I i .
xiixi :ioik;tai:;ou5 region
ci tTaitcd Ctntcs, extents:; Irosi
The crtaLlishment cf Railroads and Canals,
irin't rrresl facilities forbearing immigrant
pHul-iua bafcrd,iys,f,ini tho'Atlantic bor
dcr.to1 cur public domain in the West, has had
' MbS cdct pf diverting attention from tb region
Ue iamed--4ban vLich t!ere U not a moro
: disii-Ltiui gno on thVG!obe.V:f-f;i'0:.-d':-'
? Attention was drawn to it, partall; far Febru
ary list, fey a correspondent between e Hon.
L. Hchan, cf the House of Representa
fires, una Mr. S&ixn of Washington, whjcb
! ; served io elicit some very interesting obsera.
; tldns, torn tbo former, on the height fV the
s;cnti'niai the natures the climate, toil
V and productions of bis District, consisting of the
; , countiesiiri lhe.Northwestern part cf the State,
referred) to here, In ;tbe. letter cf. Professor
Hlt will be remembered that six thousand feet,
the elevation ot some of these mountains, Is
equal tbil5 degrees of latitude ; but taking the
tnmn ltitndo of these mountains we have the
latitude and mean temperature of-Vermont and
"vfiortberri N. York, and Michigan, without their
' extreme of heat and cold. With the very name
Ljofja mofintain district, how apt ;we are toasso
', cjite the idea of snow-capd peaks and rockj
'precipices unsuited to all cultivation ; yet how
ft? fVofn; the: truth V JfrB object of Professor
1 ; MitcheIli. was more . particular!, to ascertain
j ."the altitude of the mountains, and thus to make,
. a be $4 done, valuable additions of more ex.
i act geographical knowledge, t In ' flfr.' Cmho-
Iiax'i letter, before referred to, he says, u The
top of jftoan Mountain is cove red by a prairie
often miles, which afiords a rich pasture during
the greater part of the year. The ascent to it
is q gradual that persons Vide to- it on r horse.
t4 back from' almost anjrj direction. The samo
fvmay bf paid of many other mountains. - The
lotl of .thexounty is generally uncommonly ter-
tile, producing, with tolerable, cultivation, abun'
?: dant crops -.Tbe sides of the mountains, the
tifnberjjbetrig generally large, with little under
" growth and bnish wood, are peculiarly fitted for,
i paaiurq gruvuuv, nuvi iuo icgciauun is in ma
v fijf places as luxuriant as it is in the rich Sa
vannahs bf the low country. With respect to the
' prices of land, I can assure you that large bodies
of; uncleared rich land have been sold at prices
Varying from 25 cents to 50 cents an acre.
- i The soil of every Dart of the county is not on.
! favourable to the production of grain, but pecu
liarly fittpd for grasses. t :TiM0THt U supposed
j'f. to make the largest yield, two tons of hay being
it easy prbducedon an acre, but herdsgrassor
; ! red top and clover, succeed equally well blue
I grass m$ not been much tried, but it is said does
i;remarlta()l;well.:- A friend showed rre several
" spears 'vhicb he informed me , were produced in
j fhf northerKpart bf tbecounty, and which, by
rneasuremcnt, were found to exceed 70 inches
i lttlengjh"Oats,'rye, potatoes, turnips, &c, are
t : produced in the greatest perfection and abun.
;;;da.nce.,:.V; ;Ci-.p:" p-:t '
'-:iIow strange that in a country where the
V ' growth, cf population is so unexampled in the
. fAvbrld,' and wherethe people are animated by an
; v almost universal spirit of migration, a region so
" " blessed Jti climate and soil ns is that of Virgin.
. iaj the Carol inas and Tennessee mak ing it, in
. " fact, the jlraly of thfs hemisphere, should remain
" ifti it were locked up.and shut out from obser.
' jvation," from the mere difierence of accessibility
' Le specially uhen It is considered that the pro.
jddcU owhicji it is ao wciradaptcd aswoo!--(flix,
hcnip,'cattlesbeep, horses and mules, are
- ,eithec(nccntrated in value as to admit of trans-
' jpbrtaUop, or capable of being driven convenient-.
n ( v t0 market, for MriJCMAN ejse where ob.'
: serves, in his letter to MrSKiiraEn-For
number of years past ibe Value of live stock, as
ascertained Vora the books of the turnpike com.
pany, lhat is driven through Buncombe county,-
''is from twi to three millions of dollors. - But to
Professor" Mitchell's fetter and Mr. Dakdt's,
j ? in some respects illustrative of j
1 lMy Dear Sir : I promised my friends in the
Western counties that they should hear from me
; through the.' Highland Messenger, and to the
uuor oi mai paper mat ne should receive one
,for two communications. o As the-, person who
; I V undertakes to inform the public on subjects not
strictly in the line of his profession is likely to
I t : fall into some errors.'and jtd.-aay ;omethins
. i 'hich will not be thought very wisI ha?e
yUhed that what! have to offer might, before
; ! gnff to press, pass under the eye of one who,
V j ; Jik'o yourself; hasTlong taken a deep interest in
; ; every thing connected YwithXne mountain re.
" i rC'on. is well acquainted with the larger part of
- it," and in whose friendly feelinV-1 mnM fi.iw
! Teb"v iThe stafemerits and remarks that -are toJ
louow, wiiijan naturally under the four heads
" i rt'EUidtion of the Country and Height of the
Mountain, Soil and Agriculture, Minerals and
.. Scenery. ::;r.,:: . - ; u: t. ; :
- 1 he elevation of the Lhrbest mountA;n.nonV
was; ascertained iiy me within certain limits of
accuracy about them before that time,' that the
If randfather ivasl commonly regarded as the
hiert-of.all. With a view of coming sonfe
Nvhereinear the truth, one barofneter tra
1 tl0t Morganton, and another carried to the
; topi of the mountains. Their , elevation abnve
, tiAt vulage was thus ascertained, but in order
! ta get their heinht abovo th 1a1 f
that ofMorgantonmust be known, and for this I
t ro erc no datajn which implicit confidence I
-.-..couivj no piaceo, r i nnally fixed; upon 908 feet
j as, a moderate estimate, and in my desire to a
j VoiJ in extravagant anCincredible result, it
. now appears that the elevation assigned to Mor.
;. Nton, therefore to all the heightsnca
" s jred.t was" somewhat too tmalLt T 5 i -1
j f n tlte Crst report of the President and Direct
tars "of the Louisville, Cincinnati and. Charles.
I ton Rail Road, it is stated as one of the results
I 6f tthc; surveys ,and measurements . made with
l re?;renco to that wort that vU the elevation nf
10! pet. 'ITiis will leave 1114 feet for the
U-ighi of that line aboro tho sea,' or 140 feet
i.ivra.ican I had allowevMRr Morgarilon.
j Cc:t, tho uryeys referred to werecarried a
Ion;; the French Broad river, in the immediate
vi ; j -"fy of. Asheville, and therefore afford a base,
cr .stilling point, from which all the heights in
t'iit r rgion; could be conveniently ascerTaincd.
l)r. Dicksua having undertaken to ohaerva the
1 aronw'ter at Asheville, and khnwngthat in his
t rrfi it .mid afford results in-which confu
"Xit-nr.a n ore, in which .'.mountain i' was
I vHiIv.. 1 that the - hi'lic.t tc:nUaw U I?
vas. c Lo. uzi I tad rorcr vet Ucn
j l .j Lr .rst.
.9 W . '
f 41:4 sainmt of our mountain passes, above a line
; riwn" along what may be regarded as their
i lae iltout twenty miles below, does not exceed
i. , 1 ri c. 15 cr rr.i.rs
W ' . . .
. ". i-.i... .nvrhst the form cf a
C,h-boc!i of which the extremny cf : the shan
U r ear Thomas Yoitn s, in Yancy. It sweeps
round bV the heads cf the South fork cf Voei of
ihe Swannanoe, Rim'a creek and Ivy, and end
at the Bl;: Cut. or Knob Caney River drains
br n number of forks the hollow of the curve.
The summit cf the ridge is depressed aT some
points, and rises at ethers into peaks or knobs,
or tVr hundred feet higher than the rest,
and it isk'raatterof considerable difficulty to
determine before ascending, whichjs the high
est! as xf& cannot tell how much the apparent
elevaiiorj is affected by the disunce of the.dif
ferent points. The general elevation of the ridge
ma!y be Itated. The following are the heights
measured, which are likely to have most inter
est for the readers of the .Messenger.
- " ' ' i ' " "- ' " ,
- Asheville, : ' ;,v
French Broad at Ashetille, ."
Lower Ford of Pigeon, I :
VayncTUe " ;---'
Headlof Scott's Creek
Cullywhee Gap, -
Blue Ridgo head of Tuckaseege,
Cot Zacbary's Cashier's Valley,
' Chimney Top, :
' Chimjiey Top above Zacbary's,
Burnsville, . .
:Top of Black, - ' - -
Tabl4 Rock, - . - '
Grandfather,- , v
, 6187 .
. 'It appears that the ralley of the French Broad
the great back.bone of. the United States, hay
inf the parallel, but considerably higher yallies
of the Molachucky and Pigeon on its two sides.
Ivy ridgp is the boundary of this ralley on the
northeast, the ford of Ivy creek, near Solomon
Carters,fhaving Very nearly the height of Ashe
vijle. !le jJinerence of temperature and cli
mate corresponds to the indications of the bar.
ometer, krain and wild fruits ripening sooner
about Ashcville. -than in the neishborhood of
ejther Burnsville or VVavnesville. At the ford
of the Tuckaseege, on the' road to Franklin, we
ape at 'tie bottom of another deep and warm
valley, liut this does not; like that of the French
Froad, extend across the whole range of the Ai
legKanis. -ki'i " ' J.--:..: ' : ." J ,
: I These measurements are not altogether with
out value, to the people of Haywood and Macon,,
showing as they do, what is the amount of obsta
cle that has tp be overcome in carrying a road
from Tennessee into South Carolina, along the
Tuckaseege.' . Such a road should be made, or
rather the .existing . ono 'should be greatly im
proved, and tho route altered in some places.
There is likely to be a good deal of travel along
itbut the gap in the Blue Ridge, where it is to
pass, is about 1500 feet higher than that at the
head qf jhe French Broadr -1:
':ITJer ;are but two routes by whph the high
est peaks of the Black Mountain can be reach
ed, without an amount of labor wbjch few peo
ple are .willing to undergo 4,One is by the head
of Sn aonanoe This brings us to point n little
higher than the top of the White Mountains in
New Hampshire. The other is from the South
fork of. Poe. It is represented as quite reractL
cable, and leads to the highest summit. . r ",,
li vlJricwtftfre. The mountain counties. Ashe.
Yancy,) Buncombe, Henderson. Haywood and
iUacdn,fdo not appear to have adopted fully thotse
modes if culture which arc the best suited to
their soil and climate, and which are likely ulti
mately jtb prevail. For this, two reasons may
be assigned..;..:., r";.;- "
1 1. The great amount cf travel, through the
counties of Ashe, Ilenderson and Buncombe,
(but especially. the two last,) between the At
lantic States and the West, has. created a de
mand fur the different kinds of grain, and given
a direction to the -industry of the population of
those countiej, which, but for the circumstance
mentioned. 'would be neither natural nor profi
table. The' roads have consumed all the corn
that could be raised. The practice of the far-
l.mers living near the roads, which will auswer
very, well tor them, (especially if .somewhat
moire attention be naid to the riihirntinn of the
grsseji,) may be expected to have an undue in.
nuence in the remote parts of those counties.
The families by whom these counties are
settled, were from below tho ridge, and carried
tiiu imiii mio iuu mountain region, lue Kinaoi
husbandry to which they have been accustom
ed in jhe warmer and drier parts from which
they came. It is only gradually that men change
the habits and practices of their earlier davsj
This Influence of custom is exhibited on the
Northernmost range of counties in North Car
olina, along the Virginia line, where the cul
ture o 'tobacco prevails much'more extensively
than p. little farther South, where the soil is
equally, well adapted to the growth of that nox
ious Weed. --''j;! ; ;
The latitude and elevation-and of course the
iemplrature of the mountain counties as far as
It defends upon thcs6 two are very nearly the
aamel with those of ancient Arcadia the coun
try of herdsmen and shepherds. Their soil is
differentiating been formed1y the decomno.
auivii vai umiiino grarjuc, gneiss ana
mic s!atc yhilt limestone abounds in Area
diavls well as. other parts of Greece. . But it
Is toj the raising of cattle and sheep and the
makjng of butter and cheese for the counties be
low the ridge, that it may be expected there,
will ibe a tendency in the industry in the moun-
tainrregion fiir many years. .The quantity of
rainifalling there, is greater than in the Eastern
parti ot the Jbtate, and luxuriant meadows cf
the imost tamable: grasses, but . especially cf
j irafnny, may no; easily lormed. This is for
v irtter tooo. Uut ther Summer pastures, too,
are susceptible of great improvement :
'hust the- Indians! held possession of the
coutry it was burnt over every year. The
firejdeetroyed the greater number of the young
treSrtbat were springing up, and the large onCs
remajnedthinry scattered like the apple-trees
in an orchard with large open spaces between.
In these the different kinds of native vines and
olher.wild plants pea vine, contcadd for
kSSH aDft each Polled and excluded
thft other accordmar to the Tio, f nk
Macon county stilfexhibMrnsWU
i) .1 V "r uPIosea o nave borne
whn thefirst settlemr nt if the white, W
maleVBut after the Indian, had been remov!
ed and large quantities of tock were introduc
ed the cattle and horses lent their aid in this
ccntcst of the different yegetable species and
in! (ivor of the worst kinds -They ate out and
destroyed such as they found palatable and suU
tablsi for the nourisbrneht cf animals, whilst
such as are worthless were permitted to grow
un3 occupy tho frrounJ.- In ths rnar. tirrt3 the
-:n""l rin:T cf tlo v.xcdi t!.r.t hJ Lccn t rac-
tid l.v t r - r ,
jrrr.stly Covered v
1 with terbse.
Fcr l-esa two reas
test kinds cf yegctablet -haTO been laa great
measure eaten out, and destrpyeu, ana uecaue
,r ij!.!.Binf the forests the rane (even
if the population were ; atulf the same), w
bs greatly inferior to what jit was fy y
JJfSQ - : - , , '
It if necessary here as in other cases that
the industry and ingenuity cf, man should come
in to direct and to some extent control the ope
rations of nature. The best grasses best tor
pasturage, must be rfn.ade to lU
Jtu Aninn. wheu eaten br tows, give$ milk a
flavour that is intolerable to some persons, so; it
m v he exoected that bitter and' unpalatable
weeds of every kind will give it a wild and sav-.
age taste; mai u wm uc iukiwuh puutj m
richness to such as is yielde where thej sweet
est and best grasses are thepnly food. It lip.
pearrd to nreas I rode down from the Flat Rock
a .T.oP;u ttiat there were Very extensive
tract in Henderson and in the southern part of
Buncombe now almost .waste and worthless,
which would, in the course of a few years, be
converted into artifical pastures y net the most
fertile In the world but such as would amply
repay an outlay of capital upon ihem ; that he
marshes and low grounds -would jbe drained and
rank Timothy take the place of sedge and oth
er coarse grasses ' that afford no nourishment.
In the immediate neighborho:ooVof the Flat Rock
I saw that, the good work had been begun and
made a considerable progress. ; - jj.
; The sides of the mountains are too' sleep to
be cleared and converted into pastures that will
have any permanent yalue. 1esoil ilhat is
exposed would be washed away, j Bot there are
tracts, some of no inconsiderable extent and
especially, near the crest of the ridge and along
the head springs of the western 'waters, whr3
the surface is comparatively livid, the soil suffi
ciently moist and fertile, and Where i capital
might be advantageously invested for the. pur.
pose of converting them into meadows and pas
tures.' The tops of the mountains also, where
the ridge is broad, or a single - summit has a
rounded surface instead of a sharp peak, will
afibrd a few grazing farms, j I do not altogeth
er despair of living to see the time vhen he
highest summit of the Black shall be inclosed
and covered with a fine coa of the richest gras
es, and when the cheese b Yancy shall rival
in the market of the lower Counties that which
is imported from other States. ;U
- For accomplishing this af good deal of labor
will be required. But the person to whonj it
has happened to visit Burnsville soon after it
was fixed upon as the seat of Justice for Yancy
county, and during the present year, will have
good hopes of very rough and unsightly places.
A more doleful spot than it was in the year 1804,
cannot well bo imagined ; and though thcr4 is
ample room for iroprovemetyetf it is not diffi
cult to see that tho time is near when there will
be a range of meadows passing by and near it,
alike productive and beautiful, j , 1
. . , If an : inhabitant of .the . mountains , shall be
desircus of calling, in the experience ot other
parts of . our widely extended country for the
purpose of directing, his own labours, there is
no section of the United States which he would
r visit with more advantage than the genuine
Yankee land the New Eri gland States. The
soil is to a rrreat extent tho same with his own.
having been produced by the decomposition of
primitivo rocks ; elevation compensating for'dif
ference of latitude, there is a considerable sim
ilarity of climate. And if after seeing vhat
the labour of two centuries has been accom
plished there, he shall pass through the moun
tain region of North Carolina, whilst he jwill
bo pleased to see what has been done in his
own section, he will fix upon many spots that
are now in a great measur neglected, as those
which a patient industry will in the course jof a
few years render the most product ire and valu
able. Extensive tracts in Henderson county,
the moist grounds inclining to swamp in the
neighborhood of Waynes ville, jthe valley of
Scotts creek, bordering the road the head wa
ters of the Tuckaseege and thosejof the Savan
nah on the south side of ihe Blue Ridge, are
cited as examples because j they fell under my
immediate observation. j j
'Closely connected with agriculture as afibrd
ing access to a market are good roads, and it
was with some surprise that I. noticed certain
indications that the road scraper has never been
introduced into the western part of the State,
but that all the difficult passes in the mountains
had been wrought out with the blouirh. the hoe
and shovel, f The Warm Spring Turnpike has
inequalities, elevations and depressions, 'even
between the village of Ashvillo land the toint
where it first comes in contact with the fiver,
that would not bo permitted to continue for a
year if this excellent labour-saving instrument
were once to come into Use. jFor removing
earth through short distances for a hundred feet
to a hundred yards there is nothing comparable
to it. A single man an horse will accomplish
as much as six or eight men with the ordinary
tools., v r. ' !; ;. r -'
I am respectfully yours, i
-: . ' E. MITCHELL.
; i v Washington, Jan, 6lA, 1& 4. -Hon.
John S. Skxknes : j - .. - .
f Dear Sir : Your note of last Saturdaj en
closing a copy of JVIr. Mitchell, letter to the
Hon. Thomas L. Clingman, It duly .received,
and have read the paper with no ordinary share
of interest, nor could I have resisted thej im
pulse to add a few remarks of my own, had. you
not kindly conferred on racf the privilege. I You
mention that it is your M Intention to send the
letter for publication in the' Agricultural Depart
ment of the New York Albion,' in which it will
be appropriately! placed, and you request me to
write r A short introduction to Jbe ''.enclose let
ter, setting forth'what errors or j wrong impres
sions it may" be calculated to rectiQr, ana on
what questions of georgraphical - science or
economical interest it throws any and what new
light. , - . ;. ,
f 'la the first place, the' general reader could
hoi cicar jy uuuerstana me relations oi piacc,
and of course appreciate &h value of such a
document without having acknowledge, geperal
at least, of the ceozrranbical structure of the
- t w O I . j . j
country ; and features of nature named in the.
letter. I therefore commence with the follow-!
ing brief, sketch : ' ' . ,;-. !
That part . of NorthT. Carolina drained by
streams flowing towards the frreai central ValJ
ley, extends, in, a direction of, Nr E. by or
o. by -y and to a small fraction of 210
miles. The breadth varies from 65 miles over
the valley of the French Broad river to about
20 bet ween the heads of the Waiau-a andiYadi
Km rivers. Mean breadth about 45, and j area
9450 square miles. 7 Politically, this region coni
tain.?, advancing from Ni E.t the counties cf
Ase.lIendersn.Yarcv, Buncombe. Haywood,
7-C3 tlr.t v.;if.
h drained towards tl.2 A-r.:u, ths
two counties cf At C3 and Lurke cu-U io L3
adik, and thus giving an area cf scmsthicg
abore 11,500 square miles to the mountain m
r w m, r.fl dc?..C3 mm.; jn., ana in
from Washington, from 4 -td7 degW. i
Asiie, the extreme north-eastern county, border.
in' on Virginia and Tennessee, and nearly
I commensurate with the highest valley of New
river flowing to the north-east into Virginia,
t and- finally Joosingr Us 'naiae; in that of great
Kanawba.'Tv;:. tA: yi MP
Wilkks county borders on Ashe, with the Blue
; Bid e intervening; has its inclination cast
i ' ward, and is nearly commensurate vith tbo
! highest valley of tbo Yadkin. V ; ..." ;
BuEKE county follows AVilkes to the sbuth-wesU
w-ard, and is drained eastwardly by the ex
i treme higher sources of Catawba. .'.
Yascy county extends between Buncombe and
, jishe,' having its slope to the north-westward,
j and in that direction drained by tho Watauga
and Nolichucky rivers, but particularly, the
latter. : -y'y i :' li ,' j-
BrJcoatBS, as laid down in Bradford anil Good,
u rich's Atlas, extends from the southwestern
I f fjorder of South Carolina, in a direction nearly
due north to the State of
; commensurate with the
French Broad river.
Tennessee, and is
higher vailey. of
Haywood county,' on tho authority quoted, lies
, . between Buncombe and Macon, slopes west
Ward and is drained by the) higher branches of
' pig Pigeon, and 1 ucka serge rivers. ,1
Mico county, westward of Haywood, and ex
' tending from Rabun county, Georgia, to the
State of Tennessee, and slopes northwestward
is drained ' by the higher branches of little
; Tennessee. - , I I
; -1 ,-. - I . " :-
Such are the scries of counties and rivers in
this interesting region under review ; their prin
cipal towns are j
Jeffebson, in Ashe county, on New River, at
t IN. lat. 38 deg. 28 rain;, long. V. L. 4 deg.
25 miu. W.f about 180 miles N W. by W. of
ir;KaIeigh. s;7 j-., ; I
Whjcksbobo, in Wilkes county, situated on the
lYadkin, 31 miles S3E. of Jefferson, N. lat.
36 deg. 06 min., long. 4 deg. 04 min. W. of
j West. -. . l .
Moboantox, Burke county, situated on Cataw.
ba river, N. lat. 35d 45m.J long. 4d. 38m: W.
of W.; 50 miles southwest ward from Wilkes
boro, and very nearly due: AV. 200 miles from
Raleigh. -H,,. ... 5-.
BrsNEsviLLK, in Yancy county, situated on a
branch of Nolichucky river, 40 miles some,
thing N. of W. from Morganton, N. lat. 35d.
53m., long. 5d 05m.,.AV. of W. ..
AsnvxiXE, Buncombe county, situated on French
Broad, N. lat. 35d 36m. N. long; 5d. 22m W.
W., 62 miles SW. by W. from Morganton,
and 36 miles a little S. of W. from Burnes
AVAYNKsyixLE, in Haywood county, situated on
Big rigeon, N. lat. 35d. 28m., long. 5d. 52m.
W. W 35 miles a little S. of W. from Ashe.
Franklin, in Macon county,situated on a branch
of Little Tennessee, N. lat. 35d. 10m., long.
6d. 09., W. W., by post road 330 miles west
ward of Raleigh, and 560 miles N W, byW.
of Washington City.
In estimating the relations of height and lati-
tiide, Humboldt and other Geographers, have
regarded 300 trench metres, or 328 English
feet of elevation or depression, as equal to a
dpgree of latitude on serial temperature, along
western Europe. I believe that, for general
purposes, 400 feet is a safe estimate for a like
purpose over the United States, and. il adopted.
Waynesvillc, in Haywood, with an elevation of
6,672 feet, would have a mean temperature sui
table to N. lat. 52 deg. 40 min. on; the ocean
level. Again, the mean of the 8 elevations,
given in the letter, yields very nearly an equiv
alent to ten degrees of lat., and if we then as.
siume Morganton as the mean lat. of the towns
named above, the result gives to Western North
Carolina a climate of very nearly 45 dog. N.,
if reduced to the ocean level. j
j I thought, however, to be distinctly under
stood that height operates much more upon mean
than extreme temperature. You request me to
state in regard to the data in the letter enclosed,
jWhat errors or wrong impressions it may bo
calculated to rectify; and on what questions of
Geographical science or economical interest, it
throws any and what new light V I
I ijln answer, I may say at once, that it throws
a flood of new light on the relations of height
itt the United States, and affords an immense
to enable observers to determine positive
y the relations of temperature and height. The
mean of the heights given amounts , to 5,943
eet. Ths means afliirded by such agion to
BXperiment"bn Agriculture are incalcuftiblc.
might be also remarked, that thespace in
eluded in our review is of necessty1onlya part,
the most elevated no doubt, but with gradual
depression extending intoVirgina,Sojgth Car
jolina, Georgia and Tennessee. Suh data
brought to light ought to induce the government
to 4o for this country what has been already
done by tho governments of Europe for their
respective territories ; that is to make an uni
versal Geographical survey, determining every
position and every relation of height,
j. There is one object of primary, permanent,
and vital interest, reflection on which is enforc
ed by the subject before us. Sheep have ac
companied man it is probable from the very in
fancy of society, and now, after the lapse' bf
thousands of years, by far the most substantial
article of his clothing comes from jhe fleece of
this truly useful and innocent animal.'. On the
arid plain and mountain steep, whero no culti
vation can gain subsistance to man, the sheep
finds food, and seems destined to carry and sup
port his human protector amid every variety of
uii sua cumaie, 10 wnicn ac may oe cxposea
in the erer-rarying latitudes out of the torrid
zone, and within that tone, where height com
pensates for latitude. -j
, In brief, the document before us cannot fail
to excite to farther inquiry, and tend to remove
much ignorance in regard to sections of our
country the most interesting and yet most de
fectively known of the parts inhabited.
Y With "sincere respect, " -
t! : . WILLIAM DARBY. ;
I t M A good dog to ? fetch." The Quarterly
Review ''Telatet the following amusing anec
dote illustrative of the extraordinary instinct cf
'y Somedcgs possess a singular knack of hunt
ing out any thing that has recently been in the
possession of their masters ?Tbere is one lu
dicrous anecdote cf this faculty, which we fear
iuu uou ip Liu true. j. gecuernan maae n,
oct that a got wouiJ rJ-r.t:;vn franr lhtl htA I
his hotel, reraincJ wita htm all day, ar.JxU
tende-d "Lici to bed, fojthc preat delight cf lils
newly-constituted master, who was extremely
flattered by Lis 'sudden -'attachment. But the
moment the gentleman pulled offhis small clothes
in the pocket cf which h? hed the franc, the
dog barked at the doof, as if desirous to get out.
The door was opened, the dog caught up' the
breeches, and rushed: to his rightful master.
Shortly afterwards arrived, all deshabelle, the
owner tf the breeches, trembling for a purse cf
gold that lay in the same pocket with the im
p'ortant franc . .
LATE FROM TEXAS.
We copy the following items : of Texan
news from slips of the N. O. Picgywve and
Tropin received by the Government ex
press: .-V .
. By the arrival yesterday of the steam
ship John S. McKira, Capt. Lewis, we have
received Galvestori dates up to the 0th alt.
The McKim took 6vcr.no less than 220
passengers on her last trip .to Texas. 203
of whom were emigrants.; , .. - . ,
The news from thtv interior of the coun
try represents everything as quiet. ; Not
an Indian disturbance do we hear of in
any. quarter.; -. -V; ; V:'M':'JP;
s The Texan Congress adjourned cm' the
3d ult. Previous to the adjoarnmcnt the
nominations of Gen. Terrell as Charge d'
Affaires to England and' France, and of
Col. Reily as Charge to the United States,
were rejected by, the Senate. It is said
that the chief cause of opposition to these
gentlemen was owing to their hostility to
annexation.! .-, -. - j' . ip-i
Congress refused to receive the petition
of a meeting of the citizens of Rusk coun
ty against annexation, from which it may
be inferred how strongly the members yet
are In favor of that measure. .1?
The Houston Telegraph of the 5lti ult.
says' i',4 It is estimate, there are about
7000 bales of cotton now stored in the
warehouses of this city. ! '
The trade between San Anf onia and the
Rio Grande has been much affected of late
through the efforts of that arch-traitor, Se
guin. Several companies of-Americans
have endeavored to capture him the past
winter, but so far he has been on the look
out for them' and escaped their snares in
season. The Telegraph says, that since
the days of Agaton, Seguin bas been the
worst scourge of Texas. Although he
fought on Houston's side at the battle, of
San Jacinto, and was afterwards a Sena
tor in the Texan Congress, hewill fare
badly should he fall into the hands of the
Western men.' ,
Col. Wmj G.' Cooke, the same who was
upon the first Santa Fe Expedition, has
been appointed Secretary of War by Pre
sident Jones. !
It Was rumored that Col. Kauffman
would be appointed charge to tbeJJnited
States.' s! u " ' T
Jose Antonio Navarro, the last of the
Texan Santa Fe prisoners who recently
escaped from Mexico has been treated
with marked honors and attentions wher
ever he has appeared in Texas.' VVe co
py the following account of Jiis warm re
ception at Galveston from the Civilian of
the 8th ult.: ,
"The return of the patriotic and heroic
Col. Navarro to Texas, on Saturday last,
was hailed by our citizens with the utmost
enthusiasm. The steamship McKim,which
bore him, came in decorated with flags.
and was greeted with the; discharges of
cannon and the notes of martial music.; At
the wharf the Mayor and municipal offi
cers proceeded on Board, to welcomeithe
dungeon-worn veteran, which was! done
in an appropriate and feeling speech I by
the Mayor, and responded io in glowing
and touching terms by Col. Navarro,! in
pure Castillian, and rendered into English
oy Col. Williams. The returning patriot
disembarked, and proceeded, uncovered
leaning upon the arms of the Mayor and
his old friend Col. W., and escorted by the
Board of Aldermen along the wharf, upon
which were drawn up to receive him the
volunteer military companies and the great
mass of the male population of the place.
He was then escorted to-the Tremont by
the municipal authorities, the military and
Hhe citizens, every window: being up and
all eyes turned to see him as he passed a
long the streets. We must not omit to
mention that the U. S schooner Woodbu
ry, in the harbor, fired! a salute upon the
occasion." ' ' . .
It is estimated by the News that about
1500 Germans have arrived in Texas du
ring the last three orj four months, and
many vessels are reported to be either on
tho way or making preparations "to start
with more Colonists. - j - -f : vit
'j Nothing definite in relation to the navy
had transpired in the jTexan Congress.'
The committee-on Com. Moore's case had
reported, recommending his restoration to
office, and the payment of his pro rata bt
the last year's appropriation. J ,
Toe telegraph states that the difficulty
between Gen. Grtfen and President Jones
has been adjusted. . Gen. Green, it is said,
had signified his determination to become
a citizen of Texas, and had written to the
United States Secretary of State to that
effect, and also desiring his appointment
as Consul to Galveston to be annulled, be
fore the misunderstanding ccurrediTT?
. The Neivs hiuVa'pamgTaph'In 'relation
to the settlement of the dispute between
President Jones and Gen. DuffGreen, from
which' we j make the T following amusing
extract: j '-.'.'' ... . . ;
Itis said that the Warwick of the
Democracy has, for the present at least,
relinquished his purpose, of , obtaining on
our south-western frontier, as a point d?
appui, from whence to make a descent up
on Mexico, and overthrow the ancient dy
nasty of the Montezumas, whether in the
possession of King's or Presidents, orEm
perorsi y It is a matter of rejoicing that we
are permitted to repepe for a short season
iri safety from the'oancrous arid vast de
signs of this setlor up and puller down'
. .1 2 I..
L?S2 t:vclre cr rrta y-t3 1; tho Ah! I
olitic:ii5;t3 -have been '1v!r tbi
freely, and xvzzhn" t :r r timf-r.ri.. ,'i-!
1 f VM.
, - ,j t'CJ y.Tfk
pat. on end to slavery. Vhcn.theybeAn ;
their operations, the ler.din-men ct VP
Cinia, Kentucky and Mary land were tafc
ing efTicient measures to trin- about c-r ;
lyjaboHtica of slavcrv in thesa fit ntM
they had well disposed co-operators b 3
ment the Abolitionists became imperii,
Hent and noisy, they Fhut the mouths 0f
all the efficient abolitionisfi? in tTi..
holding Stales, and converted j them into
adversaries.; Not a movement has bees
made in the South since the Abolition!!
began in the Nortlrand West, rind the dar
of emancipation is further off than eter
so far as it is to be brought ahoat by mor!
al or political action. :. j; T v;
The most extraordinary advance cf Ab.
olitionism, however, tho greatest speci.
nien of the advanceackward--has been
the introduction of Texas into the Union,
with the elements of five fresh, new slate
States with it, to have ten Senators iaCoa.
gress, and a proportionate reprcscctuioa
in the House. r i - H ft .-. ; r ,r ,.:f
dnQ?' in sixteen years, Abolitionisnt
has made such grand progress, pray tell
usbow long before it will reach its end!
9 it not time for sensible men to
don such an inefiici ent and a mfschlct cci
party, to act with such as can act effi.
cientlv. and to act so as to secure iltHt
ingi yhere a hearing can do gome good
LiV. JT. UxpretK
Salisbury, Ifi CnEIarcIi :l 114.
W$ are aathorisrd to inmsntt JAMES E, XESL
M candidate for the Chkhj Court Clerliliip tXIUa,
We are aatboriaed to announce JOHN -IT, IlARKZ,
as a candidate for the County Conrt Clek$Ui f Roww,
; IO The following; is the jconclodiBg
part of . an able; article inAeUwcTtca
Jtiewewi on the result of the k late electioa
of President.! After noticing all the W.
currences connected with the election, and!
the l6w, despicable means resorted" to hj
our opponents, the Editor in exhort in j tie
Whigs to stand, fiira and : imm
? Iet u then abide oar organization, our prta.
ciples, our leaders and pur name.: (Let us cber.
ish the conviction that whaterer good-can beT
hoped lor "our country, must , he ' accomplished
through the agency of the Whig; jparty, ta 1
present form and Constitution. liet new
illuminate our counsels, new tigor confirm ou?
sirengin, new aruor in name our spirn DUl la
no short-sighted policy commit us to merel loi
cal interests in prejudice of ouriduties to tls
jwhole countrylet no false sympathy, on the pnil
hand, enlist us in acrusade of pbilantbrop
through region whirh the CoKSTtTUTios hit
flirbiddcn us to inrado; nor, on thej other, let t
fatal lust of adiisition enffacre us in a lcaffui
which may rend asunder the bonds of our preh
In the past we see nothing to dishearten, ia
the future erery thing to cheer. ; Vigilance sotr
and until the end, lest the enemy sow tarn
while we sleep."; aclive energy jfrprn the start
until tho goal be) won, lest he thrive in our idle
ness ; theso ve must resolve on, and these viil
ensure our triumph.-: -The alter on which tit
tTroof our enthusiasmls kindled U the altar off
1 rmciuic us names are ica-wua mo uurc u
01, rainousm -ana lae vesrat guaraiaus,
ty and Law, keep holy watch orer its embers
they shall natdUS'-,iP. :
What f the principles of "itiei Whig part?
everiie 1 Noi iWheri jthe JpnnciplcJjDf i
the self-styled democracy shall have bees j
forgotten by future generation the pri j
ciples of the Whig party will .stand forti
and shine as brilliant as the sun ; and tB
advocates 'of them remembered, as die
greatest benefactors, of , the hunian race
that have ever jived. ;-; In the principles of
the Whig party, the people now have the
assurance of safettfof property and rf
life But how is it with the Locofoco party-reread
the vivid pictured drawn by tie;
Hon. T JU Clingman; of ther Empire CIcb,
u nder t hepatronage of the democratic party,
and if the - account .there given . of tbeo
and the party to which they are attached
does not satisfy verycandi
ter truth, theri i we aWinirolrV jBute iff
confident that great many of the part
themselves see and are ' ashamed of the
dotngs of this Club, .but daTe not opcJ
thro w off the shackles of pari y, and admit
it. vV And 'we ireiterate the assertion
whatever good can be Hoped for oar coca
try, must be accomplished j through tte.
agency 01 tne v nig rany,. in: wji"rr
form and CanxtitHtinn" nnA n KO Otkf
vxty ana oy do oiner party.
I the American review,
ft We have received ihe swonduraber of t
valuable work, Ind can trul s, uatourki
est expectations have been fully realiz -
articles are well WrittCrfa
We heartiljqnrish the; enterprise jsticces w
'would recommend thework, to jtha Wbj ?
bing worthy of their iuprTbe! Loc0
have their Review, and why not the Wbigi
theirs ? Do not the success of our principl'
the interests of the country demand it 1 V?
convinced oil lEo necessity and trusjt tb"
patronage extended to this work will fjj
sufHcient to keep it above wate , not ot" r
this year, hut for all time to corne. "l-f ?X
- ' ; : -. . t . ; r -r r : . - -w
v Governor , Porlerseemsr to Jhiiye been
much appreciated by his coioredellp
ciazens, if the; following toadjrunk
late symposium of theirs be test t .p (
h& De Governor cf dis'SMee
popular ob do politicians. 1 Hp ccme m
wcrry little opposition he goes out
f oil t I?n flirty 9 I i ..! 'il-i'