaibUl'fivIthniisnnd nnnnrl tnmn
2ruiUs, with a large quantity of
iur' XUG "anions were ta
.i 0 hnford tried on Saturday, and
furlhej: trial--the Courtat the
0ru1brin5 the' ShnrifT in inhn ir
Jnll the above" described arfi-
llr 4? .tefs we have from Mr A.?
to?sd? m Mhom the people of Ken-
jynHi;nued of the whole Uhionare
. -VI lift)
whieh, that had been smoked and dried
suspended on strings about the lodge.
tf straw were lying around ; and their residence
in the midst of graas and rushes had
them a peculiar skill in converting 'this
al to useful purposes. Their shoes were made
of straw orgrass, which seemed wll adapted
for a snowy country ; and the wornqn wore on
their head a closely woven
a very good cap. Among
parti-colored mats about four feet square; which j
wc purchased to lay on the snow under our
blankets, and to use for table cloths.
" Numbers of singular-looking dgs, resem
bling wolves, were sitting on the tops of the
hutsj and of these we purchased a young one,
which, after its birthplace, was named Tla
math. The language spoken bythtse ndians
is different . from that of the Shoshonee and
Columbia fiver tribes ; and otherwise than by
signs they cannot understand each other.
They made us comprehend .that they Were at
.v . . t, npnn rt .VKft ivoh t the! south.
without tin admixture of sandy1 particles; fronH , n , . J ' rapf1 . h. T onlM fhiaJn
wnicn, npwever, aiiey are ruuiiMKULMj jjcc ;
part without 4 guide through the snow, and had
come, with a few others, to pilot ul a day or
two on the way.
On the I4th the party struck a stream which
subsequent information satisfied Capt. F., was
the principal branch of the "Sacramento river ;
and, consequently, that this main affluent of the
bay of San Francisco had its source within
the limits of jthe United States, and opposite a
tributary to the Columbia, and near thejhead
of the Tlamath river, which goes to the ocean
north of 42, and within the United States."
"December 15. A present, consisting of
useful goods, afforded much satisfaction to our
guides ; and, showing them the national flag,
I explained that it was a symbol of our nation :
and they engaged always to receive it in a
friendly manner. The chief pointed out a
course, by following which wc would arrive at
the big water1, where no more snow was to be
On the, lOthe of December we have the
following vvid description of the posi
tion of the expedition, and of the scenery
which surrounded them ;
" We travelled this morning through snow
about three febt deep, which, being crusted, ve
ry much cut the feet of our animals. The
mountain slilligradually rose ; we crossed se
veral spring heads covered with quaking asp ;
otherwise it was all pine forest. The air was
dark with falling snow, which every where
weighed down the trees.- I he depths of the
forest were profoundly still, and below we
scarce felt a breath of the wind which whirl
ed the snow through their branches. I found
that it required some exertion of constancy to
adhere steadily: to one course -through the
woods, when we were uncertain how far the
forest extended, or what lay beyond; and on
account of ouri animals, it would bo bad to
spend anotherj night on the mountain. To
words noon the forest looked clear ahead, ap
pearinguddenly to terminate, and beyond a
certain point vfo could see no trees. Riding
rapidly ahead tlo this spot, we found ourselves
ob the verge of a vertical and rocky wall of the
mountain. At our feet more than a thou
sand feet below vvc looked into a green prai
rie country, jwhjch a beautiful lake, some twen
ty! miles in length, was spread along the foot
of the mountains, its shores bordered with
the thoroughfares which tasslythdwatering
with which our people saluted the day, and the places of the country. On the western moun,.
name of which we bestowed on the lake. It tains ofthe valley, with-whichlhjs of the boiling "
spring communicates, we; remarked scattered
cedars -probably an indication that we were on
the borders of the timbered region extending to
the Pacific. We reached the camp at sunset. .
after a day's ride of about 40 miles. Thehors.,
es we rode were in good order, being of soma
that were kept for emergencies and rarely usedJ -"Mr.
Preuss had ascended one of the moun-'
tains, and occupied the day in sketching tho
country; and Air. Fitzpatlrickhad found,' a few
miles'distant, a hollow of execlic'nt grass, and
rrcen grass. ust then the sun broke out a-
mong the clouds, and illuminated the country
below, while abound us the storm raged fierce
ly Not a particle of ice was to be seen on
the lake, or snjow on its borders, and all was
like summer oif spring. The glow of the sun
in" the valley below brightened up our hearts
Fossil infusoria ota fresh-water origin had been
previously detected by Mr. Bailey in specimens
brought fy Mr. James D. Danna from the ter
tiary formation of Oregon. MostoX the spe
cies in thbse- specimens differed so much from
those npr livingfand known, that he was led
to infer tat theyj might belong to extinct spe
cies, and considered them , also as affording
proof; of ai alteration, in the formation from
which . thy were obtained, of fresh aud salt
water deinisitesi which, common enough in
rfiurope, had not ihitherto been 'noticed in -the
United Smtes.: lComing evidently from a lo
cality enirely different, our' specimens show
very few species in common with those brought
by Mr. Danna, 1 ut bear a much closer resem
blance td those inhabiting the northeastern
States. t is po ssible that they are from a
more recent deposito ; but the presence of a
few remarkable forms which are common to
the" two kicalitiei renders it more probable that
. i . ; 1 j'itc : i :
incre is iio great aiuerence iu iucir agct
was tho first time, perhaps, in this remote and
desolate region, in which it had been so com
memorated. Always, on days of religious or
national commemoration, our voyagcurs expect
some unusual allowance ; and, having nothing
else, I gave them each a little brandy, (which
was carelully guarded, as one of the most use-
e 1 t - . 11 . .
ui arucies a traveller can carry,) with some
coffee and sugar, which here, where every eat
able was a luxury, was sufficient to make them
a least. 1 he dav was sunrv and warm 1 and.
. , - , - T
resuming our journey, we crossed some slight
dividing grounds into a similar basin, walled in
on tho right by a lofty mountain rid-re. The
plainly beaten trail still continued, and occasion
ally we passed camping grounds of the Indians,
which indicated to me that we were on one of
the great thoroughfares of the country. In the
atlernoon 1 attempted to travel in a more east
ern direction ; but after a few laborious miles,
was beaten back into the basin by an impassa
hie country. There were fresh Indian tracks
about the valley, and last night a horse was sto
len. We encamped on' the valley bottom,
where there was some cream-like water in
ponds, colored by clay soil and frozen over.
Chenopod;aceous shrubs constituted the growth,
and made again our fire wood. The animals
were driven to. tho hill, where there was tolera
bly good grass."
The general coursejf the expedition
was now again south. On New Year's
eve it had travelled a distanee of 571
miles from the Dalles, and its position was
far from being an enviable one.
"Here," sajs Capt. F., "we concluded the
year 1843, and our New Year's eve was ! rath
er a gloomy one. The result of our journey
began to be very uncertain ; the countiy was
singularly unfavorable" to travel ; the5 grasses
being frequently of a very unwholesome char,
acter, and the hoofs of our animals were so worn
and cut by the rocks that many of them were
lame and could scarcely be got along."
"New Year's day, 1844. We : continued
down the valley, between a dry looking black
ridge on the left and a more snowy arkHiigh one
on the right. Our road was bad along the bot
tom, being broken by gullies and impeded by
sage, and sandy on the bills, where there is not
a blade of grass, nor does any appear on the
mountains. The soil in many places "consists
of a fine powdery sand, covered with a saline
efflorescence ; and the general character of the
country is desert."
On the 3c January, " A fog so dense that wc
could not see a hundred yards, cohered the
country, and the men that were sent oiit after tho
horses were bewildered and lost ; and we were
consequently detained at camp until late in the
day. Our situation had now become, a serious
one. We had reached and run oven the posi
tion where, according to the best maps in my
possession, wc should have found Mary's lake,
or river. We were evidently on the verge of
the desert which had, been reported to us; and
the appearance of the country was so forbidding
that 1 Was afraid to enter it, and determined to
bear away to the southward, keeping close along
the mountains, in the full expectation of reach
ing the Buenaventura river. This morning I
put every man in camp on foot -myself, of
course, among the rest and in this manner
lightened by distribution the loads of the ani
mals. We "travelled seven orcight miles along
the ridge bordering the valley, and encamped
where there were arfew bunches oft grass on
the bed. of a hill torrent, without water. There
were some largo artimesias ; but thej principal
jojy the unexpected scene. Shivering on snow
three feet deep,; and stiffening in a cold north
wjnd, we exclaimed at once that the names of
Sbmmer Lake iand Winter Ridge should be
applied to thesi two proximate places of such j
suaaen ana vioieni cumrusw 1-
" We now immediately on the verge of the
fo'rest land, iu which we had been travelling so
so many days ; and looking forward to the east,
scarce a tree was to be seen. Viewed from
our elevation, the face of the country exhibited j plants are chenopodiaceous shrubs. 'The rock
omy rocks andSgrass, and presented a region j composing the mountains is here changed sud
irt which the larterhisia became the principal ! denlv into white granite. The fog showed the
from them no certain information, j The river
on which they live enters the Cascade jmoun
tains on the western side of the lake, and
breaks through them by a passage impractica
ble for travellers ; but over the moiintaiins, to
the northward, are passes which presents no
other obstacle than in the most impenetrable
forests. Unlike, any Indians we had previous
ly seen, these wore shells in their nsesj We
returned to our carrffjjlafter remaining here an
hour or two, accompanied by a number of In
dians., "Jn order to recruit a little the strength ' of
our animals, and obtain some acquaintance
with the locality, we remained hercjfor jhe re
mainder of the day. By observation, the lati
tude the camp was 42 56' 51", and the di
amcter of the lake, or meadow, as (has been
Untimated, about 20 miles. It is a pictures
que and beautiful spot ; and, under tie hand ot
cultivation, might become a little paradise,
Game is found in the loresi; iiraoerea ana
ligations, for his exertions
etm-nj out and breaking up this" cs-
1 1 - -
tfZ "eRF ana in bringing the counter
punishm en t they will u n-
ive at the hands of a jnry
ne M 1 Olives It , is said a .large
TefJpre cqming over to settle in
. i if it-: t .1 . v. . - . . . . 4 A 1-
Wvi trees, and forthcttanufac-
t ... '..; lrrt it. nnrl fortihtv rharsic-
Tbe Mtitudd of this place is .44 deg. 35 J ated near th. bearf cl three
. sec. longuuue i5i ues w-irivers, and on the line 01 inianu coiumuuica-
n : ; if"'-i::- v- - - ' i nn with i :.iiuornia. neuc w muioua ucu tui
;1 After iravelling a distance of 235 miles j
from theDall4s of the Columbia, princi
pally thrlugli i sandy pine forest, on De-
cember Jo " 'T.T "f-
' " Th6 )untrj began to improve ;' and about
11 o'cloclwe rtached a spring; of cold water
cnthe edife of d savahnah, or crassy rneadow,
which our iruidefe informed us was an .arm: of i
the, Tlamath lake ; and a few miles further we
entered uph aiif cxtensivemeadovv,6rlake of
tary occupation and settlement.
ih lake, the further icorttinua.
ion ofniir vovace assumed a character of dis
covery and explosion, which, from thp Ihdians
hereIL we could obtain nonformatio todirebt
and where the imaginary maps pijnti country,
instead of assisting, exposed us to suffering and
defeat. In our journey across the desert, Ma-
rv'i lake, - and the - famous" Buenaventura rivert
grass, - surrounded byV( timbered ,roountains.7-. j- were, two points on which 1 relied to recrui,
wood, furnishing to its scattered inhabitants fu
e for their firjes, building material for their
hiits, and shelter for the small games which
ministers to their hunger and nakedness.
Broadlymarkejd by the boundary of the moun
tain wall, and jimmediately below us, were the
first waters of hat great interior basin which
hds the Wahsa-tch and Bear river mountains
for its eastern, and the Sierra Nevada for its
western rim, and the edge of which we had en
ted upwards of three months before at the
Great Salt lake.
;" When we lUd sufficiently admired the scene
below, we begjan to think about descending
which here wajs impossible, and we returned
towards the northravelling always along the
rocky wall. We continued on for fouror five
miles, making ineffectual attempts at several
plkces ; and at length succeeded in getting down
at one which was eitremely difficult of descent.
NHit bad closed in before the foremost reach
tops of the hills at sunset, and stars enough for
observations in the early evening, and then
closed over us as before. Latitude by observa
tion, 40 48' 15"."
" January 4.-Thc fog to-day was still more
dense, and the people again were bewildered.
We travelled a few miles around the western
point of the ridge, and encamped where there
were a few tufts of grass but no water. Our an
imals were in a very alarming state, and there
was increased anxiety in the camp."
"January 5. Same dense fog continued,
and one of the mules died iu camp this morn
ing. I have had occasion to remark, on such
occasions as these, that animals which are a
bout to die leave the band, and, coming into the
camp, lie down about the
On (ho Aifi T.mii5irv thrv arrixed. savs the
WJ V... - j j J .
narrative, " at the most extraordinary locality
of hot springs we had met during the journey.
were three or four half dead dry cedar trees on
the shore, and those who first arrived kindled
bright fires to tight on the others. One of the
mliles rolled ovler and over two or three hundred
ery, it will naturally, in the progress of the jgU into a rayijne, but recovered himself, with
nent of Oregon, become a. point for mili- otft any other injury than to his pack ; and the
howitzer was lelt midway tne raouniain unui
morning. By j-bservation the latitude of this
iThe basin of the largest one has a circumfer
: . . j - - , ....iv.! f,.,. i I x, ,
edthe bottom, nd it was dark before we all : ence oi sevt-rai uuuu w icCl,
foiind ourselve4 together in the valley. There one extremity a circular space pf about fifieen
leei in uiameier, enure iy occuoicu uy me uuu
ing water. It boils. up at irregular intervals,
and with much noise. The water is: clear, and
the spring deep-; a pole about sixteen feet long
was easily immersed in the centre, but we had
no means of forming a good idea of jthe depth.
It was surrounded on the margin withiborder
of green grass, and near, the shore the temper
ature of the water was 206'. . .We had no
inens of ascertaining that of the centre, where
thereat was greatest ; but:br dispersing -the
water with a. nolel the temperature at the mar-
gin was increased to 20S'and i the centre it
was doubtless higher. " By driving the pole to
wards the bottom, the water' made to boil-up
with increased force and noise. , ihsre are scv
morning, uy pose rvat ion iub iauiuu. ui iuia
eiUaroproent .iaf 42-57' 22". It delayed , as
u4til near noori the next day to recover our
selves and put Jevery thing in" order and. we
mado only . a short .camp along the western
sliogof the Jalfe which irTthe summer tcm-
rature we enjoyed to-day, justified; theuame
wJn had ivcn it. . Our course would have taV
ken us to the olher shore, and over the higV
pure water, to which the animals Weredriven, -
as i remamea anoiuer oay io give mem an op '
portunity to recruit theiif, strength. . Indians api V.
pear to be every where prowling about. hko c
- . IF' M A . ' . t-
wua animals; ana mere 4 a nesn irau across
the snow in the valley near.! - - ; ,-,-.f-r-. 4 ,7. "
V 1 1 i' h. ) . m aTX A M mT t IA .. .
-j.ainuaeoi me oouing springs, 4U4t' 40",
On the 15th of January4he expedition
reached the inlet of a large freshTSvater
stream, which, says Captain F. '
44 nil' - ( hhAk ...AWA I I fi rt I A MAill.A.
l a .if 'o .itra. n n. 1 1 n twrrmo - 1 Vi VaabmimaI
i-ki j a iii&i iiui iu iiuvia vt wtruiu,l-iiiviHV'-'
but that we had discovered a large interior lake,
which the Indians informed us hud no outlet.
It is about thirty-five miles long and, by the mark
of tho water-line along the shores! the spring le
vel is about twelve feet above its present waters.
The chief commenced speaking in a loud voice
as we approached ; and parties of Indians arm.
ed with bows and arrows issued froth the thick'
ets. We selected a strong place for ojjr encamp.
ment a grassy bottom, nearly enclosed by tho -river,
and furnished with abundant fire-wood.
The village, a collection of straw huts, was afew
hundred yards higher up. An Indian brought in
a large fish to trade, which wa had the inexpres
sible satisfaction to find wasra salmon trout ; wo
gathered around him eagerly. The Indians we ro .
amused with -our delight, j-and ,,jmni?diately
brouglit in numbers ; so that the camp was soon,
stocked. Their flavor wasxcellent,; superior -iniact
to any fish I had ever known.' They
were of extraordinary size about" as large as
tho Columbia river salmon-gcnerally from two
to four feet in length." ) ' ,.
" These Indians were verv fat. and anneared -
to live an easy and happy life4. They "Crowded
Into the camp more than was consistent wjlh our
safety, retaining always their arms ; and, aStfiey
made some unsatisfactory demonstrations, 'they
were giveffto understand that they would not bo
permitled to come armed into ,the camp ; and -strong
guards were kept with the horses... Strict
vigilance was maintained among the people, and :
one-third at a time were kent on truarddurinir tho
night. There is no reason to doubt that Ibeso
dispositions, unifi.nnly preserved, conducted our
party securely through Indians famed for tjcacb
" in me meantime, suco a sauuon-irom teast ,
as is seldom seerhwas going on in"oor camp ;
and in every variety of manner m which fish'
Milrl Ka n.nna roil n!!al CrtA nnrl V-ncfrrl in .
the ashes was put into requisition ; and "every .
few minutes an Indian would be seen running ofT
to spear a fresh lone. Whether-these 'Indians
had seen whites before we could not be certain
i.... l i : : ...i.i.
others who had, as one of; them had some brass-.
buUons, and we noticed several other articles of
civilized manufacture. We could ohtain from
them but little information respecting the coiin-;
try. They made onihe ground a drawing of the 1
?river, which they represented ias issuing from
V i .atli. v.. 'c. . j
anoincr iaKe in ine mounittins uireu or lour uaj .
distant, in a direction a little westofsduth; be'
yond which, they drew a mountain ; ahd further?
still, two rivers ; on one of which they told us ;
that people like ourselves travelled.! ? Vhether
ihv nlliirlnrl fr ihn enttlpmenLi un the Sacramen."
to, or to a party from the United States which
had crossed the Sierra about three degijees to tho
southward, a few years sincei I am ufiable tode-;
termine. . - :i
" I tried unsuccessfully to prevail on some f
them to guide us for a few days on the road, butL
they only look ed.t each other and laughed
On the 21th of January we meet with r
.it ; a'. ; t.i: - it iJJi L-
ine loiiowingiraiisoi xuuiau iiiu auu iuaii- i
ners : - if;-.
" A man was discovered running towards the
camp as we were about to start this morning.
who proved to be an Indian of rather advanced -
age a sort of forlorn hope, who'seemedta have
1 1 ' .1 1 iT. !tnv,ll
ueen worKea up into me resoiuiioa o i-tniMg m .
strangers who passing through, tfeecountry .-.
He seized the hand of the first man he metiui hq 3
came up, out of breath, and held on, as if to ; as-,
sure himself of protection. He broughtf wilh j
him in a little skin bag a few lbs. of the seeds of a
pine tree, which to-day we saw (bribe first time,
and which Dr. Torroy has described as a new.
species, under the name of pinusmonojhyllus f
in popular language, it might be called the jiut".
pine, We purchased them all trom ntnu , ine .
nut is oiiy, oi vprj jigrec-ow uaui, tiu iii.
- m.4 ' ' . ...' .I."--' l 1-
be very uuirniuws, a.3 iiwuuimc iuc iiiivipai
subsistence of the tribetf amonffwhieb we were
now trarelling.By a presentof scarlet cloth '
, -! .. . . .- ..:inj ..rrn
ana oinervsinKing uruuica wo irc.aiit-u uj ,
this man to he our.gilide of two days journej.
As clearly as jpossible by signs, vwelmado
him understand our object ;,!and he etogag.'
edtbeonduct us in sfght of a good pass whiclL
he knew Here we ceased to hear the Shosho-
nee" Tanguage ; that oHbis man being perfectly
...'-...iti!.M .-.- 1 Q..Apnl Ltflians. whohad been
uui 111 r: 1 1 1 " 1 iiil. - c - --.
waiting To see what; reception' he would meet
with, now came ihio camp ; and, -accompanied
by the new comers, wc resumed pur journey."
. - 1 -- ' , , r" - J.1. - . - ,v
T -? - - ' " "