,,-4 ! , ' ? : 4 ' '
';! ' . i, ' ' i -
I .: i
? c iDtiatf, fter'year', Two Pollars payable in
f',f:ftf tt 'f r' PM indTanc4,Two dollars
Jfifty'"- -will fee ehnrfed. ; j M '
1 f ? eiehfuWqwnt1'ni'c!lon' Court orders chirged
2 . I. ii -I 1 Ik turn A I
o Ct JUgnrr yiui lurac intra. v
tion tq ibd who iidveruwr by the yea
'fJJuTroRvi of; alcander and
Zl-' SEPTIMIUS. i :
i ' ' I if ' " . j ' I
7 ; 'akmjro a BparUine Historian.
thenl long after the decline ofthe Roman
tihpre ilill cpntjnued the seat of learning, po:
i;frte'. 'ftnd WjgdomJ Thoodoric the 0lro-
iolti rfrWid to fill into' decay,-and continued
thoe Pensions io men oi icatumz wuivu - - .
'im4 'governors' had .monopolized.
Ulii tlilJcityi and rfbout this period, Alcander
of all the
nearly fflual; arid tfioy wexe nail ves4of the two
rno'st peh'brated cities in the world ; for AU
jctrlUel was of .y heni, Septimius came from
Rftfi ,3 'j ' 'I k : "
in ruiftc xf harmony they l'ved for some
time .ti'gptbf r ; when ! Alcander, after passing
the firlt fi.irt of His youth in tho indolence of
philosopny? in,,ugi l 'engm oi entering inia j
the lAyjorld ftiid, as a Hep envious to this,
TaGr(hls fleciins on Hypatia, a lady of ei. j
i&i'siM btf aut V. The day of their intended nup- !
. . - l-JMiii. i 1 : i t ' r . I
Vtil AVaf)xed; previous ceremonies Mere j
refforoied i;;.and nothing now remained but her
' ; .1 . I "').! . : I.' ; i . .1
fi tfae intended bridegroom,
i li.L.tJi.'....li.;i:.-L. s L' l
.nti!t conouritMj ni iriiiriMiri 10 tne apartment oi
i cf.eiiig1 finable to enjoy any atisfaction with.
I ptV;miiMog his friend Septtrfiiusa partner, pre. a
i liiled upon Ihini'totlritroduce Hypatia to his
'1 ,iW$tudW-nt ';' which he did with all the sa-
jictr:()f ft Wan who found himself equally hap.
lj ill friendship and lore. But this was an in.
trvic1"" fUl ty the futute peace of both ; for
5rptiimU no -sootier s4w her, but he was smit.
I an iwtin mn involuntary passion : una, tnougn
' It Used ftvety etf)(t to: suppress desires at onco
iti impniderit aiwl ui-ijutt, the emotions of his
Fttrtind Iti shoit j time, became bo strong, that
I 4iv hi'OiUikt on' L fetsr. which the nhvsician
If ydged jjkiurablej '
During tni 'illness, Alcander watched him
i with illlhoj. anxiety of fondness, and brought
i bi ii)Ktre8 to jin in' those amiable .offices of
frienlltlf? ("The sagacity of the physicians, by
i . I'd ;' ,' I I . I . I . i
toese nfftnf 0O, mscovcrea max ine cause oj
' 'jiifif kins. disorder was love 5 and A lean,
j itt bitg apprizod of their discovery, at length
MiVtfedja cpnfes'jionr'from the reluctant dying
lover.l ; J J- 1 ! .
tit v6 W. hut delay the narrative to describe
llecojid fl etwe(iii love and friendship in the"
tireast fjA cander on this occasion; it is
lodiii I si y, that the Athenian were at thit
tirrio I reived at siih refinehient in morals, that
etifypirlue was carnd to excess. Imshort,
forceful tf lis oWn felicity, he gave up his in-
lendvil jifid(i.,in hII her charms, to the yourur
llomitii I Xliey were inarried privately by his
toiiiiiriarfcej and this unlooked-for change of
fortune Lvjrou"ht as ".unexpected a change in the
Constuiit')npf the? now happy Seplimius ; in a
lew jjays Jh was peitectly recovered, and set
out with! tils fair partner for Rome. Here, bv
rji)n of those talents which hewas.so
itljf t jiossessed of, Seplimius in a few
arnveil al' the highest dignities of ther
U Yrs t&ri-jved al the highest dignities of theri
ital ajid was constiluted the city-judge, or
In ineftiv time Alcander not only folt the
pain of -jfing separated-, from his fijend and his
inUtrds ,pua pipseed jon -was also commence
td agathil htm by the relations of Hypatia, forf
blnc S)iiejy given up his bride, as was sug
Sesf u,Jor rniney liisjnnocerrce ot tne crime
, iV tl hijf 'charge,: and even his eloquence in
ijiii bym UeffMire, were not able to Withstand
4 the liiiflfucnc.o of a powerful partyl He was
fcnh fiilcohdemned to pay an enormous fine.
liivevfrj bjiii!X unable to raise so large a sum
ilejjrne appointed, his possessions were con
fwaieVl 4to ivimself was stripped of tho habit
;6f freelom, exposed as a slave in the market-,
place,! n'd old to the highest bidder.
AjO)jreJiant of Thrace becoming his purcha
iti, Aliaftdtj'r,' 'with some other companions of
,;disirel, wa'k carried Into that region of deso
latioii'. iiid .lerility. His s'atedl employment
wai to 'follow tho lnrds of an imperious mas.
j'ifr, khd his success in hunting was all that was
M)WJ nfm to supply Ins precarious suosis-
Ivrf ry morning awakened him to a re
lewedl fam ne or toil, and every change of
tVcciim iho olhVf lh mo9t elnmniiii ipeaicer
irtUblllidacIemiq krove. Mujuaf admiration.
i t 'ii'ii l r.:L,t.uii, Ibeir fortunes were
r lilu IUS .-
if&on' tcrvrd but to aggravate his unshelfered j from the crown, all surrendered, for a sfipula
I diittresi. l Aflcr 8oine'yars of bondage, how. led price, their grant into :he hands of ihe King,
fr.11n rvnbnrtiinit v of eeaninrr offered: he
embraced it '.with ardour ; so that travelling by
mgiu,jn(j IPOgUig iti cinrrn ny aj, iu suuri
ta a hng story, he at last arrived in Rome. -The
iUme Jday 'on .which Alcander arrived.
'.Senf&trtuI sat adiniaisterinir ; iustico in the fo.
mm,uttl(f rour waiflerer came, exporting t) be
WlUfU y known, anH publicly . acknowledged bj
j 'lit fc(rme friend. Here he. stood the whole
1 di.ir,i.. j riu.l vairihin(T th nvtc if
ujtWJiidgei ittid expecting to be taken notice of:;
wit so much altered by a long succes.
Hon bf hardships, that ho continued unnoted
inxMflr jeii ; and, in the evening, when he
.King jip to'thlo praitor s chair, he was bru
fepulated by the attending lictors. The
flw Ion, !of(thV poor are generally driven from
WtSUii'Vrilf.fii! i.liifri ft another : for nirlitcom-
:"ffohJhi now found himself under a necessii-
fkjeJibga pfUce to lie m, and y et knev no
llrtj 'to, apply,'. All emaciated, and in rags
u i4tvas,hione of the citizens would harbour
pjufch! wrctchednea : and sleeping in the
Mti' might, be attended wiih interruption or
n"pr rmi anon, u was tMHiuru iu lane un
V'ljodgtnil ; int. one rf the tombs without the
thai 'usual. retreat of guilty poverty, and de-
!Wfn r In ith
U Imahsion of horror, laying his
ad upon jin inverted urn he forgot his mise-
. . . r. . . .
ntiwr iaUvllile' In sleep! and found, on his
MM Ii. . ...I J , T
flMt Couch, inoe ease th.an beds of down can
,uPl"y. loathe guilty. '
' 'bei continued hero about midnight two
fttt f a'theVto' jtliake this their retreat ; "but
cnitiTi trt litirrroW about the division of
pMd'ton of them stabbedho other, to
'?,'ie,arf, ind lofij himiwcrlering in blood at the
n these circumsunces he was
wijtij nejit morning dead at the month of the
tUi ftato rally inducing a farther en-
tni f 7 Tntl Aicanuer neing louno, was im
J' t'lf ! The circumstances against him
Jg, anq tho. wrctcbednesr-ot his ap-
tOnfirmed suspicion. Misfortune and
fW 'f w to long acrjuainted, lhat he at lai
'"u:re?irfl'i. rt ff. Ma rlf titi(l n wnrlH
.ojtound onlyJ:in-gratilude, falsehood, and
was dctcrmiticd tomake no de
BttUNER & JAMES,
Editors $ Proprietors.
fence, and thus, lowering with resolution he
u.wV, Uuuu wuiuj, uciuic iuc ui
uunai oi oe-pumius. as me p root s wereiposu
live against him, and he offered nothing In his
own vindication, the judge was proceeding to
doom him to a most cruel and ignominious
death, when the attention of the muliitudtt was
soon divided by another object. The robber,
who had been really guilty, was apprehended
selling his plunder, and, struck with a panic,
had confessed his crime. He was brought
bound to the sam tribunal, and acquitted very
other person of any partnership in bis guilt.
Alcander's innocence therefore appeared, but
the sullen rashness of his conduct remained k
wonder to the surrmindinir mnllilnrtn ! iKoir
astonishment was still farther increased, when
they saw their judge start from his tribunal to
embrace the supposed crimnal ; Seplimiusi re.
collected his friend and former henpfartnr. nnrl
. f 1 it
hung upon his neck with tears of pity a'nd of
joy. iNeed the sequel be related ? Alcander
was acquitted : shared the friendship an(j hon
ours of the principal citizens of Rome;Hved
afterwards in happiness and ease ; and Jeft it
to be engraved on his tomb, That no circum
stances are so desparate which Providence
may not relieve. ' I !,
COLONIAL HISTORY ,
NORTH CAROLINA, f
Furnished by Charles Campbell, Esq., for the Raleigh
HISTORICAL SKETCHES BY COL.
GUILFORD DUDLEY. (
Tryon was succeeded in the administration
of the government of North Carolina about; the
end of 1771, or beginning of 1772. Iii poli
ticks he .appeared to be moderate and tempori
sing, but like his predecessors, attached to the
supposed interests of Great Britain and obedi
ent to the mandates of the crown, and the in
structions oi its ministers. For the first two
years of his administration, there was a calm
or kind of lethargy as to passing events', per
vading the people of North Carolina ; hut in
'74 their sympathies were awakened, when it
was known that the British Parliament had
passed the Boston port bill, by which that port
was to be shut up after the 1st day of June, and
its commerce cut off all parts of the world ;
and this cruel measure was to be enforced by
a large army ot British troops and a power
ful fleet. 1 hen the people awoke ana be'gaiulieast, were left in a state of anarchy 1 he
to look about them. This bill arrived in the
Spring of 1774,' during the session of the
House of Burgesses, and threw the Assembly
into a ferment, which prevented business from
progressing. Gov". Martin found the members
refractory and unyielding to his measures.-
. .,, r . 1 - ,, ',, , P J
w, v - j ,y ---wv- .
any other of his favorite or ministerial meas
ures. The House adjourned in discontent and
disgust, and the minds of the people were
alarmed and agitated. Whilst these things
were transacting in Newbern, the SeaHfGo.
vernrnent, in 1774, the writer of these sketch
es attained his eighteenth year, and had his
name immediately enrolled on the muster-list
of the Town company of Militia, in Halifax,
and in a month or two afetrVard had an oppor
tunity, for the first time, of seeing Governor
Martin in his own town, for two or threew'eeks,
several times every day in the office where he
It is well knon to many that King Charles
the 2d granted toeight Lords proprietors that
extensive tiact of country lying South of Vir
ginia, and extending along the Atlantic coast
to St. Mary's nver which divided it from the
Fioridas, and .west to the Mississippi river, nowJ
including the two Carolinas and Georgia. The
Lords proprietors (of whom the Earl of Green
ville was opie,)ftera fruitless attempt to colo
nize. the country, frorh their own ignorance, cu-
1 pidity and dissatisfaction with their purchase
except Lord Greenville, who retained his share
one degree. in breadth, from what is the Vir
ginia line, in the North to the South, and ex
tending from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, iu
the west. After the surrender of the - other
Lords proprietors the country was divided into
North and South Carolina, and Greenville open-
ed a land-omce in his &hare ot the former pro.
, vince, aid placed an agent there, for the dis
nnsal of lands Inn low terms, subject however
to the payment of annual tax, called ouitlrents,
to himseit and his heirs, forever, besides sur-
vcyor's fees, the cost of registration of patents,
&c, kc. ! For several years previoui-to the
disturbances in America, Col. Jos. Monfbrt, of
Halifax, a wealthy merchant, and also the Roy.
al Treasurer, had been fhe-agent (or thej heirs
of Lord Grenville, though as far back asjlcan
recollect or had any knowledge of such trans
actions, the land-office ol Lord Grenville had
been shut up ; Jiut the multifarious papers nclu.
ding duplicates of patents belonging to lrat of.
fice, still remained in the hands of Col. Mont-
fort r but after the passage of the Boston Port
mil was uimwn in winn ijarnnna. ana nen.
Gage with his fleet and army had arrived at
Boston, in pursuance of the ministerial plan,
Governor Martin, with his brivate Secretary,
j Mr. Nelson, repaired to Halifax, with the! writ-
vv i . . i . . . .: "
tn tit .nil n.a a ..ri I C . IL 1 - T I
j ten instructions andan order from
Grenville, to receive all the papers of ft
! description belouging to that office. This
i early in the; Summer, of 1774, at which time
the writer was something more than eighteen
vears old. and was assistant clerk in the cmint
ing liouse and the Treasury Office. TbejTrea-
; surer was a man advanced in years, of a fee-
ble constitution and sickly temperament, then
. languishing on the bed ef sickness, but a Vhig ;
: and although Governor Martin and hi suite
were Ins guests tor several weeks, ana no
doubt used much persuasion and address to get
the papers into hjs hands, yet tbe Treasurer, at,
first demurred, and for some lime wavered
about their delivery, until he could consult his
friends about the fopriety of the measure, evi-
I dently shewing a repugnance to delivering
' iV..m tn V.a Unv nt nil. Al lasi MCOtl
sented, and-procuring a confidential Iriepd (tor
- : he was unkble to attend himself ) to supenn.
- I 1 ; " In-' 1 - i f f- 1 M - - -Mi "i . -i ' - ,
. - t i -1 t i
- f J ' ' - - - - ' ' M, j - ? ' 'i ' ' . : - ' - -i
t. i . - -' ; - ; ; '
' :.(n " Keep a check cto ul tocr - ''iw Do tbis j ajd Libektt is sate."
I Rclebs. - 'i T : - Geu'l, Harrison.
J SALISBURY, N, 61, TljlfRkDAY, MARCH 29, 1849.
tend and direct six or eight clerks, alljjjoijing
men, among them myself, in he business of
taking a schedule of inventory, riot only f the
duplicate grants, but of every other paper bllopg.
ng to the office, opening and designating their
import exactly in our inventory ; and although
we were all expert or swift, pensmen yet h
'took us more than a fortnight or three Weeks,
frdm before sun-rise till dark every day, to accom
pHsh this arduous work, notwithstanding the j
Governor was usually three or four times a day
in our office, and with us on the complejion ot ' aereci and panic-struck, and instead of repair
the work. This done, and the papers ;being ing to Hillsborough, according to promise, with
picked up in large trunks, boxes and chests, ' his council, faithful adherents and advisers,
arid three wagons procured for their removal (j with his imitatien of the British House of Lords
to the palace in Newbern, his Excellency de-1 constituted the upper Hou&e of our Legislature,
parted in seeming triumph and satisfaction at!; he flew of! in a tangent of more than 90 de
tbe acquisition of what he no doubt deenled an grees, from the point in question, and with his
immense prize, and the favor he should thereby whole household, while the Assembly was im-
confer on the courtly heirs of Grenville. I pre
sume this enormous bulk of papers was imm
dfately shipped to England by Gov. Martin;, to:;
the leaal representatives of the old Grantee ;
but their receipt availed them not at allj for in 1
nfior. North irnli. i
ni. when she berame. an indenendentl State. !
ad framed her own Constitution, virtually con .
filcated this immense tract of country! by a ;
clause in that instrument which says--" that .
tbb soil belongs to the good people of this jStale, !
which also included the vacant or unapproprt- i
ated. lands belonjjingi to the urown 1
They confiscated also, by Act of Assembly, all ;
other estates belonsins to British subjects re
siding in Great Britain, or any of its provinces!
or territories. And thus the heirs of the larl
of Grenville, the original patentee, lost forever
the greater part of what remains to North Cari
bllna, and two-thirds of what now constitutes
the State of Tennessee, and these by far the
richest portions, as to soil, situation and value,
irl both the States. -
J. ' y I
I When the news of General Gage having; ar
rived at Boston, with a fleet and army, and
shuTup that port, reached North Carolina, the
Captain of a Company of Halifax, where the
narrator then resided, and to which company
he belonged, resigned the commission he held
under the King, making at the same -time a
public declaration, "that he would no longer
serve his Majesty. either in a Civil or Military
capacity, until American grievances were re
dressed." His subaltern officers followed hts
example and presently afterwards theField Offi
cers of the County resigned their Commisidns
also, and thus the Militia of that county, at
laie Captain of the Town Company, however,
lost no time in convening the citizens off;thev
place and its vicinity, who had formerly com
posed his command, and after making ja short
harangue, proposed that they should form therri
selves into an independent company, arid elect
their own officers, in defiance of all regal ad
thprity. This proposition was highly relished
arid acceded to by all the company, a few ex-
pepted, who were Scotch merchants and .'their L
clerks, when they proceeded to head them, and
most of their late subaltern officers, and imme
diately went into a course of rigid traiping. r
But be In s somewhat deficient in tbe !knowl
edge of Military tacticks, at this period, Rob
erjt Washington was invited from Virginia;,
blithe purpose of disciplining this corps. He
had served as a British sergeant f during
the whole of the preceding War, arid was
Hilled in the manual exercise and ihe va
rious evolutions introduced into the Fjjrussiah
armies by Frederick the Great, whilst' he had
been previously trained in the antiquated dis
cipline of Bland, an English author. And thus
as, the writer of this narrative believes and thejn
understood, was formed the first Independent
Company in America. I
North Carolina, like her neighbor, Virginia,
and the other Provinces, had her Committee'
bf Correspondence also in 1774, for the pur-
pose of intercommunication, and as soon as it
was determined to hold a general Congress at
Philadelphia, in September of that year, ap.
pointed her Delegates to attend that meeting.
These were Joseph Hewes, oEdentop, a vjrf
tubus man and an old and highly respectable
merchant, of great experience in merchantile
commerce ; Richard Caswell, of Dobhs Coun
ty,!in the-District of Newbern, a vcry'respeeti
able lawyer, and William Hooper, of Hi!Ubo
ro,f also a lawyer and the most pleasing speak
er I had ever seen at any bar. j
dingly met at Philadelphia, on the 6th of Sep-
tember, '74, all the provinces being duly rep-
resented except Georgta, which, for prudential
reasons, approved of by the other colonies, de-
Clinea senuing ueiegaies ti ims iuic, uc
firkt thins they didTwas to enter into a non-im
portation ageement, whereby all commercial I
intercourse between Great Britain i and the;
Colonies was suspended. It was recommended
to! the people to discontinue the use of Tea,
their favorite beverage, and merchants were
forewarned not to sell. It was recommended to
the people also, to increase their flocks? of sleep
killing lamb but sparingly petitioned the crojwft
killing tamo uui sparingly pniuuucu iuc uiu;
for redress of grievances, and I drew ar Address
tothe people of Great Britain, " a pjrodueior
of the finest pen in America." ThSC Virtui-
of the finest pen in America. I nese virtu;,
ous and enlightened men continued thir labors
I from day today, for the general weJBire of aU
I ., -.1 . 1 i;nn;0n
liiii re-elected tbe same Delegates: oiessrs.
I .7 V. r'oZr Tn , 1Z: HE, on y given surface. " The same horse." ed by the engine fastened into it. This
ine neirs wi ! - - . . ; . rf i onntinnes Air V l tps "ilrn.w nn the same ' Anntrvunxn ctrikps: nn nst nnroYimn t
verv I iohrned to meet again on the 10th ot; May en- i 7 r w";"'r""V " .T 1 ,
'7 J T . c .: mv.w declivity five tons with ease. I nerfeetion. bv imitatmz an animal power.
i was , !"! 1 v r.- 1 ... .... . . ( i.
i . . i-t- in inn iiihm i i uiiir. mil in v j a i mt r mt o
Hewes, Caswell and Hooper, to attend this j tween a seaport town and the upper coun
meeting, and the House of Burgesses adjourn- i try, the weight or tonnage to be carried
ed their session to meet again at Hillborough, towards the sea, is vastly greater than is
about the 1st of Junea measure unprece- returned into the country. It will follow,
dented in the annals of that Province strongly therefore, that a rail road may be proper
opposed by Governor Martin and his adherents, jy mae to descend in a very small degree,
who seemed to be aiarmeu ai iuc y.
ing ihe Palace at ewoern, .o gu g -
into the interior, to transact public --T
tf Kori hppn rlnrie at trial
session which met the Governor's w!sljs, ind
he was. as I have before said, rather of a ;tem
unwever, as . I .
;i: willing tn IkeeD E the
Assembly in good humor, he consented to meet
them there, the time appointed. Ifut in jthe
mean time the affairs of Lexington ind Cort-
cord had happened, on the 19th of pril, '75,
. I if '
and the lives of our people destroyed by actu
al hostilities, being thus wantonly destroyed
by the British. Not only this Province, but all
America was thrown into an increased ferment.
The House of Burgesses however, but the as.
pect of affairs at this crisis, so alarming to his
Excellency, caused him to pause, and the long,
er he deliberated upon the awful subject of haz
arding his sacred person amonrr the hardv
sons of the West, more than 200 miles from
his palace, the more his mind became bewil-
paiienily watting his appearance, in order to
begin business, and hastily repaired to Wil
mington, where he got on board of a King's
ship lying at that place, or a few miles thence,
below the Flatts, where he was safe ; and thus
abdicated the government over which he ore.
sided. Tyrants, desoots and theiivsubstitutes
always evince a cowardly heart, in proportion !
to their acts.
As soon as this manoeuvre was known at ;
Hillsborough, the Assembly took the reins of
uovernmeni inio meir own nanus, ana evinceu ;
10 me ortu mai mey couiu legislate tor mem-
selves, without the assistance of the Royal sub. :
and his council, usually comoosed of
r n , " , r ., . ,. !
ability to its measures.
uri us huh cici, ictiiiiii iu iiiu . 3
sembly at Hillsborough. Finding they had
happily got 'rid of the Royal authority, in the
manner above mentioned, they proceeded to
take into consideration the stale of the Colony,
and their obligations to the other Provinces, oi
mutual co-operaUon in this incipient stage of
our confederations and instead of enacting stat
ute laws, proceeded to something more sub
stantial and requisite, in the present posture
of affairs. Among their first acts, was to raise
two regiments of regular t roops : the command
of theifirst was given to Col. Fear, arid the
other to Col. Rob't Howe, of Brunswick, below
Wilmington. And a considerable sum of paper
money was voted, to be issued for the purpose
of enlisting men and to pay other expenses of
Government. They also so organized the Mi
litia as to raise some Regiments of minute-men,
and appointed the Colonels a species of reg
ular troops, who voluntarily enrolled them
selves without jeceiving bounty or any otler
(To be Conlined.)
CENTRAL RAIL ROAD.
THE NUMBERS OF CARLTON.
In the second of these numbers it was
proposed to show, and it is hoped not un
successfully, that for inland transporta
tion, especially in our climate, rail ways
are preferable to canals. I hey are cheap
er in the first construction. The iron rail
way costs not more than half as much as
a canal between such distant extremities
as the eastern and western parts ot our
State. And if it be made of timber hav
ing a strap of iron on the top, the expense;
could again be reduced probably to one
fourth of what it would be if made of iron.
Not fmly is the cost of rail roads less at
first, but it for ever continues so in main
tenance, repairs, quantity of travelling,
and the numerous bridges over a canal
not necessary to a rail way. It is my ob-
jec.1 now to Sive more full and convincing
evidence of these truths. It shall be uch
evidence as fears no future examination.
It invites and solicits investigation, not
theoretical and fancifuL, but practical, and
such as is confirmed by the incontestible
authority of experiments already made.
Anderson was a man of practical know
ledge on these subjects. The conclusions
which he states are worthy of our confi
dence as derived from actual observation.
One horse, says he, can draw with ease
! I . . . II i I I I :
thts travelling at the usual rate of horses
j in a wagon, on a hard smooth turnpike
r0ad. He then says that the same horse,
on a properly constructed rail road, can
cafry lhe same quantjty 0f g00s jn lne
l same time.
Mr. Joseph Wilkes in 1 799 stated, "that
a horse of the value of twenty pounds
sterling," which is one hundred dollars of!
our money, " drew along the declivity of!
j an iron road descending two eighths and
j half an eighth of an inch in a yard, twenty
one carriages or .wagons laden with coals
and timber, weighing thirty five tons, over-
anu iimoer, weigning iniriy nve ions, over-
coming the vis inerlice, repeatedly with
j ease." By overcoming the vis inertia, is
mpont t.b startinr of the. wacrnns from a.
j meanf tbe starting of the wagons from a
state 0f rest . ana every one knows that
; ... thft reatest difHeultv in drawing
i " o -
. w i i - i i . mm
i ii win reauuy occur, inai in a iraue De
, SQ as Q avor lhe rraUght in, the d rection
( of tbe beaviest transportation. It is upon
i thisprinciple thatthestatementhere made
...- . .
ic tn he un. Prstnn, If a rai road ne-
j Vs o . 1
sixteenths of an inch, or which I
is the Same,
two and a half eighths of an !
inch in a yard, it is at the rate of very
nearly forty six feet in a mile, Mr. Wilkes
also says. that when the descent was an
inch and three quarters in a yard, it was
: ' : " ' ;
VOLCJIE V, NUMBER 47.
necessary to slipperf or lock the wheels,
to prevent the horse being overpowered
by the weight pressing upon him."
On different rail way one horse, value
thirty pounds," or one hundred and fifty
dollars, dreU twenty one wagons, of five
hundred weight each, which with their it
loading amounted to one hundred and
forty three tons and eight hundred weight,
the declivity being one inch to a yard ;
and up the same, he afterwards drew se
u In the summer of 1805, a trial was
made on the Surrey rail way by Mr.
Bankers, wherein a horse taken indiscrim- i
inately out of a team, drew sixteen wag
ons, weighing upwards of fifty five tons,
j for more than six miles along a level, or '
j very slightly declining part of the rail
wa ' j
Now all these are, so many unquestion-
able facts. Let thfc same circumstan-
ces be renewed, and the same results will
he experienced before our own eyes, and ,
fr own benefit. The laws of nature j
do not change, and if such testimony as
this do not satisfy our minds, what, it may !
be asked, will be sufficient to remove our !
aouois ana prepare us to avail ourselves .
ot tbe ereatand imDortant nrarrtiral truths 1
which it is its obiect to establish ? Th !
tu,0nt,. ,ul n... r .
-'cinjr luiio, iu uitrij uve ions, ine iorty !
tnree lons and eight hundred weight, and
the fifty live tons can be drawn as easily
in America as in Encland. We know
that upon our common roads, it takes tlu
force of four or five horses to draw two
tons ; that is. one hors at Ipast nnnn.
sary to half a ton. If one horse then, on '
. . . i
a railway, can draw twenty tons with '
ease, it follows that he will do as much j
as forty horses usually do in our common !
transportation. If, however, a good horse
can on a rail road draw thirty five tons, i
he performs as much as seventy horses do
upon our roads. Should we take the third
of these numbers, namely, forty three tons,
to say nothing of the eight hundred weight,
then the effect of the horse applied in one
way, is to his effect in the other, as one to
eighty six. But one case of actual trial
still remains. Mr. Bankes tells us he
made it himself, and his testimony is re
corded for our information. He harnessed
a horse to the foremost of sixteen wag
ons, weighing together fifty five tons, and
the h orse carried them forward six miles
upon a level rail road, or if it had any
declivity, it was so slight as not to be es-
timated. This is making one horse do as
uiucn as a nunureu anu ten. 1 nese lUtngs
are so astonishing that we are ready at
first to pronounce them incredible. They
are, however, incontestible and stubborn
facts, and not to be denied. And why
should ve be disposed to distrust them ?
They reveal to us powers of mechanism,
on which we cannot set a sufficient value.
13 properly a subject of the highest in-
"st and exultation to every man, espe-
Hy to every citizen of a free and en-
lightened community, that our opportuni
ties are susceptible of such almost incon
ceivable enlargement, provided we will
unite to effect the object. Shall the sub
jects of monarchies think nothing of se
curing the advantages of this prodigious
efficiency, and we who claim all the ener
gies of personal and public liberty, sit still
with our arms folded, and gaze at what
they do as though it were visionary ex
travagance to imagine any thing like it
within the compass of our puny efforts ?
It appears then not an excessive or gra
tuitous assumption, when it was asserted
that as large a tonnage could be carried
by a given power upon a rail way as up
on a canal. But there are different ways
of comparing their efficacy, and if this,
according to every view, be much the
same in both, we shall be left to consult
other circumstances in determining our
choice of them. " Without calculating."
; says a practical writer, "upon tne im-
j mense loads of thirtv tons and unwards.
which have occasionally been moved by
one horse upon a rail way, we can state
that an active horse weighing ten hun-
dred weight, conducted by one man upon
a well constructed edge rail way, will
work with ten ton of goods. In the same
manner we may take thirty tons as em
ploying the effective labor of one horse
and three persons upon a canal. From
j which it will therefore appear, that the
i expense of trackage per ton is pretty much
the same in both systems ; while the first
cost, and consequently the toll or dues.
cost, anu consequently ine
must be greatly in favor of
j Nothing has yet been sa
! the Inrnrnnlir nrri nn Rv
the rail way.
! the locomotive, engine. Bv this is meant
a steam engine p'ropelling a carriage by
! tvbiMi'it Uhnrno a the steamhnat mnv-
u,Lnanrtan v,,,.,.n r nnimn
force, and has the advantage in uniting
-j- It may be well to explain, that a wheel is
sometimes made to slide down a hill not upon
the tire, lnit upon a plate of iron turned up on
each side to confine the rim upon it, and attach,
ed to the side of the carriage by a chain. Such
a Dlate of iron is called the shoe or slipper. It
is preferred because it prevents tne tire oi ine
lockedwheel from wearing out faster than that
of the others.
To spread the pressure of large burdens
j up0n a rail road, as well as for ot h" reasons,,
it is customary to employ a number ot wa" j
in succession, each connected by a cnam
1 the preceding. , . .
energyrwitlr the untiring properf y.of me-;
chanisrhV Tt yer? to.be avished that a do '
senption at once brief - and easily jintellt-i ;
gihle could be given of this engine, buti';
this is 'scarcely possible. The' mind; of; j
one little accustomed tojcomplicatrd ma ,l
chinery, soon becomes fatigued and con
fused, and his curiosity is disappointed.- j ;
An actual inspection is better than -an i ;
hundred attempts to describe it, and even !
a good engraving makes it easily lcompre-; .
hensihle. It is hoped, however, that we j ;
shall feel no less assured of the perfection i
of this gigantic automaton, as it may well j , '
be called, for the purposes lq which, it Is u
applied, than if it were before our eyes, ill
and performing its operations witli all !
that elegance, gracefulness and power of
movement which excite at once the ad .
miration and nstonisbmenrof the specta-":
tor. On the Helton rail wav in England 1 j '
has been for some tim in use.
William Strickland, Civil Engineerof the
Pennsylvania Society for Internal Im-:
provemenf, witnessed its Operations, and
he tells us its cost is four hundred noun'ds
sterling, or two thousand dollars. This (
gentleman went to England, in thcjemH
ployment of the Society, to enlarge his
views, and bring back important informal;
tion respecting cnnals and rail roads IleH
savs that "this locomotive enirinc has,
drawn on a level twenty seven wagons. I
weighing ninety four tons, at the rle of r
four miles an hour, and that when lightly, j
laden, it will travel ten miles an hour.
The wagons-drawn 1 Ucosi twenty eight j
pounds sterling each, that is a hundred
antl forty dollars. The wivgon Uidiesarn
sevn feet nine inches long, live fept widtf
at tbe top, and three feet six indhes deep,
The wheels are three feet' in diameter;!
ana 'wigh each two hundred and fifty -i
Fnr further Ktrni Inn 1 hn .rtrnrt
a statement irom Afr. I,-.m nnti.,1 Pi."
. -1 11 . . . J
mi ingineer 01 Ljngianu. 1 tiese me his
A locomotive engine often horse!
power, will draw one humlrrd and tvvnty f
tons, at the rate a draught, horse sretjrral-';
ly travels ; or fifty tot.- M the rate of six
miles an hour. The engine rrntiires" the
attendance of only a man and a boy. at Hi
daily expense ol Ave shillings," (sterlmgiV
"The coals consumed in ten hours would
be from twenty to thirty hundred weight.!
Therefore the expense altogether would!
be less than thirfv shillings per day, for
which fifty tons may be conveyed sixty
miles in ten hours, which is less than half I
a 'farthing per ton per mile. io that rrmk-
ing an ample allowance f .r delays, the;
return of empty carriages, the cost arid
maintenance of the engiiii-s. and providing
the wagons, the expense is altogether in-1
But while these proofs are detailed of
the great advantages of rail ronds, in com
parison with canals, on which the steam
engine cannot be used, it is probable a
more embarrassing difficulty is suggested, -than
any relating to the great value and j
importance of these advantages. It is not
so much from doubts respecting the efli-
cacy of a rail way, it will be said, that'-
wequestion its expediency for 5,butfro.rh
the vast funds necessary to the construe-'!
tion of it. Now it is my intention to show ;
that this is not a real difficulty. Let us ,
come to it at once, then, and look at it in j
all its terrors. The number of taxable j.
polls in the State of North Carolina, is a r
hundred and thirty five thousand. This
number is derived from the Comptroller's ;
Report last year (1820.) An annual pay-'-ment
of thirty seven cents by each indi vidual,
raises at once tho sum of fifty
thousand dollars a year. Let any one trr '
the numbers for himself, or let him get his5 ;
neighbor to do it for him, and he will find :
it to be so. It cannot be that the pay
ment of 37 Cents a year upon each poll ;
for five years, is so great that we ought!
not to consent to it, provided we are made r
sure of the result. It is upon this condi-..
tion then that it is proposed, and upon
this alone, that it shall he adequate to 5
procure to the citizens of our j State, so
easy ami cheap a conveyance for their
goods and productions, their manufactures i
and their mines that where it now costs
them thirty dollars, it shall not cost ihem
one. Let a rail way be commenced at
Newbern, under the direction of. a proper'
engineer, such as now can be easily, had
in the United States; let it be cbnstruct
ed in as direct linens possible to Raleigh,
and thence continued through the middle
of the State to the mountains. In two
years and a hall it would be extended '
above the capital of the State. Through
j this tt evidently ought to pass, as central-'
! I situated in regard to the general direc-
tion of our boundaries on 4he north and;
south, and as being our metropolis, its
growing importance ought to be fostered
with affection and interest by us all. It
is not to be doubted that if the sura; of;
fifty thousand dollars were by a b-p'ijdft-j
tive determination anrsurilly approji inlcd,
for seven years to this ; urpose, aijd capi-,
tahsts 'vere invited an .i prrmitted to sub-,
scribe fifty thousand more, tbe sain would
be realized ir.-'an'lv, and in the best of
hands. Nor can we suppose there would
be any difficulty in' a repetition of the
' same thing every year for the wholeMimc
! of seven years necessary to th- work.
. - . . ...
More than litty tliousanu uoliars n year
', to be thus subscribed, should not be nd
j missible, nor should the owners of ruch
canital be aliowel to hone ror moro man
eight per cent, after it should become pro-,
ductive. For it is necr -r.iy understood
that the dividend to he pa -1 must be madej
good by tolls upon travelling and trans-,
portation. On Uiis account the whole
sum subscribed should be understood frofn
the becinning to be returnable by the,
State in five years from the time of com.
j peljng the work. It fs ol the tast impor-;
j tancetbat the public should not part with!
j their power over all extensive works cal-.
1 nulated to facilitate commercial inter-j
This is the policy now wisely
resolutely practised in other States,
an to this ery COUntrv, discreet in iU
sbould tenaciously adhered f
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