The Alamance Gleaner 1
VOL. LVI. GRAHAM, N, C., THURSDAY MAY 1, 1930. ~~ Nail
1?Judge Thomas D. Timelier of New York taking tlie oath as solicitor general of the United States. 2?Dr.
Heinrlch Breuning, leader of the Centrist party, who is now chancellor of the German republic. 3?New library
of Lehigh university, Bethlehem, Pa., costing $000,000, which has just been dedicated and opened.
NEWS REVIEW OF
Mr. Stimson Returning With
Naval Treaty?Fight on
It Due in Senate.
By EQWARD W. PICKARD
SECRETARY OF STATE STIMSON
and his colleagues in the London
naval conference sailed for the United
States Wednesday bringing with them
a certified copy of the naval treaty
which the senate will soon be asked
to accept or reject. The treaty was
signed on Tuesday by the represent
atives of the five powers concerned,
the ceremony taking place at the final
plenary session of the conference in
the Queen Anne drawing "room of St.
James' palace. Prime Minister Mac
Donald, Mr. Stimson, Arlstide Briand,
Rejiro Wakasuki and Admiral Sori
annl all spoke at some length and
then affixed their signatures to the
momentous document. The confer
ence then was adjourned, with the
way left open for its resumption when
and if France and Italy can be
brought into the full treaty by diplo
matic negotiations. ^
Though the results of the three
months of work in London fell far
short of the hopes of those who spon
sored the parley, they are by no means
small. The treaty, though signed by
all five powers, is in the main a three
power pact between the United States,
Great Britain and Japan by which
those nations agree to limit the ton
nage of all classes of fighting ships.
America is to scrap three battleships,
England five, and Japan one. The
sections of the treaty adhered to by
France and Italy provide for a five
year holiday in battleship building,
prescribe rules of submarine warfare
and relate to less important phases of
disarmament. The compromise reached
between the French global and the
British and American categorical
methods of limiting tonnage was omit
ted from the document but will be
transmitted to the League of Nations
for use by Its preparatory committee
Tlint the treaty would not have an
easy time getting through the senate
was assured when the plans of Sen
ator Hale of Maine, chulrman of the
naval afTairs committee, became
known. He is leading the opposition
and In his first attack on the pact
will charge that Its ratification will
not give the United States parity in
naval ships with Great Britain dur
ing the life of the pact. He also will
attack the treaty on the ground that
Its provisions allowing Japan an In
crease in cruiser, submarine, and de
stroyer ratio will weaken the Ameri
can naval position In the Far East
and lower this country's prestige In
It was said Mr. Hale found many
admirals of the navy were hostile to
the treaty mainly because of limita
tions placed on American building of
8-lnch gun cruisers and the Increase
In the Japanese ratios. Senator Borah,
chairman of the foreign relations com
mittee, and Senators Heed i>f Penn
sylvania and Itoblnson of Arkansas,
are expected to lead the fight In be
half of ratification of the fact.
REBUTTAL evidence by the wets
was heard by the house Judiciary
committee, the principal witnesses be
ing Pierre S. du Pont, millionaire chem
ical and munitions manufacturer; MaJ.
Gen. Clarence II. Edwards, comman
der of the Twenty-sixth division. A.
E. P.; Miss Elizabeth Harris, repre
senting the Women's Organization for
National Prohibition Reform, and Dr.
Clarence F. Buck, secretary of the
Federal Dispensary-Tax Reduction
league. Mr. du Pont presented argu
ments and statements designed to re
fute the claims of the drys that the
country's prosperity in recent years
has been due mainly or in any marked
degree to prohibition
BEFORE another committee, that of
the senate on lobbying, the liquor
issue also was dominant. Henry H.
Curran, president of the Association
Against the Prohibition Amendment,
had been summoned to tell of the ac
tivities of the officials of that organi
zation, and he proved a very lively
witness. In his first day's testimony
he predicted the development of a new
national party made up of the wet
elements of both the Republican and
Democratic parties, the platform for
which already has been written by Dr.
Samuel II. Church, president of the
Carnegie Institute of Technology. He
said Pierre du Pont has indorsed the
proposal and has said the new party
will be successful. As for lobbying,
Mr. Curran freely admitted his asso
ciation took part in the campaigns in
Wisconsin and Illinois for repeal of
the state liquor laws, but said he
didn't see what that had to do with
"lobbying in and around Washington,"
which is the subject of the commit
tee's inquiry and of which he declared
the association had not been guilty.
' Next day Senator Robinson of Indi
ana came to bat with sensational
charges that Curran's association had
"lobbied with members of the United
States Supreme Court." He produced
letters written by T. W. Phillips, Jr.,
Republican gubernatorial aspirant in
Pennsylvania and a director of the
association, to Justice Stone and the
late Justice Sanford, and denounced
them as "the most amazing thing I
ever heard of."
Three hundred delegates represent
ing the hundred thousand members of
the Women's Organization for Nation
al Prohibition Reform held a confer
ence in Cleveland, Ohio. A platform
calling for repeal of the Eighteenth
amendment was adopted, and Mrs.
Charles Sabln of New York, founder
of the organization, wag elected its
DOSTAL substation leases are about
* to be Investigated by a special sen
ate committee, nnd at least one of
them already Is being probed by the
federal trade commission. It Is pre
dicted that the Inquiries will turn up
a scandal rivaling the Teapot Dome
affair. Itumors Involve the names of
high post office und other government
officials In an alleged conspiracy that
is said to have mulcted the govern
ment of millions of dollars and taken
the life savings of thousands of In
nocent Investors throughout the coun
NOMINATION of Judge Parker of
North Carolina to he an associ
ate Justice of the Supreme court was
rejected by the senate Judiciary com
mittee, and the matter goes to the
door of the senate. The vote to re
port adversely on the nomination was
10 to 0. The negro Issue caused the
defection of three administration Re
publicans and the opposition of organ
ized labor accounted for the votes of
the radicals on the committee.
THREE hundred and eighteen In
mates of the Ohio state penitenti
ary at Columbus lost their lives In one
of the worst holocausts of recent
years, and the pity of It Is that not
one of them need have died If the cell
tiers had been unlocked promptly. At
least, that Is the statement of A. E.
Nice, fire chief of Columbus. Where
the blame Is to be placed will be de
termined by an official Inquiry.
The fire started, apparently, from
a abort circuited wire and spread with
great rapidity, and most of the vic
tims perished In locked cells. The
other prisoners, numbering many hun
dreds, being treed, helped the flremeo
and guards In rescue work and some
of them performed notable acts of
heroism. Warden P. E. Thomas said
at the investigation of the disaster
that he did not provide general fire
protectionist the prison because the
Columbus fire companies could reach
there in two minutes, and that he did
not go inside the walls to the scene
of the fire because he had given or
ders and expected them to be carried
out. The penitentiary, like most oth
ers in the country, was terribly over
crowded ; in addition, the buildings
were poorly constructed and not fire
COLONEL LINDBERGH, accompa
nied by ills wife, put himself on
the front page again by a record
breaking flight from Los Angeles to
New York in his new Lockheed Sirlus
low wing monoplane. With one stop
at Wichita for refueling, the Lindys
made the trip in 14 hours, 45 minutes
and 32 seconds. The flight was unique
in that it was made at altitudes rang
ing from 14,000 to 15,500 feet, the col
onel's idea being to demonstrate that
express and passenger plane service
can be greatly speeded up If the planes
fly in the higher reaches where the air
is thinner and the resistance less.
Mrs. Lindbergh shared the honors with
her husband, for she acted as naviga
tor throughout the flight and at times
handled the controls.
AMONG the victims of airplane ac
cidents were two noted men.
Count Henri de la Vaulx of Paris,
president of the International Aero
nautical federation, and three com
panions were electrocuted at Jersey
City when their plane ran Into a pow
er cable In a fog. MaJ. Lionel M.
Woolson, army air reserve, chief aero
nautical engineer of the Packard Mo
tor company and Inventor of the Pack
ard Diesel aircraft engine, and two
companions were killed near Attlcn
when their Diesel motored plane
crashed Into a hillside during a blind
ing snowstorm. They were taking the
plane to New York for exhibition In
the aircraft show. Major Woolson de
signed the motor used by Commander
Rogers In his flight to Honolulu, the
X-type motor for Lieut. A1 Williams'
racing plane two years ago and the
engines of the navy dirigible Shenan
WITH Gates W. McGarrah of New
York as president, Leon I'rarer
as deputy president nnd Pierre Ques
nay as general manager, the hank for
International settlements at Basel,
Switzerland, was fully organized and
ready for work. The directorate de
cided that the issue of shares of stock
of the bank should take place 011 the
eighth day after ratification of the
Y'oung plan by Great Britain nnd Italy.
On that day the new scheme of han
dling German reparations becomes offi
cially operative. The dlrectori decid
ed to enter Into trust agreements with
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia
to handle the collection of their
reparations. Mr. McGarrah was em
powered to open banking accounts
whenever he pleases If the local and
central banks-do not object.
REVOLT of the Nationalists of In
dia against British rule Is becom
ing more serious dally, and has passed
beyond the "passive resistance" advo
cated by MahatDIa Gandhi. There
have been bloody riots in various
quarters, and at Chlttagong the Insur
gents raided the arsenal. The author
ities now are making free use of the
military forces and many natives have
been killed as well as some soldiers.
The revolt has spread over the entire
Indian peninsula, outbreaks being re
ported In Karachi, on the Arabian
sea; Chlttagong. near Burma; Bora
bay, a thousand miles southwest; Cal
cutta and Madras, and late last week
at Peshswar, on the northwest fron
lb ills. Wsstsra Nswssspsr Colon.)
ij HOW |
| V MARJORY "? n
| t TRAINED ffj
\ MOTHER I
i] ? x ii
. (? br D. J. Walsh.)
MARJORY VANE lagged home
reluctantly from the den
tist'*. She bad gone there
much too early for ber ap
pointment because there was a certain
quiet corner and a pile of magnzlnes
available. Even when the drill was
busy with her tooth she continued to
recall a story she had just read. It
was about a girl who had a wonder
Mrs. Vane glanced up as her daugh
ter entered. She sat curled upon the
davenport embroidering a motif on
white Unesi. Mrs. Vnne was always
embroidering, for her eyesight was
perfect Besides, she had beautiful
"See what a lot I've done to Gen
evieve's dress I" she began. "1 can
Just fancy how sweet she will look In
It." Genevieve was the daughter of
Marjory's older sister, the married
Lucia. Lncla was a replica of Mrs.
Vane and Genevieve was a replica of
Lucia. In her daughter and grand
daughter Mra Vane saw herself re
peated with flattering effect It mny
be added that she never bestowed any
of her handiwork upon Marjory.
"I suppose." Marjory said. "I may
as well prepare lunch. Have you any
plans for It mother?"
Mrs. Vane thoughtfully rubbed her
nose with her gold thimble.
"There's a can of salmon." she said.
"I don't know what else. Get what
ever you And. I'm not hungry. Be
sides, I want to finish this leaf while
I'm at It."
For the next/ fifteen minute* Mar
jory worked rather desperately to
evolve a tasty meal out of the ma
terials at hand. As usual, her mother
had forgotten to hang out the Ice'
card and the refrigerator was empty.
A few flies -were rampant In the din
ing room and must be subdued. The
tablecloth was soiled. Marjory longed
to change It. but the laundry hill was
big enough as It was. There were
crumbs under the table and some
flowers had dropped their petals on
At Marjoqy's Invitation Mrs. Vane
strolled out casually. She was a
plump, smooth, hlond woman In blue.
Marjory was a thin, quiet dark young
girl it. tan.
"Did Miss Baker call up while 1
was gone?" Marjory asked, passing
the salad to her mother.
"No." Mrs. Vane helped herself
bountifully. "You've made It look
quite tempting, dear. Can't he she
means to ask you."
"No." Marjory looked Into the dis
tance. "I wns?pretty sure she
wouldn't But I hoped?"
"It doesn't matter, of course," Mrs.
Vane said comfortably.
Marjory crumbled her bread absent
ly. It did matter, perilously to her,
j that Miss Barker had not asked her
along with the other girls. Julia and
Frances and Elizabeth. Why?why
had she not? Wbat had she done
that nice girls like Julia and Frances
shunned her, that lovely women like
Miss Barker did not ask her to their
homes? Suddenly she remembered the
story she had read. The heroine's
mother, like Frances,' like Eliza
bebth's and the homes of these girls.
She compared Julia's dining room with
this, Elizabeth's living room with the
room beyond the Japaneso portieres.
Yet what had these things to do with
herself? If only she knew!
"YouFre not crying over It, 1 hope!
A little thing like that," Mrs. Vane
said. "Your face will look pretty for
the club meeting this afternoon."
"I'm not going to the club. It's only
a makeshift. I'm going to stay home
and"?think things out. was wbat she
could bave added.
Mrs. Vane shrugged her plump
shoulders. "Suit yourself," she re
After her mother bad dressed and
gone to play bridge for tbe whole aft
ernoon Marjory washed the dishes and
put the small apartment In order.
Then she sat down on the daven
port. set ber square chin In her palms
and proceeded to think things out.
They bad money enough, ahe and
her mother?father had seen to that
by leaving them a large life Insur
ance. She herself was not silly or self
ish or Doystruck. Yet at the school
she attended she was not popular. A
few times she had felt that a marve
lous friendship was dawning In her
life, but the glri would come once to
the apartment?and that would end
It Elizabeth Craven'a mother had
caHed and nothing bad come of It.
Once Marjory bad asked a girl to
lunch; ncr mother hud ordered the
lunch. Afterword Marjory teamed that
the girl uhhorred potato salad. I
It tvas true they did not live In a
nice way. Mrs. Vane, embroidered and
played bridge. Once a week a woman
came In and cleaned up. They culled
their food as Ihey could. Mother was
not Interested In books or magazines.
Marjory wanted a radio hut her moth
er disliked noise. I.uelit lived Just
as mother did and Horace did no;
stay at home much.
"If ever I marry I shall do very
different will) my husbnnd," Marjory
Trie back door opened and she went
to see who wus there. It was Mrs.
Llllle ready for nn afternoon's work.
"Your ma said 'I could come this
afternoon Instead of tomorrow," Mrs.
l.lllie said. She wus a tiny, old woman
made of steel and whalebone, durable,
efficient, tireless. At least Marjory bad
thought her so until this Instant.
Now she realized that in Mrs. Utile's
calm face wus perhaps what she was
"Have you got daughters, Mrs. Ut
ile?" she usked.
"Two. Both married." Mrs. Ullle
was in the closet after the mop.
"They married well. I suppose?"
"Well enough to suit tne. 1'oor men
?but my girls can make a penny go
n long way. I live with Maggie. She
don't wunt me to work but 1 like lo
work. Work never hurt nobody. Now
tnke your inn. my dear. As I've told
her many n time she wouldn't be near
so fat and soggy If she stirred round
a little more."
"Mrs. Ullle," Marjory clusped her
hands, "our system of living Is aw
ful. Isn't It?"
"System!" Mrs. Llllle looked at the
girl. "Why. you haven't got any sys
tem," she said. "You live from hand
to-mouth. And that Isn't living."
"No, I know It Isn't Could II be,
Mrs. Ullle. that I am not liked hy
other girls because my home Isn't like
"Well, I always tried to make home
pleasant for my girls when they were
young and wanted young company."
Mrs. Llllle said. "1 guess It's pretty
generally donft hy mothers every
where. I know Mrs. Craven?1 work
"Yes, her." Mrs. Utile nodded.
"She's the nicest housekee|>er and the
finest woman on my list. And Miss
Barker?She's giving a party this eve
ning. I'm going to help her. She's an
other splendid ftome-innker. It's too
bad. Miss Marjory, that your ma don't
take more Interest In her profession
?housekeeping, 1 mean. But what's
the matter with you taking a hand
"I will," Marjory cried earnestly.
"Oh. Mrs. Ulllel Will you tench me
how to make a plain cnke und bis
cuit and cook n roast?"
Dinner that night was a success.
The apartment was spotless, Marjory
was tired but beaming.
"You like this better than what
we're been doing, don't you, mother?"
Of course Mrs. Vane did.
From that moment Marjory began
a serious task?that of training her
mother. For mother must he tridned
If they were to have any life nt all.
"I suppose," Mr*. Vane sighed, "I'll
get no pence until I've tidied up my
room. Marjory, you're a perfect slave
driver I" But the room was put to
One evening Marjory, at last sure ol
herself, gave a little party. She asked
all the girls and their mothers and
they all came. The npartment was
pretty. Mother wore simple black,
Marjory white. Mrs. I.lllle was In the
kitchen. There wns a delicious while
cake and fruit Ice.
"You see." Marjory explained. "I've
changed tactics In school. I am going
to take a course In domestic science.
And mother"?she looked around with
triumph In her eye* and a quiver on
her lips?"mother Is going to fake
It with me." She laid her band on
"Why, that Is splendid!" cried Mrs.
"Yes," Mrs. Vane nodded compla
cently. "I am becoming so stout that
I find 1 must take more exercise and
watch my diet Besides," she added
earnestly, "I think It Is a fine thing
for mother and daughter to be Inter
ested In the same thing. And so I tell
Atmospheres of Planets
Observations of Venus have led to
the conclusion that its atmosphere Is
more dense than ours. A thlp atmos
phere envelops Mars, but It Is neither
so extensive nor so dense as our own.
There are unmistakable Indications
of a dense and very extended atmos
phere encircling Jupiter. That of
Saturn resembles the atmosphere of
Jupiter. The atmosphere of Mercury
Was New to Columbus
Columbus' records of his visit to
Haiti include mention of a "nightin
gale" which sang by day and by night,
and whlcb was probably a mocking
^ ? , r
An Early Stage in 8ubway Construction, New York City.
irrrpareu oy ina national *?eoijrapnic
Society. Washington. O. C.)
THE cities of the world that pos
sess underground street rail
ways?11 Id nil?are about to
have a recruit In Stockholm.
This capital and metropolis of Swe
den with its 460,000 inhabitants is ne
gotiating for the construction of a
comprehensive subway system to cost
many millions of dollars.
This decision of Stockholm to place |
street railways under the earth's sur
face comes soon after the newest and
one of the most ambitious of the
world's subway stations has been
opened under Piccadilly Circus, the
center of London's activity and the
place of her greatest traffic conges
tion. The two events recall the brief
period during which the present ex
tensive underground railway systems
in great cities have developed.
It seem! strange that man. who de
serted his caves scores of thousands
of years ago and who has lieen busy
since subduing the earth's surface and
even invading its ulr, should turn back
and begin burrowing beneath ground.
It seems strangest of ail that he
should delve below the surface for
rapid, mass travel, a thing that he
probably never dreamed of in Ids most
Imaginative moments until perhaps a
Underground rapid transit Is the
result of the tremendous growth of
certain cities. It was only where pop
ulation Increased to such an exteut
that surface streets became choked
with myriads of |>eople seeking co
move about that the idea of travel be
neath the surface could ever seem de
sirable. And It was only after the in
vention of the railway that the Idea
Just as the cross-country railway
developed from the stagecoach, so the
highly organized and heavily capital
ized s' hway systems of today grew
from the omnibus, the stagecoach of
tlie city. In New York, n city stage
line was started in 1S3?J to operate
north on Broadway from Bowling
Oreen; and within two years the
world's first street railway?its cars
drawn by hones?was horn In tlie
same city. It was a line along Fourth
avenue from near the present site of
city hall to near the present location
of Grand Central station. The Idea
spread In the United States but Ku
rope was slow to follow. Paris es
tablished ? horse-car line in 1856; but
it was not until 1 SGI that Ixmdon had
Its first "passenger tram."
in London and New York.
I.ondoners did not take kindly to
street railway!; they objected to the
rails which Interfered with other truf
fle. It was becai*e of this feeling
that railways In cities should be out
of the way that the first steps were
tuken In London toward underground
rapid transit. The earliest line, con
structor before 1870, was not all un
derground. Much of it was in open
nit. and only part In tunnels. The
trains were operated by steam en
gines. and the tunnels were so smoky
and III ventilated that the system was
not a success.
In the meantime New York, faced
with a growing congestion of street
traffic, and a lengthening city, was'ex
perimenting with a new solution, the
elevated rail.oad. The first was built
in 1868 and by 1787 there were four
elevated structures on which steam
trains were operated. Placing fast
moving city trains above the street
level proved the best solution while
steam was the only motive power, and
thj system was adopted In Chicago,
Berlin and Liverpool.
London, then the world's greatest
city, continued to look underground
for the solution of the rapid transit
problem. After cable cars first came
Into use In San Francisco in 1873 and
spread to other cities, the Idea was
conceived of operating cable cart In
tnnnels in London. In 1886 the world's
urai an lunnei suriway was sianra in
London; by the I me It was complete!!
in 1SOO the electric locomotive had
been [lerfected and the new under
ground railway was pat Into opera
tion with this newest draft agency.
Glasgow. Scotland, and Berlin. Ger
many, opened subway railroads a boat
the same time. Budapest. Hungary,
was nest to Join the ranks of subway
cities. Boston was the first American
city to begin work on subway. It'
was opened in 180& In 1?JU tli? Paris
"Metro" began its underground career,
and In the same year .New York
started on its first underground rail
way. The lirst train rolled through
the New York subway in I9W. sod the
w'ork of extending the system has
been under way almost cootinuaily
since. I'hiladelphia first Joined the
cities having underground rapid tran
sit systems In BJUK. Since then the
roster has been added to only by
Madrid. Buenos Aires, and Tokya The
subways in Madrid and Buenos Aires
nre only a "few miles In length, but
the Tokyo system Is fairly extensive.
Big Population Needed.
The fact that heavy population Is
essential to the success of subways
Is demonstrated by a glance at the
roster of "subway cities." Of the
world's 111 greatest cities, all but Chi
cago. Osaku and Moscow have sub
ways, and In the missing three the
construction of underground railways
Is !>eing given serious consideration.
Of die smaller cities having subways,
Budapest. Glasgow. Madrid and Bos
ton. die two first named have more
than a million population; while the
recorded population of Boston, apply
ing to a restricted area, does not In
dicate the magnitude of the crowds
dally defiendeu! on the city's rapid
transit facilities. The Madrid ondee
ground system is of limited extent.
Of the sub-surface city railway sys
lems. those of New York and Loo
don. the two cities which vie for the
title of world metropolis, far surpas
all others In extent. Yet in plan and
I o|>eradon these two great metropoU
I tan systems nre In some ways strik
ingly different. Ion don was the pi
oneer and some of her early construc
tion was foond later to lead to marked
inconvenience and expense. Thus her
earliest "tube" tunnels were cons
tructed at great depths, making It
recessary to supply batteries of ele
vators nod escalators at the stations.
New York took up subway construc
tion late, hut profited by the experi
ments of those earlier lo the field. She
adopted the Budapest plan of placing
the tunnels as close as possible to the
surface so that elevators w.ut.l be
Another radical departure from the
older methods, adopted in New York,
was characteristically American. This
was the virtual building of two sub
ways In one. by the provision of four
tracks, two devoted to express and
two to local service.
New York has more than 300 miles
of subway track and this will be ma
terially Increased when the new la
dependent subway system is placed In
commission. In both London sad
Paris the underground trackage to
close lo 200 miles. In Chicago tbo
construction of a passenger subway
has been discussed for many yean
but at present only surface and ele
vated lines are In use. Chicago bas
a possible nucleus for a subway sye
tem la Its almost unique freight tun
nel system. Under the streets of tbo
business section of tbe city exists a
gridiron of 90 miles of tunnel, six
feet wide snd seven and a half feet
deep. On two-foot tracks in theaa
small tunnels a busy railway traffic
is carried on every day while few Chl
cagoans are aware of its existence.
By the system freight Is delivered to
i -the basements of stores, and tboa
i sands of too* of ashea and refuse are